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Will Insulin Kill A Rat

Kenneth Barlow: The First Documented Case Of Murder By Insulin

Kenneth Barlow: The First Documented Case Of Murder By Insulin

On the morning of 4 May 1957, just after 2 am, Dr David Price, a forensic pathologist, was called to the home of Elizabeth and Kenneth Barlow in a residential suburb of Bradford, Yorkshire. The story was that Kenneth Barlow had discovered his wife unconscious in the bath at about 11.20 pm the previous night and called his own doctor, who diagnosed her as dead. Kenneth, a 38-year-old state registered nurse, was unemployed. He had married Elizabeth 11 months earlier and was, to all outward appearances, living happily with her and his 10-year-old son by his first wife. According to Kenneth, Elizabeth had had tea at about 5 pm on the day of her death. Shortly afterwards she announced that she was tired, and went to bed. When Kenneth came to bed at about 9.30 pm he found that Elizabeth had vomited on the bed. Together they changed the sheets. She put on some pyjamas but took them off because she said she felt too warm and decided to take a bath. Kenneth lay on the bed and went to sleep at about 9.45 pm to the sound of the bath running. When he woke up at around 11.20 pm Elizabeth had not returned to bed. When he went into the bathroom he found her submerged beneath the water. He tried to lift her out but did not have the strength to do so. Nevertheless, he held her head above the water until all the water had run out of the tub. He said he then tried artificial respiration by ‘pressing on her abdomen’ as he was unable to lift her from the bath. Only after this was unsuccessful did he run next door to his neighbours, who had a telephone, and ask them to call a doctor. The family doctor arrived 10 minutes later and found Elizabeth in the empty bath in a position simulating natural sleep. He did not touch her beyond ascertaining that she was dead. With such an unexpected de Continue reading >>

How To Humanely Kill A Rodent

How To Humanely Kill A Rodent

Edit Article Five Methods:Using Asphyxiation by CO2Killing it with Blunt Force Trauma to the HeadUsing Spring TrapsFiring a ProjectileThinking about your Options before ProceedingCommunity Q&A A rodent infestation at home can be a nuisance at best and a health hazard at worst. Killing a rodent can never be entirely humane, but you can take steps to cause as little suffering as possible. There are pertinent questions about legality, so you should check the law in your country or state before proceeding. Definitions of humane and cruel can vary, but there are some general principles to keep in mind. If you have a live rodent to dispose of, consider these humane options. These home methods are always less advisable than taking the animal to your local vet who has the training and experience that you don't. Continue reading >>

Venomous Animals Kill In Horrible Ways—and Also Cure

Venomous Animals Kill In Horrible Ways—and Also Cure

By Simon Worrall PUBLISHED September 18, 2016 What do Odysseus and TV wildlife expert Steve Irwin have in common? (Stingray barbs killed them both.) What is the most venomous creature in the world? (The Australian box jellyfish.) What does it feel like to get high on cobra venom? (Weird.) Could bee venom cure Lyme disease? (Possibly.) These are some of the fascinating stories Christie Wilcox tells in Venomous: How Earth's Deadliest Creatures Mastered Biochemistry. When National Geographic caught up with her by phone in Hawaii, she explained why the king cobra packs such a punch; how snakes may have helped our ancestors evolve bigger brains; and why the Gila monster’s venom may hold the key to the treatment of diabetes and even Alzheimer’s. [Find out about the medical potential of venom.] Let’s cut to the chase: What are the five most dangerous venomous creatures in the world? Oh, I love that question! [Laughs uproariously] You have to give snakes their due because overall snakes kill 90,000-plus people a year and disable countless more—though the sad fact is we don’t exactly know [how many] because a lot of these places are poor and don’t have medical systems that allow good reporting. The main places people are dying are Africa, Sri Lanka, India, and South America. In Africa there is a snake bite crisis because not only do they have deadly snakes that cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the only good antivenom we used to have is not being made anymore. At the top of the snake list is the king cobra. Compared to other snakes, their venom isn’t particularly potent, but they can inject massive volumes and they’re huge, seven-to-eight-foot-long snakes. Next, I would put the Australian box jellyfish because they can kill in less than five minutes. Continue reading >>

How To Euthanize A Dog Or Cat: Don't Try This At Home

How To Euthanize A Dog Or Cat: Don't Try This At Home

Twice in as many weeks I’ve been asked whether I would authorize the at-home euthanasia of a pet…with a household stash of controlled drugs. Both individuals asking are in the human medical profession. That’s why I’m guessing their query emerged out of (1) an expectation that a house call option was not available; and (2) an understanding that these things can be done at home by someone who knows what they’re doing. While wrong on number one (several vets in my area make themselves available for at-home euthanasias, including myself), they’d be right on number two — by referencing number one. Some things are best left to the healthcare providers who do it on a regular basis. Though it is indeed possible to usher your pet from this world on an overdose of oral barbiturates or expired oxycodone prescribed for your last surgery, you won’t catch me recommending it if someone asks me how to euthanize a dog or cat at home — even to my good friends (in fact, one of those asking about this possibility was a human doc and a friend). And it’s not just the legal angle here that makes me a naysayer when it comes to DIY home euthanasias — nor the money thing (in case you think me mercenary enough to protect my profession and its precious euthanasia income stream). What makes me nervous are the possibilities… Imagine what would happen if things didn’t go just right. Let’s say your cat refuses to take more than six of the pills and you’ve somehow calculated that twenty would be a sufficient dose. Let’s say he then has a hard time breathing and you can’t for the life of you get more into him now that he’s so stressed. That’s a nightmare scenario. Or how about the dog who throws up her load of (how many?) pills while you’re sitting around waiting Continue reading >>

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

Background Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is required for the body to function normally. Insulin is produced by cells in the pancreas, called the islets of Langerhans. These cells continuously release a small amount of insulin into the body, but they release surges of the hormone in response to a rise in the blood glucose level. Certain cells in the body change the food ingested into energy, or blood glucose, that cells can use. Every time a person eats, the blood glucose rises. Raised blood glucose triggers the cells in the islets of Langerhans to release the necessary amount of insulin. Insulin allows the blood glucose to be transported from the blood into the cells. Cells have an outer wall, called a membrane, that controls what enters and exits the cell. Researchers do not yet know exactly how insulin works, but they do know insulin binds to receptors on the cell's membrane. This activates a set of transport molecules so that glucose and proteins can enter the cell. The cells can then use the glucose as energy to carry out its functions. Once transported into the cell, the blood glucose level is returned to normal within hours. Without insulin, the blood glucose builds up in the blood and the cells are starved of their energy source. Some of the symptoms that may occur include fatigue, constant infections, blurred eye sight, numbness, tingling in the hands or legs, increased thirst, and slowed healing of bruises or cuts. The cells will begin to use fat, the energy source stored for emergencies. When this happens for too long a time the body produces ketones, chemicals produced by the liver. Ketones can poison and kill cells if they build up in the body over an extended period of time. This can lead to serious illne Continue reading >>

Insulin-degrading Enzyme Identified As A Candidate Diabetes Susceptibility Gene In Gk Rats

Insulin-degrading Enzyme Identified As A Candidate Diabetes Susceptibility Gene In Gk Rats

Genetic analysis of the diabetic GK rat has revealed several diabetes susceptibility loci. Congenic strains have been established for the major diabetes locus, Niddm1, by transfer of GK alleles onto the genome of the normoglycemic F344 rat. Niddm1 was dissected into two subloci, physically separated in the congenic strains Niddm1b and Niddm1i, each with at least one disease susceptibility gene. Here we have mapped Niddm1b to 1 cM by genetic and pathophysiological characterization of new congenic substrains for the locus. The gene encoding insulin-degrading enzyme (Ide) was located to this 1 cM region, and the two amino acid substitutions (H18R and A890V) identified in the GK allele reduced insulin-degrading activity by 31% in transfected cells. However, when the H18R and A890V variants were studied separately, no effects were observed, demonstrating a synergistic effect of the two variants on insulin degradation. No effect on insulin degradation was observed in cell lysates, indicating that the effect is coupled to receptor-mediated internalization of insulin. Congenic rats with the Ide GK allele displayed post-prandial hyperglycemia, reduced lipogenesis in fat cells, blunted insulin-stimulated glucose transmembrane uptake and reduced insulin degradation in isolated muscle. Analysis of additional rat strains demonstrated that the dysfunctional Ide allele was unique to GK. These data point to an important role for Ide in the diabetic phenotype in GK. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency (MIM 103050) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis characterized by the accumulation in body fluids of succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide (SAICA) riboside and succinyladenosine (S-Ado), the dephosphorylated derivatives of the two substrates of the enzyme. Because A Continue reading >>

Diet Coke Is Not Killing You

Diet Coke Is Not Killing You

As a time-honored Diet Coke lover, I’ve heard every reason why I should give up my delicious, crisp, delightfully caffeinated, aspartame-enriched beverage of choice: It’s giving me cancer. It’s as addictive as cocaine. It depletes nutrition from my body. According to a recent article in the New York Post, Diet Coke is definitely making me fat. If I give it up, my tastebuds will come to life, and my headaches will disappear. My bones will strengthen, and my attitude will even get better. My dog and my cat will start getting along. I’ll be able to hold warrior three, and I’ll finally understand why my most “spiritual” friends are addicted to Keeping Up With the Kardashians. If there was any truth to these claims, I probably should have sprouted a third nipple by now. But I haven’t even gotten one of those mega-zits that the internet attributes to this magical, calorie-free elixir. So what gives? What’s the truth, and what’s just a clickbait headline on a website with no scientific credibility? Let’s have a look at the most common claims about Diet Coke’s toxicity and then decide if you can safely drink one with a 3,000-calorie mega meal. Diet Coke deadens your taste buds I’ve seen this one floating around on a few listicles and natural blogs: Diet Coke kills your sense of taste. Either by virtue of its acidity levels or the artificial sweeteners, some chemical mischief causes your taste buds to not be able to taste food as well anymore. And when you quit the evil demon Diet Coke, food tastes like gossamer whispers once again. Too bad this isn’t even slightly true. People have reported anecdotally upon giving up diet soda that “naturally” sweet things like fruit taste sweeter to them, but that’s exactly how far the evidence goes; an anecdo Continue reading >>

Insulin Sensitivity And Glucose Tolerance Are Altered By Maintenance On A Ketogenic Diet

Insulin Sensitivity And Glucose Tolerance Are Altered By Maintenance On A Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that is used for a variety of health-related effects. This type of diet is effective at suppressing seizure activity in children with refractory epilepsy (1) and has perhaps more commonly been implemented as a dietary strategy by which weight maintenance or weight loss is the desired outcome. It has been demonstrated that restriction of dietary carbohydrates results in positive effects on cardiovascular parameters. Consuming this type of diet favorably affects body adiposity and improves features of metabolic syndrome in humans (2,3,4,5,6). Although studies evaluating the efficacy and metabolic effects of KDs have increased in recent years, the effects of macronutrient-controlled diets remain controversial in the literature. Insulin has potent short-term and long-term effects on energy intake and glucose homeostasis. In the short term, insulin release is cephalic; the brain initiates insulin secretion by directing messages through the vagus nerves to the pancreas as opposed to direct pancreatic stimulation of insulin-secreting cells. Cephalic insulin is most readily observed at the onset of a meal and consists of a short burst of insulin that is preabsorptive with regard to the ingested food. After consumption of a meal, insulin secretion increases and is sustained, because one of insulin’s roles is to prepare the body for the increase in glucose that accompanies food intake and to control the increased levels and use of glucose (7). In the long term, insulin’s role as an adiposity signal is well known, with increased plasma insulin levels resulting from increased body weight. Together, the short- and long-term effects of insulin allow for proper glucose homeostasis and assist in the regulation of body wei Continue reading >>

Probiotic Treats Diabetes In Rats, Could Lead To Human Remedy

Probiotic Treats Diabetes In Rats, Could Lead To Human Remedy

Imagine a pill that helps people control diabetes with the body’s own insulin to lower blood glucose levels. Cornell researchers have achieved this feat in rats by engineering human lactobacilli, a common gut bacteria, to secrete a protein that modifies intestinal cells to produce insulin. A 2003 study led by Atsushi Suzuki of the University of Tsukuba, Japan, first demonstrated that when exposed to a protein called Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), intestinal epithelial cells (which cover the guts) are converted into insulin-producing cells. But until now, it has not been possible to administer GLP-1 into a live animal without injecting it — a method of administration that is not very effective. Bypassing injections with a probiotic The researchers came up a clever way to secrete GLP-1 in the gut without injecting it: 1. They engineered a strain of lactobacillus, a human probiotic (“good bacteria”), to secrete GLP-1. 2. They administered the modified probiotic bacteria orally to diabetic rats for 90 days. 3. Upper intestinal epithelial cells in diabetic rats were converted into cells that acted very much like pancreatic cells (cells that monitor blood glucose levels and secrete insulin as needed to balance glucose levels in healthy individuals). 4. Rats with high blood glucose (called hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes) that received the engineered probiotic ended up with up to 30 percent lower blood glucose levels. A pill instead of an injection The rat study was a proof of principle; future work will test higher doses to see if a complete treatment can be achieved, said John March, professor of biological and environmental engineering in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the paper’s senior author. The technology is being licensed by the com Continue reading >>

Why High Fat Diet Studies On Rats And Mice Are Not To Be Trusted

Why High Fat Diet Studies On Rats And Mice Are Not To Be Trusted

Over the past year I have been wondering whether there is something deeply flawed about research into the effects of high fat diets on rats and mice, done presumably to clarify the effects on humans. The rodent work consistently tells us that high fat diets make you fat and diabetic, while research on humans finds they do the opposite. What is going on? The forty-year-old standard advice warning us off saturated fat is looking increasingly dated, even though experts in some quarters – looking at you Diabetes UK– still cling to it. But the world of the lab rat seems to exist in a parallel universe or in a time warp when low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet was widely believed to be the way to lose weight and stay healthy. So are the results telling us that the increasingly popular low carb high fat approach is wrong? That after all there’s no need for official bodies to perform a major U-turn? Not as far as I can tell. In fact it seems the rodent work is highly misleading. Not only are the so called ‘high fat diets’ they are fed nothing like the low carbohydrate diets any informed human would follow, but the animals have been selectively bred to ensure they become fat and diabetic on a high fat diet. This is not research, it is a rigged game. Low carbohydrate diet helps humans lose weight The confusion this fake research is (intentionally?) generating can be seen by comparing a couple of recent results from human studies with a couple from the labs. Here is a randomised controlled study published in 2014 in the Annals of Internal Medicine and involved 148 healthy men and women, who had their weight and various health biomarkers measured over a year. Half were on a standard low fat high carbs (LFHC) diet; the others were on a HFLC diet. The conclusion was that: Continue reading >>

Rat Model To Study Metabolic Syndrome

Rat Model To Study Metabolic Syndrome

But the rat that Abraham has nurtured in her molecular biology laboratory at the St Aloysius College, Mangalore, may serve as an animal model for a state of the body called metabolic syndrome, produced through a diet similar to human food habits. Metabolic syndrome in humans is marked by a confluence of multiple risk factors - obesity, insulin-resistance, high triglycerides and cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure - that raise the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and stroke. Scientists have for decades worked with animal models -mice, rats, among other animals - to study diabetes, obesity, and high lipid levels, developed by feeding the animals excessive fats at levels that humans would not typically consume or through drugs such as streptozocin that kill insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. But most existing animal models mimic one or a mix of two conditions, not the multiple conditions of metabolic syndrome. "Our rat displays three key features of metabolic syndrome - obesity, high triglycerides and cholesterol, and insulin-resistance," Abraham, head of the biotechnology department at the St Aloysius College, told The Telegraph. "This could be a new tool to study this condition." Abraham and research scholars in her department worked with Wistar rats - an albino rat that was first bred by The Wistar Institute in the US in 1906, the first rat to be used in research laboratories, and that has been used for biomedical research worldwide. They fed one group of Wistar rats what they call high-fat simple carbohydrate (HFSC) meals - 26 per cent carbohydrate, 60 per cent fat, and 14 per cent protein, and the other group normal laboratory diet and observed dramatic increases in the body weight and biochemistry of the rats fed on HFS Continue reading >>

Alleged

Alleged "inhumane" Euthanasia Via Insulin Overdose - Florida Vet Jay Butan Of Lake Worth -- "marley" Of "marley And Me's" Former Vet

"Marley and Me" is all the rage, but in some circles, it's sparking debate (because bloat, the condition for which Marley's owner had him euthanized, is TREATABLE in most cases and because their dealings with Marley's supposedly bad behavior, in the view of many, leave something to be desired). In Grogan's book, he apparently calls Butan, Marley's first vet, "the doctor of our dreams." Well, it seems that for at least one cat, and for a former colleague, Butan was the vet of their NIGHTMARES. "Marley's" first vet, Jay Butan, may not be such a great guy after all, no matter what author John Grogan says. As some readers may know, my own beloved Toonces was given an insulin overdose at his vets. I saw some of the aftermath of that insulin overdose, and it was horrible and heartbreaking -- nothing you would ever want to see a pet go through. Therefore, when I read about Florida Vet Jay Butan, I became convinced that he is a MONSTER right up there with the likes of Bill Baber. Let me describe to you what happens when an animal receives an insulin overdose -- before it dies, if it dies. First, the animal would experience: ". . . headache, irregular heartbeat, increased heart rate or pulse, sweating, tremor, nausea, increased hunger and anxiety . . ." With a massive overdose, this would progress to severe effects on the central nervous system, including hypokalemia, hypophospatemia, hypomagnesia, and hypothermia. As the brain is deprived of glucose it needs to function, the animal will experience seizures and coma. Death will not come quickly, easily, or even surely. However, "massive necrosis," to quote my Toonces' neurologist, may result. That means death of brain tissue. Does this sound like a humane method of trying to kill -- or euphemistically, "euthanize" -- a pet to yo Continue reading >>

15 Terrible Things That Happen If You Eat Too Much Sugar

15 Terrible Things That Happen If You Eat Too Much Sugar

David Paul Morris / Getty Images How much sugar is too much sugar? Even one pack of M&M's may be more than you should eat in a day, newly drafted guidelines from the World Health Organization suggest. The WHO used to recommend that you get no more than 10% of your daily calories from sugar, but now they're considering lowering that to 5%. For an average, healthy adult, that would mean 25 grams, or about six teaspoons of sugar per day. (That's a little less than what you'd get from 10 Hershey's Kisses. A single can of Coke has 39 grams of sugar.) A teaspoon of sugar in your coffee or a half cup of ice cream won't kill you — all things in moderation — but the average sugar intake in the U.S. is 22 teaspoons per person per day. That's almost four times as much as the WHO's new guidelines suggest is healthy. People have been sounding warnings about the dangers of too much sugar for a long time. As early as 1957, John Yudkin, a professor of nutrition at Queen Elizabeth College in London, began arguing that when it came to heart disease and other chronic ailments, sugar — not fat — was the culprit. So what happens if you eat too much sugar? Here's a depressing rundown. 1. Cavities Trust your dentist on this one: Sugar is such an enemy to dental health that one study way back in 1967 called it the "arch criminal" behind cavities. The connection between sugar and cavities is perhaps the best established. "Tooth decay occurs when the bacteria that line the teeth feed on simple sugars, creating acid that destroys enamel," Anahad O'Connor explains at The New York Times. Because acid is a key culprit, sour candies are especially nefarious. Source: Journal of the American Dental Association, 2009; ISRN Dentistry, 2013; International Dental Journal, 2013 2. Insatiable hunger Continue reading >>

Can Taking A Pill Before Bed Get Rid Of Bed Bugs?

Can Taking A Pill Before Bed Get Rid Of Bed Bugs?

Can you cure a bed bug infestation just by downing drugs? While the idea has appeal, particularly for people afflicted with nightly bites and for scientists dealing with a pest that is increasingly difficult to kill, the short answer is probably no. But before we get to the long answer, some background. Bloomberg recently reported on research from the Eastern Virginia Medical School which showed that ivermectin, an anti-parasite drug, was fatal to bed bugs (specifically, they used Merck's brand Stromectol. Merck was not involved in the study). The researchers presented the work at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and it is under review for formal publication in a medical journal. Play Video Play Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Remaining Time -0:00 This is a modal window. Foreground --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Opaque Background --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Window --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Font Size 50% 75% 100% 125% 150% 175% 200% 300% 400% Text Edge Style None Raised Depressed Uniform Dropshadow Font Family Default Monospace Serif Proportional Serif Monospace Sans-Serif Proportional Sans-Serif Casual Script Small Caps Defaults Done For now, here are the basics. The researchers ran three experiments on groups of bed bugs that included adults as well as young'uns in the third and fourth of the bugs' five growth stages (third and fourth instar nymphs). Different groups of bugs were fed ivermectin-laced mouse blood through an artificial membrane, directly from mice that had been injected with ivermectin, and on four people that had taken the drug orally. In all cases, to vary Continue reading >>

What Foods Are Dangerous For Rats To Eat?

What Foods Are Dangerous For Rats To Eat?

Although rats can and do eat almost everything, not all the foods we eat are safe for them. A small number of foods are toxic, while plenty of others can cause health problems. If your diet is a fairly healthy one, you can probably share a little of your meals with your pets with a few key exceptions. Drinks Contrary to popular belief, carbonated drinks are not lethal to rodents. If your rat steals a little of your soda -- very possible because rats love sweet things and are clever when it comes to taking things they aren’t supposed to -- there is no need to rush him to the vet. Nevertheless, soda and other sweetened drinks are not something you should give your rat, primarily because the sugar, caffeine and other additives are exceedingly unhealthy. The same goes for alcohol, which could be lethal in large quantities, but is more likely to just make your rat ill and contribute to an obesity problem. Toxic Foods Only a small number of human foods are toxic to rats. Top of the list is blue cheese, which could kill your pet. Others are licorice, poppy seeds and bitter almonds. Green potatoes are toxic to most animals, including you, and rats are just as vulnerable. The same goes for rhubarb leaves, and for rats, the stems are also hazardous. Dangerous Foods According to the Rat and Mouse Club of America, rats are sensitive to the fungi that grow on grains, especially corn, and peanuts. Should rats consume a lot of the chemicals produced by these fungi, they're likely to develop tumors. Citrus fruits and fruit juice, including oranges, grapefruits and lemons, can trigger kidney problems in male rats, although they are fine for females. Very sticky foods such as peanut butter are dangerous for a different reason; they can clog a rat’s jaws and even choke him. Unhealthy Continue reading >>

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