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A Storage Form Of Carbohydrate Energy Glucose

Nutrition Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Compounds composed of single or multiple sugars. Shorthand: CHO. Add bulk to food, energy, fibers. Carbs that contain starch and fiber. Long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber, AKA polysaccharides. Sugars including single unites and linked pairs. Basic unit of sugar = a molecule containing 6 carbon atoms w/ oxygen and hydrogen. Single Sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy: aka blood sugar or dextrose. Most used monosaccharide in the in the body. Simple carbohydrates. Molecules of either single sugar units or pairs bonded together. Usually refers to sucrose. _____ ______ make CHO through photosynthesis in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. Plants don't use all the sugar they make -> animals eat them and support all life. The process by which green plants make CHO from carbon dioxide and water using chlorophyll Green pigment of plants that captures energy from sunlight for use in photosynthesis Single sugars. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose. Can absorb directly into blood. Monosaccharide known as fruit sugar. Intensely sweet. Honey, fruit, part of table sugar. Monosaccharide. Same number and kind of atoms, but different arrangement as glucose and fructose. Part of the disaccharide lactose. Rarely occurs free in nature. Double sugars. Lactose, maltose, sucrose. All three contain glucose. Must digest first (not absorb directly) with enzymes. Liver quickly breaks things down to glucose for most use. Two glucose units. Occurs whenever starch is being broken down. Long strands of thousands of glucose units. Starch, glycogen, most fibers (cellulose). Plant's storage form of glucose. Plant polysaccharide composed of glucose. Highly digestible by humans after cooking; harder when raw. Small grains. Starch granules are packages of starch m Continue reading >>

The Main Storage Of Carbohydrates In The Human Body

The Main Storage Of Carbohydrates In The Human Body

The Main Storage of Carbohydrates in the Human Body Lau Hanly runs Fierce For Life, a nutrition and fitness company that helps young women start with healthy eating and smart training without overwhelming them. She has a certificate of nutrition, and provide individual coaching, standard fitness and nutrition programs, and group training. Bread, pasta, legumes, starchy vegetables and fruit are sources of carbs.Photo Credit: Jochen Sand/Photodisc/Getty Images Carbohydrates are the body's preferred energy source. Eating carbohydrates provides energy to your muscles, brain and nervous system; facilitates the metabolism of fat; and ensures that the protein in your muscles is not broken down to supply energy. Because carbohydrates are so important to your body's function, any excess carbs you eat will be stored in your liver and muscles. When you eat carbohydrates, they are broken down into small sugar molecules in your stomach. These molecules are transported through your digestive system and then converted into glucose by the liver to make a usable form of energy for the brain and your muscles. Any glucose that is not needed immediately for energy is converted into glycogen and stored for later use. Your body can store around 2,000 calories' worth of glycogen, which can be used when you need more energy than is currently available in your bloodstream. Your liver stores the most concentrated amount of glycogen of all the storage sites in your body. It can hold up to about 90 to 110 grams of glycogen at any time, and this glycogen is primarily used to maintain blood sugar levels and energy levels throughout the day. Research published in the "Journal of Clinical Investigation" in 1996 found that approximately 19 percent of the carbohydrates from each meal are stored as live Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates - Glycogen

Carbohydrates - Glycogen

Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers consisting of tens to hundreds to several thousand monosaccharide units. All of the common polysaccharides contain glucose as the monosaccharide unit. Polysaccharides are synthesized by plants, animals, and humans to be stored for food, structural support, or metabolized for energy. Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants. Glycogen is synthesized and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles. Structurally, glycogen is very similar to amylopectin with alpha acetal linkages, however, it has even more branching and more glucose units are present than in amylopectin. Various samples of glycogen have been measured at 1,700-600,000 units of glucose. The structure of glycogen consists of long polymer chains of glucose units connected by an alpha acetal linkage. The graphic on the left shows a very small portion of a glycogen chain. All of the monomer units are alpha-D-glucose, and all the alpha acetal links connect C # 1 of one glucose to C # 4 of the next glucose. The branches are formed by linking C # 1 to a C # 6 through an acetal linkages. In glycogen, the branches occur at intervals of 8-10 glucose units, while in amylopectin the branches are separated by 12-20 glucose units. Continue reading >>

Why Is Ribose Not A Dietary Consideration

Why Is Ribose Not A Dietary Consideration

Carbohydrates Structures and Function Simple sugars: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides) Complex sugar: polysaccharides (starch and fiber) Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and galactose – isomers of each other) Glucose (also called dextrose and blood sugar) has a six carbon (hexose) ring structure Fructose (also called levulose) has a six carbon ring structure Found in fruit, honey, and corn syrup used in soft drink and food production 8 to 10% of our energy intake Metabolized into glucose in the liver Converted into glycogen, lactic acid, or fat if consumption is high Galactose has a six carbon ring structure Not usually found in nature but exists mostly as a unit of the disaccharide lactose which is found in nature Converted to glucose in the liver or stored as glycogen Ribose has a five carbon ring structure and used in genetic material (?) Oligosaccharides Raffinose (trisaccharide - made up of glucose, fructose, and galactose) Stachyose (tetrasaccharide - made up of a glucose, fructose, and two galactose) Bacteria in the large intestines break apart these oligosaccharides, producing gas and other byproducts Complex Cabohydrates (Digestible starch and glycogen and indigestible fiber) Starch Amylose is a straight chain polymer Amylopectin is a branched chain polymer Amylopectin raises blood sugar levels quicker because of the branched configuration which enables more digestive capabilities Fiber Dietary fibers also composed of the non-carbohydrate called lignin All dietary fibers come from plants and are not digested in the stomach But fibers can be soluble and insoluble in water Those that are soluble include pectins, gums, and mucilages and are metabolized by bacteria in the intestines Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption Begins in the mouth (sal Continue reading >>

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy for the body e.g. glucose and a store of energy, e.g. starch in plants building blocks for polysaccharides (giant carbohydrates), e.g. cellulose in plants and glycogen in the human body components of other molecules eg DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoproteins, ATP Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called single sugars. They are the building blocks from which all bigger carbohydrates are made. Monosaccharides have the general molecular formula (CH2O)n, where n can be 3, 5 or 6. They can be classified according to the number of carbon atoms in a molecule: n = 3 trioses, e.g. glyceraldehyde n = 5 pentoses, e.g. ribose and deoxyribose ('pent' indicates 5) n = 6 hexoses, e.g. fructose, glucose and galactose ('hex' indicates 6) There is more than one molecule with the molecular formula C5H10O5 and more than one with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers. Glyceraldehyde's molecular formula is C3H6O3. Its structural formula shows it contains an aldehyde group (-CHO) and two hydroxyl groups (-OH). The presence of an aldehyde group means that glyceraldehyde can also be classified as an aldose. It is a reducing sugar and gives a positive test with Benedict's reagent. CH2OHCH(OH)CHO is oxidised by Benedict's reagent to CH2OHCH(OH)COOH; the aldehyde group is oxidised to Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecule on Earth. Living organisms use carbohydrates as accessible energy to fuel cellular reactions and for structural support inside cell walls. Cells attach carbohydrate molecules to proteins and lipids, modifying structures to enhance functionality. For example, small carbohydrate molecules bonded to lipids in cell membranes improve cell identification, cell signaling, and complex immune system responses. The carbohydrate monomers deoxyribose and ribose are integral parts of DNA and RNA molecules. To recognize how carbohydrates function in living cells, we must understand their chemical structure. The structure of carbohydrates determines how energy is stored in carbohydrate bonds during photosynthesis and how breaking these bonds releases energy during cellular respiration. Biomolecules meet specific structural criteria to be classified as carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are modifications of short hydrocarbon chains. Several hydroxyls and one carbonyl functional group modify these hydrocarbon chains to create a monosaccharide, the base unit of all carbohydrates. Monosaccharides consist of a carbon chain of three or more carbon atoms containing a hydroxyl group attached to every carbon except one. The lone carbon atom is double-bonded to an oxygen atom, and this carbonyl group may be in any position along the carbon chain. Therefore, one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms are present for every carbon atom in a monosaccharide. Consequently, we can define monosaccharides as possessing the molecular formula (CH2O)n, where n equals the number of carbon atoms and must be greater than or equal to three. Monosaccharides (Greek, meaning “single sugar”) are simple sugars and are frequently named using the suffix Continue reading >>

Glycogen Metabolism

Glycogen Metabolism

Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues (Figure 21.1) that can be broken down to yield glucose molecules when energy is needed. Most of the glucose residues in glycogen are linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Branches at about every tenth residue are created by α-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Recall that α-glycosidic linkages form open helical polymers, whereas β linkages produce nearly straight strands that form structural fibrils, as in cellulose (Section 11.2.3). Glycogen is not as reduced as fatty acids are and consequently not as energy rich. Why do animals store any energy as glycogen? Why not convert all excess fuel into fatty acids? Glycogen is an important fuel reserve for several reasons. The controlled breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose increase the amount of glucose that is available between meals. Hence, glycogen serves as a buffer to maintain blood-glucose levels. Glycogen's role in maintaining blood-glucose levels is especially important because glucose is virtually the only fuel used by the brain, except during prolonged starvation. Moreover, the glucose from glycogen is readily mobilized and is therefore a good source of energy for sudden, strenuous activity. Unlike fatty acids, the released glucose can provide energy in the absence of oxygen and can thus supply energy for anaerobic activity. The two major sites of glycogen storage are the liver and skeletal muscle. The concentration of glycogen is higher in the liver than in muscle (10% versus 2% by weight), but more glycogen is stored in skeletal muscle overall because of its much greater mass. Glycogen is present in the cytosol in the form of granules ranging in diameter from 10 to 40 nm (Figure 21.2). In the liver, glycoge Continue reading >>

The Main Storage Of Carbohydrates In The Human Body

The Main Storage Of Carbohydrates In The Human Body

The Main Storage of Carbohydrates in the Human Body Most carbohydrates are eventually stored as glycogen in the muscles of the body. Found in foods such as grains, fruit and vegetables, carbohydrates make up the body's go-to energy supply. Every cell in the body requires energy to function, so you must have a steady source of energy -- even when carbohydrates arent immediately available. To provide that steady energy, the body stores any excess carbohydrates, usually as a compound called glycogen. Carbohydrates exist as simple carbohydrates, known as sugars or monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates, known as polysaccharides. When the body digests complex carbohydrates, it breaks those compounds down into a sugar known as glucose, which the body metabolizes for energy. Any glucose in the bloodstream remaining after immediate needs for energy becomes the compound glycogen, a long chain of linked glucose molecules, which the body can later break down again for energy. The liver and skeletal muscle in the body mainly store glycogen. Glycogen accounts for approximately 10 percent of the weight of the liver, while it represents two percent of the weight of muscles. Since the total mass of muscle in the body is greater than the total mass of the liver, muscle stores most of the glycogen. When the body can't meet its energy needs with the amount of glucose circulating in the body, it uses glycogen. Under these conditions, the body breaks the stored glycogen down in order to satisfy those needs. Glycogen stored in muscle tissue provides energy to that specific muscle; for instance, glycogen stored in the legs could provide energy for running. Glycogen stored in the liver regulates the amount of blood glucose as a whole, ensuring all bodily cells achieve their energy requirem Continue reading >>

The Body’s Fuel Sources

The Body’s Fuel Sources

The Body’s Fuel Sources Our ability to run, bicycle, ski, swim, and row hinges on the capacity of the body to extract energy from ingested food. As potential fuel sources, the carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the foods that you eat follow different metabolic paths in the body, but they all ultimately yield water, carbon dioxide, and a chemical energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Think of ATP molecules as high-energy compounds or batteries that store energy. Anytime you need energy—to breathe, to tie your shoes, or to cycle 100 miles (160 km)—your body uses ATP molecules. ATP, in fact, is the only molecule able to provide energy to muscle fibers to power muscle contractions. Creatine phosphate (CP), like ATP, is also stored in small amounts within cells. It’s another high-energy compound that can be rapidly mobilized to help fuel short, explosive efforts. To sustain physical activity, however, cells must constantly replenish both CP and ATP. Our daily food choices resupply the potential energy, or fuel, that the body requires to continue to function normally. This energy takes three forms: carbohydrate, fat, and protein. (See table 2.1, Estimated Energy Stores in Humans.) The body can store some of these fuels in a form that offers muscles an immediate source of energy. Carbohydrates, such as sugar and starch, for example, are readily broken down into glucose, the body’s principal energy source. Glucose can be used immediately as fuel, or can be sent to the liver and muscles and stored as glycogen. During exercise, muscle glycogen is converted back into glucose, which only the muscle fibers can use as fuel. The liver converts its glycogen back into glucose, too; however, it’s released directly into the bloodstream to maintain your blood sugar (blood Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. Carbohydrates are central to many essential metabolic pathways.[1] Plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis, allowing them to store energy absorbed from sunlight internally.[2] When animals and fungi consume plants, they use cellular respiration to break down these stored carbohydrates to make energy available to cells.[2] Both animals and plants temporarily store the released energy in the form of high energy molecules, such as ATP, for use in various cellular processes.[3] Although humans consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into a few simple monomers for metabolism: glucose, fructose, and galactose.[4] Glucose constitutes about 80% of the products, and is the primary structure that is distributed to cells in the tissues, where it is broken down or stored as glycogen.[3][4] In aerobic respiration, the main form of cellular respiration used by humans, glucose and oxygen are metabolized to release energy, with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.[2] Most of the fructose and galactose travel to the liver, where they can be converted to glucose.[4] Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components, glucose and galactose.[5] Metabolic pathways[edit] Overview of connections between metabolic processes. Glycolysis[edit] Glycolysis is the process of breaking down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules, while storing energy released Continue reading >>

Ch 5 Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch 5 Carbohydrates Flashcards | Quizlet

-made by plants from CO2 & H2O using energy from the sun -ideal nutrient to meet your body's needs plants use the sun's energy to combine carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen to form carbohydrates. is the main biological energy storage process. Energy from sunlight is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose. carbon dioxide + water + sunlight glucose + oxygen - stored in a fruit or vegetable or seed or other plant is the biological energy releasing process. Energy stored in the bonds of glucose (and many other molecules) is released to do work in living cells glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy -are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work 1. glucose: primary energy for cells, aka dextrose. not abundant in food (fruits, vegetables, berries, grapes, honey, corn & carrots) 2. fructose: "fruit sugar/levulose" has to be broken down to glucose (fruit, honey HFCS) 3. galactose: part of "milk sugar" lactose, rarely free in foods disaccharides - definition & by what process -Disaccharides are joined by the process of dehydration synthesis Maltose = glucose + glucose "malt sugar", found in germinating seeds & wherever starch is being digested Sucrose = glucose + fructose "table sugar" Lactose = glucose + galactose "milk sugar" sucrose - definition, how is it made & where found - refinement strips away vitamins & minerals -occurs naturally in honey, maple syrup, carrots, sweet fruits such as pineapple - Contribute energy to foods Provide 4 kcal/g -Nutritive sweeteners added during processing or preparation e.g., sucrose and high fructose corn syrup Substances added to a food to sweeten it but provide no or few calories Poorly absorbed and may cause diarrhea Supply 2 kcal/g Intensely-sweet synthetic compounds that sweeten foods without providing kcal - Saccharin, as Continue reading >>

Chapter 5 Carbohydrates

Chapter 5 Carbohydrates

Very little dietary carbohydrates excreted in feces Insulin released from pancreas - enables glucose to enter cells, enhances production/storage of (fat, glycogen, protein) decreases hunger when blood glucose decreases, pancreas releases glucagon, stimulating glycogenolysis glycogen breakdown--releasing glucose into the blood breakdown of triglycerides (fat) for energy form as a result of incomplete fat breakdown, used by certain cells for energy ex. poorly controlled diabetes, fasting or starving, low carbohydrate, high protein diet (atkins) Condition that occurs with very high blood ketone bodies, unconsciousness and death may occur may defend on type of carbohydrates probably "fattening" added sugar, including high fructose corn syrup, refined starches Fiber rich foods (ex fruits, vegetables, unrefined grains) Groups of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose, fat and porting metabolism Most common types insulin resistant cells Elevated blood glucose levels, excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision, vaginal yeast infections, foot pain, numbness in the feet Abnormally low blood glucose levels normal fasting blood glucose <70 mg/dl Blood glucose level is too low to provide cells adequate energy, true hypoglycemia is rare in non diabetics Blood glucose drops after eating highly refined carbs- pancreas responds to the carb intake by secreting excess insulin What forms due to pressure on large intestine (colon) Diverticula- abnormal tiny sacks that form in the wall of the colon Continue reading >>

Glycogen | Biochemistry | Britannica.com

Glycogen | Biochemistry | Britannica.com

Glycogen, white, amorphous , tasteless polysaccharide (C6H1005)n. It is the principal form in which carbohydrate is stored in higher animals, occurring primarily in the liver and muscles. It also is found in various species of microorganismse.g., bacteria and fungi, including yeasts. Glycogen serves as an energy reservoir, being broken down to glucose when needed. 18 references found in Britannica articles Corrections? Updates? Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Error when sending the email. Try again later. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Encyclopdia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. (Internet URLs are the best.) Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. There was a problem with your submission. Please try again later. Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Brought to you by the Departmentof Kinesiology and Health at GeorgiaState University . This page is meant to be a general guide to nutritionfor the promotion of health and fitness. This information onthis page is not meant to give specific individual dietary recommendationsbut general guidelines for a healthy diet. Carbohydrates are the primary fuel for your musclesand the brain. Eating a high carbohydrate diet will ensuremaintenance of muscle and liver glycogen (storage forms of carbohydrate),improve performance and delay fatigue. Any type of carbohydrate eaten ismetabolized into glucose. However, there are different typesof carbohydrate. Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides.These contain one or two sugar molecules and taste very sweet. Examplesof simple sugars are glucose, fructose galactose (monosaccharides) andsucrose, lactose and corn syrup (disaccharides). Complex carbohydratesare long chains of sugars. Plants store complex carbohydrates asstarch and animals store them as glycogen in the muscles and liver.Examples of foods that contain large amounts of complex carbohydrate includepotatoes, rice and bread. Complex carbohydrates are burnedas energy or stored in the liver and skeletal muscles for future use duringactivity. Glucose polymers are another type of carbohydrate thatis used in sports drinks. Glucose polymers are a 5 glucose chainsugar that is not as sweet as sucrose or corn syrup that is commonly foundin cola type drinks. These glucose polymers provide a greater amountof energy without being too sweet. It is important to remember that carbohydrates arethe body's primary energy source. Unfortunately, carbohydrates arenot stored at inexhaustible amounts. A 150 pound man has about 1800calories of carbohydrate in the liver, blood and musc Continue reading >>

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