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Acid Ketosis

Gout And Ketogenic Diet

Gout And Ketogenic Diet

How Gout and the Ketogenic Diet Affects You A ketogenic diet is a diet with extremely low or no carbohydrates diet which makes the body go into a state known as ketosis. When the body is in the state of ketosis, the carbohydrates levels are low and this causes the blood sugar levels to drop and the body begins to break down fat to produce energy. Normally, the body relies on dietary energy sources as well as on the stored energy, which in most cases is always in the form of stored fats. When the body is exposed to ketogenic diet, it implies that the dietary carbohydrates will be kept very low, thus leaving the body to rely on stored fats to provide the primary source of fuel, a process which also ends up producing ketones from the stored fats. It should be noted, therefore, that a ketogenic diet is a high fat diet and not a high protein diet as has always been portrayed. Studies have suggested that high fat low carb ketogenic diet can help to alleviate the symptoms of gout. Gout symptoms are normally triggered by the NLRP3 inflammasome with the aid of neutrophilis. What happens is that the NLRP3 activates the 1L-1B pro-inflammatory cytokine which then leads to bouts of intense pain at the joints, fever, as well as the destruction of the joints. According to the studies conducted on rodent models, researchers induced gout in rats by injecting 1.25mg of monosodium urate on the knee, after which the knee’s thickness was measured and pathology analysis performed on the menisci and the ligaments. Human subjects were also used during the research where steroid free adults between the ages of 18 and 45 years and adults above the ages of 65 years. All the participants in the studies were not fasting at the time when there peripheral blood was collected. The studies concluded Continue reading >>

Nutritional Ketosis, Treating Type 2 Diabetes And Morea Q&a With Dr. Stephen Phinney

Nutritional Ketosis, Treating Type 2 Diabetes And Morea Q&a With Dr. Stephen Phinney

Nutritional Ketosis, Treating Type 2 Diabetes and MoreA Q&A with Dr. Stephen Phinney Is type 2 diabetes reversible? Is intermittent fasting good for you or dangerous? Is nutritional ketosis possible for vegetarians? Virta co-founder and Chief Medical Officer Dr. Stephen Phinney answers these questions and a lot more in this Q&A. Thanks again to everyone who joined our recent Facebook Live session with Dr. Phinney and for submitting great questions. Well be doing it again soon, and well announce our next live event on Virtas Facebook page . In the mean time, Dr. Phinney took it upon himself to answer many of the questions that didnt get answered. If you dont see your question, it was probably answered live. Enjoy! Q: Interested in reversing type 2 diabetes is a ketogenic diet recommended?? Thx! Dr. Phinney: Insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes and manifests as carbohydrate intolerance. Like other food intolerances, the most logical and effective approach to managing carbohydrate intolerance is to restrict sugars and starches to within the individuals metabolic tolerance. A well-formulated ketogenic diet can not only prevent and slow down progression of type 2 diabetes, it can actually resolve all the signs and symptoms in many patients, in effect reversing the disease as long as the carbohydrate restriction is maintained. Q: Appreciated your article on the concerns about prolonged fasting. Could you comment on the utility and safety of shorter durations of fasting (i.e. 16 hrs of fasting/8 hrs of eating or 20 hrs of fasting/4 hrs of eating over a period of 1 day)? Dr. Phinney: I do not have major concerns with either time-restricted feeding or intermittent fasting for durations less than 24 hrs as long as: There are adequate protein and vegetable intake Continue reading >>

Bhb Salts - Get Into Ketosis With Betahydroxybutryate

Bhb Salts - Get Into Ketosis With Betahydroxybutryate

Ketogenic diets have been a popular way to lose body fat. Arguably effective, they can be traced back to at least the 1920s. The use of Click here to order now. This situation is observed in both normal and abnormal pathological states, such as fasting and high fat/low carbohydrate dieting (e.g., an Atkin's type diet). These dietary situations eventually lead to an over production of something called "Ketone Bodies" (KB) of which there are three variants - acetoacetate, ?-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone via a process which occurs primarily in the mitochondria of the liver and is known as "ketogenesis" (Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004;70: 243-251). The principal KB that the liver produces is acetoacetate. However, somewhat surprisingly, the principle ketone found in the plasma is actually ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Although if we want to get picky about it, technically BHB is not really a KB because the ketone functional group on BHB has been converted to a hydroxyl group. But it essentially functions like a ketone so If you eat a normal diet with more than (about) 50g/day of carbs, the liver produces very little in the way of ketone bodies and the small amount that it does produce is rapidly metabolized by skeletal and cardiac muscle. When the liver is coaxed into "overproduction" of ketone bodies, they accumulate in the blood at above normal levels obviously, which leads to ketosis (ketonemia and ketonuria the ability for us to detect KB's in blood plasma and urine). As a side note, one KB can be detected in the breath of people in ketosis (the "bad breath" that is often associated with people who are on high fat/low carb diets). This particular ketone body is actually the acetone moiety. In a normal state, the amount of ketone bodies in the blood is quite low Continue reading >>

Understanding Ketosis

Understanding Ketosis

To gain a better understanding of ketosis and the ketogenic diet, it is important to take a look at the physiology behind the diet. If you recall from the article What is a Ketogenic Diet? the goal of a ketogenic diet is to induce ketosis by increasing ketone body production. A key step in understanding the diet is to learn what ketosis is, what are ketones and what do they do. “Normal” Metabolism Learning the basics of the various metabolic processes of the body will better your ability to understand ketosis. Under the normal physiological conditions that are common today, glucose is our body’s primary source of energy. Following ingestion, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and released into the blood stream. This results in the release of insulin from the pancreas. Insulin not only inhibits fat oxidation but also acts as a key holder for cells by allowing glucose from the blood to be shuttled into cells via glucose transporters (GLUT). The amount of insulin required for this action varies between individuals depending on their insulin sensitivity. Once inside the cell, glucose undergoes glycolysis, a metabolic process that produces pyruvate and energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Once pyruvate is formed as an end product of glycolysis, it is shuttled into the mitochondria, where it is converted to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA then enters the TCA cycle to produce additional energy with the aid of the electron transport chain. Since glucose is so rapidly metabolized for energy production and has a limited storage capacity, other energy substrates, such as fat, get stored as triglycerides due to our body’s virtually infinite fat storage capacity. When a sufficient source of carbohydrates is not available, the body adap Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis

Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis

Some medical professionals confuse ketoacidosis, an extremely abnormal form of ketosis, with the normal benign ketosis associated with ketogenic diets and fasting states in the body. They will then tell you that ketosis is dangerous. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com Ketosis is NOT Ketoacidosis The difference between the two conditions is a matter of volume and flow rate*: Benign nutritional ketosis is a controlled, insulin regulated process which results in a mild release of fatty acids and ketone body production in response to either a fast from food, or a reduction in carbohydrate intake. Ketoacidosis is driven by a lack of insulin in the body. Without insulin, blood sugar rises to high levels and stored fat streams from fat cells. This excess amount of fat metabolism results in the production of abnormal quantities of ketones. The combination of high blood sugar and high ketone levels can upset the normal acid/base balance in the blood and become dangerous. In order to reach a state of ketoacidosis, insulin levels must be so low that the regulation of blood sugar and fatty acid flow is impaired. *See this reference paper. Here's a table of the actual numbers to show the differences in magnitude: Body Condition Quantity of Ketones Being Produced After a meal: 0.1 mmol/L Overnight Fast: 0.3 mmol/L Ketogenic Diet (Nutritional ketosis): 1-8 mmol/L >20 Days Fasting: 10 mmol/L Uncontrolled Diabetes (Ketoacidosis): >20 mmol/L Here's a more detailed explanation: Fact 1: Every human body maintains the blood and cellular fluids within a very narrow range between being too acidic (low pH) and too basic (high pH). If the blood pH gets out of the normal range, either too low or too high, big problems happen. Fact 2: The Continue reading >>

12 Great Herbs And Supplements To Improve Ketosis

12 Great Herbs And Supplements To Improve Ketosis

A ketogenic diet is a very low carbohydrate, moderate protein and high fat based nutrition plan. A ketogenic diet trains the individual’s metabolism to run off of fatty acids or ketone bodies. This is called fat adapted, when the body has adapted to run off of fatty acids/ketones at rest. This article will cover how best to improve ketosis and supplement a healthy lifestyle. This nutrition plan has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammation. This leads to reduced risk of chronic disease as well as improved muscle development and fat metabolism (1, 2). Ketogenic diets have been quite popular over the last 10 years due to the beneficial effects being in stable ketosis has on brain function, aging and chronic disease development. People all around the world have tried going on a specific ketogenic diet and lifestyle with varying results. Here are some helpful herbs, foods and supplements that are often overlooked by individuals who are trying to achieve and improve ketosis. 1. Use Fresh Lemon/Lime: Lemon and lime contain citric acid which helps to reduce blood sugar levels naturally (3). Additionally, the anti-oxidants and trace minerals such as potassium help to improve insulin signaling boost liver function and stabilize blood sugar. How To Use: Put lemon or lime in your water and use it in your green juices, salads and squeezed over meat and cooked veggies to help improve your blood sugar and improve ketosis. 2. Use Apple Cider Vinegar: Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is naturally high in acetic acid. The use of acetic acid with meals has been shown to reduce the glycemic response of a typical carbohydrate meal by 31% (4). One study actually showed that using acetic acid reduced a carbohydrate rich meal from a typical glycemic index of 100 to 64 (5). Continue reading >>

Acidbase Safety During The Course Of A Very Low-calorie-ketogenic Diet

Acidbase Safety During The Course Of A Very Low-calorie-ketogenic Diet

, Volume 58, Issue1 , pp 8190 | Cite as Acidbase safety during the course of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis. Results were compared with 51 patients that had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis as well as with a group that underwent a similar VLCK diet in real life conditions of treatment. Visit C1 blood pH (7.37 0.03); plasma bicarbonate (24.7 2.5 mmol/l); plasma glucose (96.0 11.7 mg/l) as well as anion gap or osmolarity were not statistically modified at four months after a total weight reduction of 20.7 kg in average and were within the normal range throughout the study. Even at the point of maximum ketosis all variables measured were always far from the cut-off points established to diabetic ketoacidosis. During the course of a VLCK diet there were no clinically or statistically significant changes in glucose, blood pH, anion gap and plasma bicarbonate. Hence the VLCK diet can be considered as a safe nutritional intervention for the treatment of obesity in terms of acid-base equilibrium. Ketogenic dietVery low-energy dietObesityKetosisAcidbase safetyAcidosis Diego Gomez-Arbelaez and Ana B. Crujeiras contributed equally to this work. In recent decades the prevalence of obesi Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Ketosis: Fear, Uncertainty And Doubt

Ketosis: Fear, Uncertainty And Doubt

Perhaps nothing is more damaging to the new low-carber than the intentional spread of fear, uncertainty and doubt regarding the state of ketosis compared to the dangerous state of ketoacidosis. The former is a natural and healthy state of existence, the latter is a condition that threatens the life of type 1 diabetics and type 2 diabetics whose disease has progressed to the point where their pancreatic beta cells can no longer produce insulin (ketoacidosis is also a risk for alcoholics). So if you’re not an alcoholic, a type 1 diabetic or a late-stage type 2 diabetic, fear of ketosis is misdirected. You should regard with suspicion anyone who confuses the two and warns you against a low-carb diet because they cannot tell the difference. The confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis is a sign of a grave misunderstanding of basic biology (if not a complete lack of critical faculty). So too is the assumption that ketosis is the “early stage” of ketoacidosis or that “ketosis leads to ketoacidosis” in a person whose pancreas is still able to produce insulin. If you don’t trust me (and why should you), you should consider listening to some people who know a lot more about this than either you or I ever will: Nutritional ketosis is by definition a benign metabolic state… by contrast, ‘diabetic ketoacidosis’ is an unstable and dangerous condition that occurs when there is inadequate pancreatic insulin response to regulate serum B-OHB. This occurs only in type-1 diabetics or in late stage type-2 diabetics with advanced pancreatic burnout. (Dr. Phinney & Dr. Volek, The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living, p.4) Later in the book (p.80), Phinney and Volek explain further: [Type-1 diabetics] need insulin injections not just to control blood glucose levels, Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

The Paleo Guide To Ketosis

The Paleo Guide To Ketosis

Ketosis is a word that gets tossed around a lot within the Paleo community – to some, it’s a magical weight-loss formula, to others, it’s a way of life, and to others it’s just asking for adrenal fatigue. But understanding what ketosis really is (not just what it does), and the physical causes and consequences of a fat-fueled metabolism can help you make an informed decision about the best diet for your particular lifestyle, ketogenic or not. Ketosis is essentially a metabolic state in which the body primarily relies on fat for energy. Biologically, the human body is a very adaptable machine that can run on a variety of different fuels, but on a carb-heavy Western diet, the primary source of energy is glucose. If glucose is available, the body will use it first, since it’s the quickest to metabolize. So on the standard American diet, your metabolism will be primarily geared towards burning carbohydrates (glucose) for fuel. In ketosis, it’s just the opposite: the body primarily relies on ketones, rather than glucose. To understand how this works, it’s important to understand that some organs in the body (especially the brain) require a base amount of glucose to keep functioning. If your brain doesn’t get any glucose, you’ll die. But this doesn’t necessarily mean that you need glucose in the diet – your body is perfectly capable of meeting its glucose needs during an extended fast, a period of famine, or a long stretch of very minimal carbohydrate intake. There are two different ways to make this happen. First, you could break down the protein in your muscles and use that as fuel for your brain and liver. This isn’t ideal from an evolutionary standpoint though – when you’re experiencing a period of food shortage, you need to be strong and fast, Continue reading >>

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

There’s a very common misconception and general misunderstanding around ketones. Specifically, the misunderstandings lie in the areas of: ketones that are produced in low-carb diets of generally less than 50 grams of carbs per day, which is low enough to put a person in a state of “nutritional ketosis” ketones that are produced when a diabetic is in a state of “diabetic ketoacidosis” (DKA) and lastly, there are “starvation ketones” and “illness-induced ketones” The fact is they are very different. DKA is a dangerous state of ketosis that can easily land a diabetic in the hospital and is life-threatening. Meanwhile, “nutritional ketosis” is the result of a nutritional approach that both non-diabetics and diabetics can safely achieve through low-carb nutrition. Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs. Nutritional Ketosis Ryan Attar (soon to be Ryan Attar, ND) helps explain the science and actual human physiology behind these different types of ketone production. Ryan is currently studying to become a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine in Connecticut and also pursuing a Masters Degree in Human Nutrition. He has interned under the supervision of the very well-known diabetes doc, Dr. Bernstein. Ryan explains: Diabetic Ketoacidosis: “Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), is a very dangerous state where an individual with uncontrolled diabetes is effectively starving due to lack of insulin. Insulin brings glucose into our cells and without it the body switches to ketones. Our brain can function off either glucose or fat and ketones. Ketones are a breakdown of fat and amino acids that can travel through the blood to various tissues to be utilized for fuel.” “In normal individuals, or those with well controlled diabetes, insulin acts to cancel the feedback loop and slow and sto Continue reading >>

Ketosis: Symptoms, Signs & More

Ketosis: Symptoms, Signs & More

Every cell in your body needs energy to survive. Most of the time, you create energy from the sugar (glucose) in your bloodstream. Insulin helps regulate glucose levels in the blood and stimulate the absorption of glucose by the cells in your body. If you don’t have enough glucose or insufficient insulin to get the job done, your body will break down fat instead for energy. This supply of fat is an alternative energy source that keeps you from starvation. When you break down fat, you produce a compound called a ketone body. This process is called ketosis. Insulin is required by your cells in order to use the glucose in your blood, but ketones do not require insulin. The ketones that don’t get used for energy pass through your kidneys and out through your urine. Ketosis is most likely to occur in people who have diabetes, a condition in which the body produces little or no insulin. Ketosis and Ketoacidosis: What You Need To Know Ketosis simply means that your body is producing ketone bodies. You’re burning fat instead of glucose. Ketosis isn’t necessarily harmful to your health. If you don’t have diabetes and you maintain a healthy diet, it’s unlikely to be a problem. While ketosis itself isn’t particularly dangerous, it’s definitely something to keep an eye on, especially if you have diabetes. Ketosis can be a precursor to ketoacidosis, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is a condition in which you have both high glucose and high ketone levels. Having ketoacidosis results in your blood becoming too acidic. It’s more common for those with type 1 diabetes rather than type 2. Once symptoms of ketoacidosis begin, they can escalate very quickly. Symptoms include: breath that smells fruity or like nail polish or nail polish remover rapid breat Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a temporary physical condition marked by elevated levels of compounds known as ketone bodies in the body's tissues and fluids. The term "ketone bodies" refers to three different biochemicals: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. The first two molecules transfer energy produced in the liver to the tissues throughout the body; acetone is a breakdown product of acetoacetate, and is responsible for the sweet odor on the breath of people undergoing ketosis. The condition of ketosis typically represents a change in the way the body gets its energy. Normally, the body gets most of its energy by metabolizing glucose (a simple sugar) obtained from carbohydrates or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. But when unable to convert glucose into energy, the body switches to breaking down fat and converting it into energy. When this happens, the liver metabolizes fatty acids, producing energy-rich ketone bodies. The most common causes of ketosis are physiological, according to a 2000 article in the journal Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. Fasting, eating a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and engaging in high-intensity exercise can all lead to ketosis, because these activities deplete the body's stores of glucose. Because ketone bodies are acidic, a prolonged excess of the molecules in the blood can lead to a pathological form of ketosis, called ketoacidosis, in which the blood becomes acidic. Most commonly, ketoacidosis is associated with type 1 diabetes (and type 2 diabetes to a lesser extent). A lack of insulin, a hormone necessary for blood glucose to enter cells, causes glucose and ketone body concentrations to spike, lowering the blood's pH as it becomes more acidic. If left untreated, this condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, can lead to Continue reading >>

Jlr : Journal Of Lipid Research

Jlr : Journal Of Lipid Research

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate classic KD, as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. The use of dietary manipulations to treat epilepsy, in particular controlling seizures through sustained fasting, dates back to the time of Hippocrates ( 15 17 ). In modern times, reports of modifying diets to treat seizures emerged in the early 20th century both in France and in the United States ( 15 , 17 20 ). Importantly, in the 1920s, several researchers made significant dis Continue reading >>

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