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Acidosis And Alkalosis Made Easy

Agb Analysis Made Easy

Agb Analysis Made Easy

HCo3 = 10.5 mmol/L -> metabolic acidosis . PaCo2 = 15.7 mm of Hg (< 40 mm of Hg) so, respiratory alkalosis. So, respiratory cause. So, Respiratory Alkalosis. So, PaCo2 & HCo3 move in same direction. So, simple cause (fallacy of the formula, because there is metabolic acidosis confirmed). So, other way to know about mixed disorder is to evaluate. So, Expected value and actual value of PaCo2 do not match -> So, mixed disorder present. So, High Anion gap Metabolic acidosis with Respiratory alkalosis. Predicted comparative of PaCo2 fall = 1.2 X (24-10.5) So, Expected value of PaCo2 = 40 16.20 = 23.80 The patient has mixed disorder of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis with dehydration with hypokalaemia with hypocalcaemia without ALI/ Parenchymal lung disease. Since PaCo2 is increased and P(A-a)O2 not increased so, hypo ventilation alone and important cause of it is decrease respiratory drive and neuromuscular disease. P/F = 224.3 there are features of heart failure so is not an indication of ALI. PaO2 of (40 60) mm of Hg Correspond to SPO2 of (75 91)%. Here, SPO2 69.7% & PaO2 47.1 mm of Hg. So, SPO2 a bit low. Cao2 = 17.1 X 10 X 1.34 X 69.7/100 + 0.003 X 47 ml/L There is slight left shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, most probably due to decrease in temperature. So, the patient has hypoxemia with Hypercapnea Here PaCo2 is increased, and P(A-a)O2 is not increased , so the cause is hypoventilation alone and since the patient had no neuromuscular disease , so it is due to decreased respiratory drive due to critical illness. x-ray finding does not suggest progressive diffuse pulmonary infiltration , feature ofpneumonia . So it can be due to heart failure or arterial hypoxemia. There is slight mismatch in the relation between SPo2 and PaO2. Cause Continue reading >>

Acidosis/alkalosis:

Acidosis/alkalosis:

Bases: Have a higher affinity for protons than water and easily acquire protons in aqueous solution. charged (+1) when protonated (Acids uncharged) uncharged when de-protonated (Acids -1 charge) Most common biological weak base is the amino group, -NH2 Despite the differences between acids and bases the pKa concept can be used to quantitate the relative strength of amino groups. Notice: pKa values for carboxylic acid are less than < 7, pka values for amino groups are >7 (usually 9-11) i.e. a simple biologically important 10 amine, ethanolamine, pKa = 9.5 or choline, a quaternary (40) amine, pKa = 13.9 Choline is a good compound for systems in which a permanent positive charge is desirable, i.e. membranes (hydrophilic head groups) Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) a key amphiphilic compound in biological membranes Buffering: At or near their pKa both weak acids and weak bases will resist changes in pH, thus acting as buffers Buffering is very important in biological systems, for rapid pH changes have disastrous consequences. The buffering capacity of ethanolamine and acetic acid occur well outside of the pH range normally seen in human blood (pH 7.35-7.45). Thus, other ionizable compounds must serve this function in biological fluids. The most important single buffer in human is the bicarbonate ion -CO2 is added to the system at varying rates by metabolic processes -rate of formation of H2CO3 from CO2 and H2O is slow, so is enhanced by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, found in red blood cells (RBC) -CO2 is expired by the lungs at varying rates (respiration) -levels of HCO3- can be adjusted by the kidney via excretion CO2Production: -normally balanced by CO2 expired from the lungs However, certain medical conditions can throw the equation out of balance... Respiratory Acidosi Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis Nclex Review Notes

Metabolic Acidosis Nclex Review Notes

Are you studying metabolic acidosis and need to know a mnemonic on how to remember the causes? This article will give you a clever mnemonic and simplify the signs and symptoms and nursing interventions on how to remember metabolic acidosis for nursing lecture exams and NCLEX. In addition, you will learn how to differentiate metabolic acidosis from metabolic alkalosis. Don’t forget to take the metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis quiz. This article will cover: Metabolic acidosis simplified Lab values expected with metabolic acidosis Causes of metabolic acidosis Signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis Nursing interventions for metabolic acidosis Lecture on Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Acidosis in Simple Terms: a metabolic problem due to the buildup of acid in the body fluids which affects the bicarbonate (HCO3 levels) either from: increased acid production (ex: DKA where ketones (acids) increase in the body which decreases bicarbonate) decreased acid excretion (ex: renal failure where there is high amount of waste left in the body which causes the acids to increase and bicarb can’t control imbalance) loss of too much bicarb (diarrhea) When this acidic phenomena is taking place in the body other systems will try to compensate to increase the bicarb back to normal. One system that tries to compensate is the respiratory system. In order to compensate, the respiratory system will cause the body to hyperventilate by increasing breathing through Kussmaul’s respirations. Kussmaul respirations are deep, rapid breathes. The body hopes this will help expel CO2 (an acid) which will “hopefully” increase the pH back to normal. Lab values expected in Metabolic Acidosis: HCO3: decreased <22 Blood pH: decreased <7.35 CO2: <35 or normal (may be normal b Continue reading >>

Abg Interpretation

Abg Interpretation

Arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation is something many medical students find difficult to grasp (we’ve been there). We’ve created this guide, which aims to provide a structured approach to ABG interpretation whilst also increasing your understanding of each results relevance. The real value of an ABG comes from its ability to provide a near immediate reflection of the physiology of your patient, allowing you to recognise and treat pathology more rapidly. To see how to perform an arterial blood gas check out our guide here. If you want to put your ABG interpretation skills to the test, check out our ABG quiz here. Normal ranges pH: 7.35 – 7.45 PaCO2: 4.7-6.0 kPa PaO2: 11-13 kPa HCO3-: 22-26 mEg/L Base excess: -2 to +2 mmol/L Patient’s clinical condition Before getting stuck into the details of the analysis, it’s important to look at the patient’s current clinical status, as this provides essential context to the ABG result. Below are a few examples to demonstrate how important context is when interpreting an ABG. A normal PaO2 in a patient on high flow oxygen – this is abnormal as you would expect the patient to have a PaO2 well above the normal range with this level of oxygen therapy A normal PaCO2 in a hypoxic asthmatic patient – a sign they are tiring and need ITU intervention A very low PaO2 in a patient who looks completely well, is not short of breath and has normal O2 saturations – likely a venous sample Oxygenation (PaO2) Your first question when looking at the ABG should be “Is this patient hypoxic?” (because this will kill them long before anything else does). PaO2 should be >10 kPa on air in a healthy patient If the patient is receiving oxygen therapy their PaO2 should be approximately 10kPa less than the % inspired concentration / FiO Continue reading >>

Easy Way To Interpret Abg Values

Easy Way To Interpret Abg Values

ABG values can be very intimidating! Its hard to remember all the different normal values, what they mean, and which direction theyre supposed to be going. With so much information, its super easy to get mixed up and make a stupid mistake on an exam, even when you really DO know how to interpret ABGs. In this article, Im focusing more on the How to, rather than understanding whats going on with the A&P, which Ive already done in previous articles. If you want to understand whythese steps work (which you should do anyway to become a great nurse!),take some time to review my articles on Respiratory Imbalances and Metabolic Imbalances . Heres my 7-step method to interpreting ABGs. We have three puzzle pieces to put together: B)uncompensated, partially compensated, or compensated 1) Across the top of your page, write down the normal values for the three most important ABG lab results: pH (7.35-7.45), PaCO2 (35-45), and HCO3 (22-26). 2) Underneath pH, draw arrows to remind you which direction is acidic (down), and which direction is basic (down). 3) UnderneathPaCO2, and HCO3, draw arrows to remind you what abnormally high and low values would do to the bodys pH. When youre done, your page should look something like this: So far, we havent even looked at the question yet, were just trying to prevent any stupid mistakes!! 4) Now you can finally look at the patients ABG values. Check the pH and decide if the value is normal, high, or low. 4a) If the pH is normal, check PaCO2, and HCO3. If they are both normal, then you patient is fine and you can stop here. But if one or both of these values is abnormal, then continue to step 5. 5) Identify if the patient has alkalosis or acidosis. 5a) If the pH is abnormal, then compare it to the arrows you wrote at the top of your paper and Continue reading >>

Metabolic Alkalosis

Metabolic Alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis is a metabolic condition in which the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45). This is the result of decreased hydrogen ion concentration, leading to increased bicarbonate, or alternatively a direct result of increased bicarbonate concentrations. Terminology[edit] Alkalosis refers to a process by which the pH is increased. Alkalemia refers to a pH which is higher than normal, specifically in the blood. Causes[edit] The causes of metabolic alkalosis can be divided into two categories, depending upon urine chloride levels.[1] Chloride-responsive (Urine chloride < 10 mEq/L)[edit] Loss of hydrogen ions - Most often occurs via two mechanisms, either vomiting or via the kidney. Vomiting results in the loss of hydrochloric acid (hydrogen and chloride ions) with the stomach contents. In the hospital setting this can commonly occur from nasogastric suction tubes. Severe vomiting also causes loss of potassium (hypokalaemia) and sodium (hyponatremia). The kidneys compensate for these losses by retaining sodium in the collecting ducts at the expense of hydrogen ions (sparing sodium/potassium pumps to prevent further loss of potassium), leading to metabolic alkalosis.[2] Congenital chloride diarrhea - rare for being a diarrhea that causes alkalosis instead of acidosis.[3] Contraction alkalosis - This results from a loss of water in the extracellular space, such as from dehydration. Decreased extracellular volume triggers the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and aldosterone subsequently stimulates reabsorption of sodium (and thus water) within the nephron of the kidney. However, a second action of aldosterone is to stimulate renal excretion of hydrogen ions (while retaining bicarbonate), and it is this loss of hydrogen ions that raises Continue reading >>

8-step Guide To Abg Analysis: Tic-tac-toe Method

8-step Guide To Abg Analysis: Tic-tac-toe Method

An arterial blood gas (ABG) is a blood test that measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood . Blood for an ABG test is taken from an artery whereas most other blood tests are done on a sample of blood taken from a vein. This test is done to monitor several conditions that can cause serious health complications especially to critically ill individuals. Every day, a lot of nursing and medical students assigned in acute areas encounter ABG results, which they may not necessarily be able to interpret with its knotty aspect. They struggle over the interpretation of its measurements, but they are not especially complicated nor difficult if you understand the basic physiology and have a step by step process to analyze and interpret them. There may be various tips and strategies to guide you, from mnemonics, to charts, to lectures, to practice, but this article will tell you how to interpret ABGs in the easiest possible way. And once you have finished reading this, youll be doing actual ABG analysis in the NCLEX with fun and excitement! Here are the steps: Know the normal and abnormal ABG values when you review the lab reports. Theyre fairly easy to remember: for pH, the normal value is 7.35 to 7.45; 35-45 for paCO2; and 22-26 for HCO3. Remember also this diagram and note that paCO2 is intentionallyinverted for the purpose of this method. 2. Determine if pH is under acidosis or alkalosis Next thing to do is to determine the acidity or alkalinity of the blood through the value of pH. The pH level of a healthy human should be between 7.35 to 7.45. The human body is constantly striving to keep pH in balance. 3. Determine if acid-base is respiratory or metabolic Next thing you need to determine is whether the acid base is Respiratory or Meta Continue reading >>

9.3 Bedside Rules For Assessment Of Compensation

9.3 Bedside Rules For Assessment Of Compensation

The method of assessing acid-base disorders discussed here uses a set of six rules which are used primarily to assess the magnitude of the patients compensatory response. These rules are now widely known and are soundly based experimentally. These rules are used at Step 4 of the method of Systematic Acid-Base Diagnosis outlined in Section 9.2.- (You should read section 9.1 & 9.2 before this section.) These rules are called 'bedside rules' because that can be used at the patient's bedside to assist in the assessment of the acid-base results. The rules should preferably be committed to memory - with practice this is not difficult. A full assessment of blood-gas results must be based on a clinical knowledge of the individual patient from whom they were obtained and an understanding of the pathophysiology of the clinical conditions underlying the acid-base disorder. Do not interpret the blood-gas results as an intellectual exercise in itself. It is one part of the overall process of assessing and managing the patient. A set of blood-gas and electrolyte results should NOT be interpreted without these initial clinical details. They cannot be understood fully without knowledge of the condition being diagnosed. Diagnosing a metabolic acidosis, for example, is by itself, often of little clinical use. What is really required is a more specific diagnosis of the cause of the metabolic acidosis (eg diabetic ketoacidosis, acute renal failure, lactic acidosis) and to initiate appropriate management. The acid-base analysis must be interpreted and managed in the context of the overall clinical picture. The snapshot problem: Are the results 'current'? Remember also that a set of blood gas results provides a snapshot at a particular point in time and the situation may have changed since Continue reading >>

Easy Way To Remember Abg's?

Easy Way To Remember Abg's?

Is there a shorcut to remember Metabolic alkalosis & acidosis and Repirarory alkalosis & acidosis? Wish I had asked last year when we were doing ABGs. I had the hardest time trying to remember. Thanks for sharing!! This is so ccol! I never thought of it like that! i was so mixed up. But with this, as long as i know the norm i should be fine. Thank you so much. · pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis). · pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis). · pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis). We just went over this today in lecture, and my instructor made it SOOOOO simple. Draw a grid like a tic-tac-toe board. Label the columns across the top Acid, Normal, and Alkalotic. Down the left side label the rows pH, PaCO2, and HCO3. Fill in the grid....first row is <7.35, 7.35-7.45, and >7.45. Those are values for pH. Then fill in the second row with >45, 35-45, and <35. Those values are for PaCO2. The last row is <22, 22-26, and >26. Those represent HCO3. Okay, now look at your ABG lab report. Say the pH was 7.49, the PaCO2 was 48, and the bicarb was 37. Tie in those values in your grid. You should have 7.49 under alkalotic, 48 under acid, and 37 under alkalotic. Look at the pH first to see if it's acidic, normal, or alkalotic. The next value in the same column will tell you if it's respiratory or metabolic (PaCO2 reflects respiratory, and HCO3 reflects metabolic). It's as simple as which column has two values in it Then you can get into whether or not it's compensated I've attached a "tic-tac-toe" type handout I made for my students when I teach ABG's. Hope this helps ABG Tic Tac Toe Part 2.doc (94.0 KB, 24151 views) This is the formula I use and it hasn't failed me yet! I thought I would hate ABG's ended up loving them when I learned to tic-tac-toe!:roll I have an easy way tha Continue reading >>

Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy

Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy

pH=ACIDOSIS, PaCO2=NORMAL, HCO3=ACIDOSIS. This is Metabolic Acidosis pH=ALKALOSIS, PaCO2=ALKALOSIS, HCO3=NORMAL This is RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS pH=ACIDOSIS, PaCO2=ACIDOSIS, HCO3=NORMAL This is RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS. pH=ALKALOSIS, PaCO2=NORMAL, HCO3=ALKALOSIS. This is METABOLIC ALKALOSIS. This occurs as the body begins to correct the acid-base imbalance? If total compensation occurs, the pH will? If Partial Compensation occurs the pH will? If Compensation occurs what happens to PaCO2 and HCO3? RESPIRATORY Imbalances are compensated for by the? METABOLIC Imbalances are compensated for by the? pH=ACIDOSIS, PaCO2=ALKALOSIS, HCO3=ACIDOSIS. This is METABOLIC ACIDOSIS with PARTIAL COMPENSATION pH=ALKALOSIS, PaCO2=ACIDOSIS, HCO3=ALKALOSIS. This is METABOLIC ALKALOSIS with PARTIAL COMPENSATION pH=NORMAL, PaCO2-ACIDOSIS, HCO3=ALKALOSIS. This is FULLY COMPENSATED METABOLIC ALKALOSIS LOW Hydrogen ion concentration indicates? HIGH Hydrogen ion concentration indicates? BUFFER SYSTEMS. Either Extracellular or Intracellular Buffers HCO3 (Bicarb)=Kidneys/Lungs, a Ratio of 20:1 and Inorganic Phosphates and Plasma Proteins. Proteins, Inorganic Phosphates and Hemoglobin Loss of HCO3 from ECF, Diarrhea, Diuretics, Renal Insufficiency, Excessive Chloride, Ketoacidosis, Lactic Acidosis, Methanol or Ethyline Toxicity Signs and Symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis? HA, Confusion, Drowsiness, Increased Respirations, Peripheral Vasodilation, Decreased Cardiac Output, Decreased BP, Dysrhythmias, Shock Correct underlying Metabolic Defect. Eliminate Cloride, Monitor K+ levels, ECG Metabolic Alkalosis. A gain of Bicarbonate or Hydrogen. Can be acute or chronic Vomiting, Gastric Suctioning, Loss of K+, Excessive Adrenocorticoid Hormones Signs and Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis? Tingling toes and fingers, Diz Continue reading >>

Acid Base Calculation Made Easy !

Acid Base Calculation Made Easy !

Posted by Ash from IP 74.138.144.66 on October 12, 2006 at 17:50:13: 6 steps to ABG analysis, go step by step in the very same order:- 1.Chk whether the pt is academic or alkalemic,by looking at the arterial pH (NL = 7.38 7.42) 2. Chk whether the ABG abnormality is due to a primary repiratory or metabolic disorder by chking the PCo2 levels( NL 38-42) and HCO3 levels (NL 22-26) 3. Now if there is respiratory component identified,chk whether this is acute or chronic respiratory acidosis or alkalosis. 4. Now if u identify a metabolic component ,chk whether it is high anion or normal anion gap M.Acidosis 5. Chk wether the respiratory system is adequetly compensating for this primary metabolic disorder. 6. Now u identify a high anion gap M.A,chk the corrected HCO3 level,y we do this coz to know wether there was a intial primary disorder ,before this new metabolic disorder developed. VERY IMPO FORMULAS :- U have to learn the formulas byheart) In Metabolic acidosis pH and HCO3 (DECREASES) So to compensate for every 1 mmol/l of drop in HCO3 , 1.2mmhg of PCO2 shld decrease So to compensate for every 1 mmol/l of increase HCO3, 0.07 mmhg of pco2 will increase. In Resp .Acidosis (PH - DECREASED and PCO2 AND HCO3 INCREASED) Acute R.acidosis:- For every 10 mmhg increase in pco2 , 1 mmol/l Hco3 shld increase Chronic R acidosis:- for every 10 mmhg increase in pco2, Hco3 increases by 3.5mmol/l In Respiratory Alkalosis pH INCREASED, pco2 and Hco3 DECREASED Acute R.alkalosis :- for every 10 mmhg decrease in PCO2 , hco2 decreases by 2meq/l Chronic :- for very 10 mmhg decrease in PCO2 ,hco3 decreases by 10mmol/l Winters equation :- this equation helps u to determine ,what the expected PCO2 lloks like when there is a metabolic acidosis:- Anion GAP :- done always when the disorder is metabol Continue reading >>

Acid-base Imbalances Made Easy With Picmonic

Acid-base Imbalances Made Easy With Picmonic

We value your time, which is why we made lab values easier than ever to understand with Picmonics pathway for acid-base imbalances! Guess what? Picmonic has a super-easy nursing acid base imbalances visual study guide that will help you soak in all the acid base information you need. We worked hard to make sure our nursing acid base imbalances visual study aid was simple to understand and fun. See for yourself! Then, read this article to learn the basics of how to interpret acid base imbalances in 3 steps. You can even test your knowledge afterward with this FREE QUIZ ! Watch Kendall teach basics of how to interpret Acid Base Imbalances. Read and learn the basics of how to interpret acid base imbalances in these 3 steps* Helpful Hint: Look at the numbers .35 and .45 in the pH levels. Looks pretty similar to the lab values of 35-45 in pCO2, right? Youve already got two lab values memorized right there! Once youve got those lab values memorized, its easy to recognize what is abnormal. Now, if a patients pH falls below 7.35, they are in a state of acidosis. If the patients pH is above 7.45, the patient would be in a state of alkalosis. 2. Figure out what kind of acidosis or alkalosis our patient is in: respiratory or metabolic? Here, we first look at the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the blood. CO2 is acidic in the body and is regulated through respiration. Think breathing. We blow off CO2 with every breath. A good little trick here is to look at the pH and see what direction its going (up or down), and then look at the CO2 and see what direction thats going. If they are going in the opposite directions, then we have ourselves a patient with a respiratory disorder. Thats where you take part one (acidosis or alkalosis) and match it here with respiratory ( re Continue reading >>

Metabolic/respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis | Pt Final Exam

Metabolic/respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis | Pt Final Exam

Metabolic/Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis Posted by [email protected] | April 2, 2014 | metabolic acidosis , NPTE , respiratory acidosis , study material It has been awhile since I postedIve been extremely busy putting together new content for NPTE preparation and guiding my current course of the Mastermind Study Group through their material. I have always had a love for teaching, and its so awesome that I have this outlet to really capitalize on those skills. One of my most recent projects is a quick how-to video on how to distinguish between Acidosis and Alkalosis with a standard arterial blood gas analysis. This can be tedious for some students to really analyze, and I hope that I can make this portion of the exam a little bit easier. Im attaching the file with the table and brief instructions. Ive also created a brief Youtube video to help explain things further. Please check them out and let me know what you think. As Ive said before, I thrive on honest feedback, and I would appreciate yours. If anything I have on this website is useful to you, please consider using the social media sharing buttons to let your friends and classmates know about this resource. This site has been growing astronomically in the last 6 months, and I want to help as many people as I can as they prepare for the July 2014 NPTE. If theres anything that you would like to me to explain or create an instructional video about, please contact me ! Continue reading >>

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

A FOUR STEP METHOD FOR INTERPRETATION OF ABGS Usefulness This method is simple, easy and can be used for the majority of ABGs. It only addresses acid-base balance and considers just 3 values. pH, PaCO2 HCO3- Step 1. Use pH to determine Acidosis or Alkalosis. ph < 7.35 7.35-7.45 > 7.45 Acidosis Normal or Compensated Alkalosis Step 2. Use PaCO2 to determine respiratory effect. PaCO2 < 35 35 -45 > 45 Tends toward alkalosis Causes high pH Neutralizes low pH Normal or Compensated Tends toward acidosis Causes low pH Neutralizes high pH Step 3. Assume metabolic cause when respiratory is ruled out. You'll be right most of the time if you remember this simple table: High pH Low pH Alkalosis Acidosis High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 Metabolic Respiratory Respiratory Metabolic If PaCO2 is abnormal and pH is normal, it indicates compensation. pH > 7.4 would be a compensated alkalosis. pH < 7.4 would be a compensated acidosis. These steps will make more sense if we apply them to actual ABG values. Click here to interpret some ABG values using these steps. You may want to refer back to these steps (click on "linked" steps or use "BACK" button on your browser) or print out this page for reference. Step 4. Use HC03 to verify metabolic effect Normal HCO3- is 22-26 Please note: Remember, the first three steps apply to the majority of cases, but do not take into account: the possibility of complete compensation, but those cases are usually less serious, and instances of combined respiratory and metabolic imbalance, but those cases are pretty rare. "Combined" disturbance means HCO3- alters the pH in the same direction as the PaCO2. High PaCO2 and low HCO3- (acidosis) or Low PaCO2 and high HCO3- (alkalosis). Continue reading >>

The Quick And Dirty Guide To Acid Base Balance | Medictests.com

The Quick And Dirty Guide To Acid Base Balance | Medictests.com

Your patient has a ph of 6.9 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.4 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.7 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.25 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.43 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 8.0 Is he acidic or alkalotic? 1. acidic 2. normal 3. Alkaline 4. Acidic 5. Normal 6. Alkaline You take in oxygen by inhaling, your body turns oxygen into carbon dioxide, you exhale and remove the carbon dioxide from your body. Carbon dioxide is "respiratory acid."When you're not breathing adequately, you are not getting rid of this "respiratory acid" and it builds up in the tissues. The extra CO2 molecules combine with water in your body to form carbonic acid and makes your pH go up. This is bad. We can measure the amount of respiratory acid in the arterial blood using blood gases. They measure the amount of each gas in your blood. We measure the pH, the amount of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and the amount of oxygen in the blood (PaO2). PaCO2 is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We can measure it to see how much respiratory acid (CO2) there is in the blood. We use arterial blood gas tests to check it. How much respiratory acid (CO2) should there be? The normal value is 35-45 mmHg (mmHg just means millimeters of mercury, its a measurement of pressure.) The (a) in PaCO2 just stands for arterial. If you measured venous blood gasses, the levels are different and PvCO2 is used. If CO2 is HIGH, it means there is a buildup of respiratory acids because he's not breathing enough CO2 away. If your pH is acidic, and your CO2 is HIGH, its considered respiratory acidosis. If CO2 is LOW, it means there are not enough respiratory acids because he's probably hyperventilating too mu Continue reading >>

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