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Acetazolamide Metabolic Acidosis Mechanism

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What is ALKALOSIS? What does ALKALOSIS mean? ALKALOSIS meaning - ALKALOSIS pronunciation - ALKALOSIS definition - ALKALOSIS explanation - How to pronounce ALKALOSIS? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to acidemia (serum pH 7.35 or lower), alkalemia occurs when the serum pH is higher than normal (7.45 or higher). Alkalosis is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined respiratory/metabolic alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation, resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related excretion of bicarbonate, both of which lower blood pH. Hyperventilation-induced alkalosis can be seen in several deadly central nervous system diseases such as strokes or Rett syndrome. Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid within the stomach content. Severe dehydration, and the consumption of alkali are other causes. It can also be caused by administration of diuretics and endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome. Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide, a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis. As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and vice versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions. Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain, and muscle cramps (from disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and muscle spasms (from disturbed function of smooth muscles). It may also cause low blood calcium concentration. As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become more ionized into anions. This causes the free calcium present in blood to bind more strongly with albumin. If severe, it may cause tetany.

Treatment Of Metabolic Alkalosis

INTRODUCTION Metabolic alkalosis is characterized by a primary rise in the plasma bicarbonate concentration, which leads to an increase in arterial pH. Two factors are required for the genesis and then maintenance of metabolic alkalosis: a process that raises the plasma bicarbonate concentration and a process that prevents excretion of the excess bicarbonate in the urine [1,2]. Treatment of metabolic alkalosis should be aimed at reversing these two factors. This topic will provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis followed by a discussion of how to treat affected patients. The pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis is reviewed in more detail elsewhere. (See "Pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis".) The etiology and evaluation of patients with metabolic alkalosis are discussed separately. (See "Causes of metabolic alkalosis" and "Clinical manifestations and evaluation of metabolic alkalosis".) OVERVIEW OF THE PATHOGENESIS The genesis and the maintenance of metabolic alkalosis are distinct processes. Initially, a process that raises the plasma bicarbonate concentration occurs, and then another process prevents excretion of the excess bicarbonate in the urine [1,2 Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Bubblegurl

    What is the difference between a glucose meter and a ketone meter? These two devices are the same right?

  2. 4dml

    There are only 3 ketone meters (Precision Xtra, Keto Mojo, Nova Max) and they can all read glucose. There are many glucose only meters in the market.
    Ketone strips are expensive, costing a minimum of $1 each. Mojo has the cheapest, followed by Max, then Xtra, though the later can be found on sale. The glucose strips are cheaper.

    I’ve had the Xtra for a few months and just bought the Mojo. I use an inexpensive Walmart meter for glucose because the strips are cheap.

  3. collaroygal

    Just adding to the above. If your concern is primarily your blood sugar numbers, then a glucose meter is what you want.
    If you want to concentrate on ketone production and staying with a certain level of ketosis then the ketone meter is what you need. If both, go for the combo meters listed in the above post.

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This video is about Acetazolamide Mechanism

Acetazolamide: Mechanism Of Action

Home / ABA Keyword Categories / A / Acetazolamide: mechanism of action Acetazolamide is a reversible inhibitor of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme that results in reduction of hydrogen ion secretion at the renal tubule and an increased renal excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and water. It can be used as a diuretic or to treat glaucoma as it prevents excessive build up of aqueous humor. It also inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the central nervous system to minimize abnormal and excessive discharge from CNS neurons. Acetazolamide can be administered to patients with a metabolic alkalosis to promote retention of hydrogen ions at the level of the renal tubule. Mechanism of action: for the reduction of Intraocular pressure Acetazolamide inactivates carbonic anhydrase and interferes with the sodium pump, which decreases aqueous humor formation and thus lowers IOP. Systemic effects however include increased renal loss of sodium, potassium, and water secondary to the drugs renal tubular effects. Arterial Blood gases may show a mild hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Continue reading >>

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  1. GaryR55

    I'm still in ketosis right now and nearing my "ideal" weight, in a few more months, so, I need to know the best way to reverse ketosis so my body is no longer feeding off itself. As I recall from Loren Cordain's The Paleo Diet, he says you just start eating more, but I've also read that you should eat more carbohydrates. That would seem to indicate that I should simply increase my fruit and veggie portions and/or have some daily fruit or veggie snacks, right? Could I also increase my helpings of meat?
    Gary

  2. kallyn

    Ketosis means that you are burning ketones for fuel instead of glucose. So if you'd like to get out of ketosis, adding some carbs to your diet will introduce some glucose to your body that will knock you out of it.
    I wouldn't worry about it too much right now. Even being in ketosis you won't lose any more weight than what is healthy for your body. And once you get nearer your ideal weight, the pounds come off much much more slowly.

  3. GaryR55

    That's what Loren Cordain (The Paleo Diet) says, also, so, I guess that's my course of action, then. Just keep eating right. I've still got some excess fat to get rid of, so, I'm in no hurry to get out of ketosis. I just don't want to start losing muscle at some point, too. But, Cordain says that, as long as I continue working out regularly, that shouldn't happen.
    Increasing carbs is probably not a good idea this soon, anyway, as I still haven't completely corrected my insulin resistance, yet. I suppose that, when I have, then I can increase my carb intake without the spikes in blood sugar I get now.
    Gary

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Inspired by Dr. Ritika Vankina, MD Renal Tubular Acidosis, Type 1: Overview of classification and pathophysiology Video recorded with help of Blueberry Flashback Player

Type 2 Renal Tubular Acidosis And Acetazolamide - Deranged Physiology

Type 2 Renal Tubular Acidosis and Acetazolamide This form of renal tubular acidosis decreases the strong ion difference by interfering with bicarbonate resorption in the proximal tubule; the mechanism is analogous to the action of acetazolamide. Bicarbonate handling in the proximal tubule Behold, the familiar activity of carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule. Carbonic anhydrase converts the filtered bicarbonate into easily resorbed CO2, and then traps it again inside the cell. The filtered bicarbonate is essentialy completely reabsorbed. The concentration of chloride in the tubule is therefore expected to increase- if the bicarbonate has been reabsorbed, more chloride must remain in the tubule to maintain electroneutrality. However, the failure of carbonic anhydrase results in bicarbonate remaining trapped in the urine. This, of course, means that electroneutrality of the tubule is maintained without the excretion of any further chloride. Thus, the chloride which would otherwise be excreted, is retained. There is an excellent article which discusses the mechanisms of chloride retention in acetazolamide-intoxicated patients with metabolic alkalosis. Particularly, it contains a Continue reading >>

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  1. krashmania

    I'm a few weeks in, and I'm starting to notice more and more a rather, um, distinct (worse) change in my b.o. I'm having to put on deodorant at least twice a day, even when I'm not working out, because of it, even after a shower in the morning. This sound familiar to anyone from when they first started?

  2. phishtrader

    If you're in ketosis, you're excreting acetone and acetoacetate, probably in noticeable amounts. According to Lyle McDonald's The Ketogenic Diet, this can result in "fruity smelling breath." I would submit that perhaps anyone that concludes this, is perhaps not that familiar with what fruit actually smells like. When I started, which is when I've read that the issue is the worst, my wife noticed the bad breath right off.
    Other than drink more water, I don't have much advice for you, if you excrete more of the unused ketone bodies through urine, perhaps you'll have less to exhale or sweat out, or it will be diluted. Drinking water may also help to flush out your mouth too.
    I was speaking with a customer today that often stands a little bit too close. Today she backed off right away and kept moving around. Based on the horrible taste in my mouth, I can only conclude that I have some really asstastic breath right now. I wanted to keep in eye contact while talking to her, but it's hard to also point your mouth in another direction, and talk all at the same time.
    My urine is also almost always darker than it would normally be given a similar level of water intake on a non-keto diet. It is also discernibly smelly, but again, doesn't remind me of fruit in any sense.

  3. krashmania

    Is this a long term thing, or just something that happens in the begining?

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