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Why Must Insulin Be Injected And Not Taken By Mouth

Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication)

"Insulin therapy" redirects here. For the psychiatric treatment, see Insulin shock therapy. Insulin is used as a medication to treat high blood sugar.[3] This includes in diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.[3] It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.[3] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows.[5] Human versions can be made either by modifying pig versions or recombinant technology.[5] It comes in three main types short–acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate–acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine).[5] Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.39 to $10.61 per 1,000 iu of regular insulin and $2.23 to $10.35 per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[8][9] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds.[5] Medical uses[edit] Giving insulin with an insulin pen. Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacid Continue reading >>

Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes: When, Why, And How

Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes: When, Why, And How

Blood sugar control is one of the most important parts of type 2 diabetes management. Although you may be able to treat the condition at first with oral medication and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss, most people with type 2 diabetes eventually need to take insulin by injection. "There are several scenarios in which insulin treatment should start, including in patients with significant hyperglycemia who are symptomatic," explained Alaleh Mazhari, DO, an associate professor of endocrinology at Loyola Medicine in Maywood, Illinois. "In these cases, the need for insulin may be short-term. Other situations include patients who are on multiple diabetic medications with uncontrolled diabetes, and uncontrolled diabetes in pregnancy, to name a few." Here's what you need to know about taking insulin in the short term and the long term. Insulin for Short-Term Blood Sugar Control Doctors use a blood test called a hemoglobin A1C test to measure average blood sugar control over a two- to three-month period. The treatment target for most people with diabetes is an A1C of 7 percent or less; those with higher levels may need a more intensive medication plan. "The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommends starting a person with type 2 diabetes on insulin if their A1C is above 9 percent and they have symptoms," said Mazhari. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include thirst, hunger, frequent urination, and weight loss. Research published in February 2013 in the journal The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology reviewed several studies that focused on the temporary use of insulin to restore sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes. The results showed that a two- to five-week course of short-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT) can induce remission in patients Continue reading >>

Are Injections More Effective Than Tablets?

Are Injections More Effective Than Tablets?

Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com There is a common belief among many people that injections are more effective than tablets. In fact, some patients will claim that they have not been treated if they are not given injections. These patients probably think that since injections are more painful then it means that they are more effective. However, the pain experienced by injections such as quinine is as a result of their high acidity or alkalinity and not due to their effectiveness. In order to understand best whether injections are more effective than tablets, it is paramount to address the reasons why certain medications are in form of injections while others are in tablet form. There are certain drugs which if given as tablets would be completely ineffective since they would be destroyed by the enzymes that digest food in the stomach. A good example is the insulin injection used in the treatment of diabetes. Insulin is a protein and therefore if given as tablet it would be digested by the same enzymes that digest meat (a protein) in the stomach. For this reason you will never come across insulin tablets. Similarly, certain drugs are also ineffective if given in an injection form except when given as tablets. This is because some drugs are only effective when in a solid form. Once formulated into an injectable liquid, they easily break down and lose their medicinal properties. To understand this better, let’s use an illustration of powdered milk. Powdered milk in solid form can last years, even without refrigeration while liquid milk may not last for three days in the open. To address this instability issue, some injections come as powders which have to b Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Make sure you know which type (or types) of insulin to use, how much to inject, and what time of day to use it. Each time you collect a prescription, check the container to make sure it is the right insulin for you. Store unopened insulin in a refrigerator until it is needed. In this article About insulin Type of medicine Insulin Used for Diabetes mellitus Also called Short-acting insulins Soluble insulin: Actrapid®, Humulin S®, Insuman® Rapid, Insuman® Infusat; Hypurin® Bovine Neutral, Hypurin® Porcine Neutral Insulin aspart: NovoRapid®; Fiasp® Insulin glulisine: Apidra® Insulin lispro: Humalog® Intermediate and long-acting insulins Insulin degludec: Tresiba®; Xultophy® (in combination with liraglutide) Insulin detemir: Levemir® Insulin glargine: Lantus®; Abasaglar®; Toujeo® Insulin zinc suspension: Hypurin® Bovine Lente Isophane insulin: Insulatard®, Humulin I®, Insuman® Basal, Hypurin® Bovine Isophane, Hypurin® Porcine Isophane Protamine zinc insulin: Hypurin® Bovine Protamine Zinc Biphasic insulins Biphasic insulin aspart: NovoMix® 30 Biphasic insulin lispro: Humalog® Mix25, Humalog® Mix50 Biphasic isophane insulin: Humulin M3®, Insuman® Comb 15, Insuman® Comb 25, Insuman® Comb 50, Hypurin® Porcine 30/70 Mix Available as Injection - as vials, cartridges and pre-filled pens Insulin is a hormone which is made naturally in your body, in the pancreas. It helps to control the levels of sugar (glucose) in your blood. If your body does not make enough insulin, or if it does not use the insulin it makes effectively, this results in the condition called sugar diabetes (diabetes mellitus). People with diabetes need treatment to control the amount of sugar in their blood. This is because good control of blood sugar levels reduces the risk of comp Continue reading >>

Insulin Injection

Insulin Injection

Insulin injection is used to control blood sugar in people who have type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not make insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the blood sugar is too high because the body does not produce or use insulin normally) that cannot be controlled with oral medications alone. Insulin injection is in a class of medications called hormones. Insulin injection is used to take the place of insulin that is normally produced by the body. It works by helping move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. It also stops the liver from producing more sugar. All of the types of insulin that are available work in this way. The types of insulin differ only in how quickly they begin to work and how long they continue to control blood sugar. Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. Using medication(s), making lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, quitting smoking), and regularly checking your blood sugar may help to manage your diabetes and improve your health. This therapy may also decrease your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes-related complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage (numb, cold legs or feet; decreased sexual ability in men and women), eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease. Your doctor and other healthcare providers will talk to you about the best way to manage your diabetes. Insulin comes as a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to be injected subcutaneousl Continue reading >>

Why Is Insulin Injected Instead Of Taken By Mouth?

Why Is Insulin Injected Instead Of Taken By Mouth?

Insulin cannot be taken orally because it would break down in the digestive process. Insulin is a poly-peptide protein, which can be broken down by enzymes in the digestive system. By the time it reaches the small intestine, where it is absorbed, it is only a single peptide and can no longer function as insulin. Besides the chemical reasons for not ingesting insulin, there are other reasons that have more to do with the management of diabetes. Why Injection Is Better Blood sugar levels are subject to great change throughout the day. What foods were consumed, exercise, stress, illness, even time of day – all of these impact glucose levels. If this were not so, there would be no need to monitor levels with a finger prick multiple times each day. Insulin is needed to ensure that glucose is properly utilized and that levels of glucose remain stable. In order to work properly, insulin must enter the bloodstream intact. By injecting it into the subcutaneous tissue in our bodies, it is designed to be absorbed into the bloodstream without changing its properties and within a proscribed amount of time. Insulin should not be injected directly into muscle or into the bloodstream, as both will increase the speed of absorption. How fast absorption happens is also a function of what type of insulin is being used: rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting, long-acting or a mix of some of these. Each is designed to be absorbed and active over certain time frames, in order to cope with different glucose control needs, like consuming a meal or sleeping all night. Possible New Alternatives There is active research to develop alternatives to injections. One of the most promising is inhaled insulin. There was an inhaled insulin product, Exubera, on the market for about a year betwee Continue reading >>

Oral Insulin Could Replace Injectable Forms

Oral Insulin Could Replace Injectable Forms

For many years, scientists have tried, and failed to create oral insulin to help patients with type 2 diabetes. The failure stems from the fact that insulin and GLP-1 are protein molecules, and if taken orally, they would be attacked by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to their breakdown. This is detrimental to the goal of these proteins, whose job it is to help convert glucose into energy. If the proteins did end up surviving, they would still have trouble passing through the wall of the intestine and entering the bloodstream. The problems did not end there. If scientists were to create and doctors were to prescribe the oral insulin, they would have to make sure it was not only created in the right amounts, but that it would stay in the blood for the right amount of time. While questions still remain about oral insulin, a company called Oramed recently announced a positive test relating to the safety and efficacy of its oral insulin pill. A double blind study of 180 adult type 2 patients who took the capsule showed a significant reduction, around 6.5%, of weighted night-time glucose. Additionally, the study showed that the drug had a good safety profile with no adverse side effects. Soon, more patients may look to oral insulin as an alternative to injectable insulin. Oral therapy can begin earlier, and patients do not have to spend time with a doctor learning how to properly inject the insulin. Prescription Discounts up to 75% off Oral vs. Injectable Insulin As oral insulin is still in development, type 2 diabetes patients still must use the injectable version of insulin. Many patients take the popular diabetes medication, Novolog, which can be injected into muscle tissue (your thighs, upper arm, stomach or buttocks) or administered by a doctor Continue reading >>

Insulin Vs. Metformin Treatment

Insulin Vs. Metformin Treatment

Diabetes affected 7.8 percent of the American population in 2007. Diabetes has several causes. Type 1 diabetes, previously called juvenile diabetes, caused by failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, affects 5 percent to 10 percent of people with diabetes, while Type 2 diabetes, previously called adult-onset diabetes, accounts for most of the rest, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Different drugs are used to treat diabetes, depending on the cause and severity of the disease. Insulin, an injectable medication, and metformin, an oral medication, have different actions. Video of the Day The purpose of both insulin and metformin is to lower blood glucose levels. Insulin injections replace the insulin your body can no longer make when the cells in the pancreas cease to function. Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic, which lowers blood glucose levels by decreasing the liver’s output of glucose. Metformin also increases insulin sensitivity, and improves not only blood glucose levels but also lipid levels and often results in weight loss. Of all diabetics, 14 percent take insulin only, 57 percent take oral medications only and 14 percent take a combination of both, the NIDDK reports. Oral hypoglycemics are used only in Type 2 diabetes, because Type 1 diabetics make little or no insulin, so reducing the glucose levels produced by the liver won’t reduce blood glucose levels. Without insulin, glucose can’t enter cells and remains in the bloodstream. While all Type 1 diabetics take insulin, some Type 2 diabetics also need insulin in addition or instead of oral hypoglycemics such as metformin. Insulin, which must be injected, comes in several forms and doses, and can have rapid or slow onset. Diarrhea, the most common side eff Continue reading >>

Oral Insulin (swallowed) And Rectal Insulin Suppository For Diabetics:

Oral Insulin (swallowed) And Rectal Insulin Suppository For Diabetics:

In Part I of this article, we discussed diabetes treatments and the dangers of alternative inhalation insulin delivery systems when used as a replacement for insulin shots.1,2 In recent times, we have seen the research we discussed supported. Pfizer Pharmaceuticals has reported six lung cancer cases resulting from the use of their FDA-approved Exubera, an inhalation insulin product. Pfizer consequently withdrew the drug from the market, taking a 2.5 billion-dollar loss.3,4 The FDA still has not withdrawn their approval. Pharmaceutical giants Amlyin and Eli Lilly have reported six deaths and 30 cases of pancreatitis resulting from the use of the anti-hypoglycemic agent Byetta (Exenatide: oral and injectable forms). These are good examples of the deadly adverse effects of newly introduced, FDA-approved anti-diabetic drugs. Fear of needles and a resistance to the inconvenience of administering insulin injections have created a burgeoning demand for alternative methods of treating diabetes. An apparent breakthrough arrived with the development of insulin inhalation preparations. While the FDA deemed this novel insulin preparation safe and effective, Pfizer, as mentioned, withdrew their inhalation insulin product after publication of our article detailing its dangers.1 Oral and nasal spray insulin preparations are not much different than inhalation insulin, which increases the incidence of cancers and other diseases, hence none of these preparations should be approved for public use. Given the inhalation insulin debacle, many research centers and pharmaceutical companies are now scrambling to find other alternative methods of delivery to replace painful subcutaneous insulin injections and help make diabetics more compliant. One out of every ten health care dollars spent in t Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin And Why Does It Need To Be Injected?

What Is Insulin And Why Does It Need To Be Injected?

Dear Diabetes Educator, My name is Lori and my doctor told me I have diabetes and need to take insulin. I don’t understand what insulin is and why I need to use a needle to inject it. I would like to take an insulin pill instead. Please explain this to me. Dear Lori, Thank you for your question. Insulin is a hormone made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans which is located in the pancreas. When you eat, the fats proteins and carbohydrates in our food is broken down to be used by our body. These substances are called macronutrients and are needed for growth and maintenance. The carbohydrates in our food are broken down to glucose as part of the digestion process. Glucose travels through the bloodstream to the cells in our body to be used as energy. To enter most cells, insulin is needed. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. When the body cannot make insulin or make enough insulin, it must be taken through injection. Pills that are used to help control diabetes are not insulin. These pills are to help the body use the insulin it already makes. The hormone insulin is made up of proteins that if taken by mouth is denatured by the digestive process. This would inactivate the insulin. Therefore, when the body can’t make insulin, it can’t be taken in pill form and at this time must be injected. *Please ask your physician and medical team for guidance in understanding the types of insulin you need and when and how much to take. You should also learn how to properly inject your insulin. Ask your doctor if you can see a diabetes educator to learn all about insulin and other aspects of taking care of your diabetes. Continue reading >>

Injecting Insulin

Injecting Insulin

Tweet Injecting insulin is an essential part of the daily regime for many diabetics. Although insulin that can be inhaled is now available and approved, the reality is that most type 1 diabetics (and type 2 diabetics who require insulin) will have to continue injecting insulin until it is more common. Does injecting insulin hurt? Needle technology for insulin injection has become much better in recent years, meaning that the injection process, although not pain-free, does not hurt as much as it used to. Many patients still find injecting insulin to manage their diabetes an unpleasant process, however. Is injecting insulin and having diabetes going to change my life? Unfortunately, having diabetes does lead to lifestyle complications. For insulin therapy to be effective, it is necessary to make certain lifestyle changes. These should include: eating healthily exercising regularly testing blood glucose regularly and following a strict insulin regimen Although adhering to all these changes does influence your daily routine, the benefits for diabetics are enormous. Into what part of my body should I inject insulin to best help my diabetes? The abdomen is the most common site for injecting insulin. For some people, this site is not suitable, and other sites must be used. These include the upper arms, the upper buttocks and the outside of the thigh. All of these sites are most effective because they have a layer of fat to absorb the insulin better. This process directly injects insulin into the subcutaneous tissue. These areas also have fewer nerve endings, meaning that they are the least painful areas in which to inject. Should I switch the site where I inject insulin? Your healthcare team should be able to help you to decided the best places to inject insulin, when you shou Continue reading >>

Can Dogs With Diabetes Be Treated Without Insulin Injections?

Can Dogs With Diabetes Be Treated Without Insulin Injections?

In almost all cases of canine diabetes, insulin is the recommended treatment. Insulin must be injected and often needs to be given twice daily. However, many dog owners are less than enthusiastic about the thought of giving their dog insulin injections. If you are one of those people who do not like the thought of administering insulin to your dog, you may be wondering if there are other options available for treating your diabetic dog. Are Options Other than Insulin Available for Dogs with Diabetes? Unfortunately, other options for treating diabetes in dogs have proven to be less than successful. At one time, there was hope that the oral hyperglycemic agents that act to lower blood glucose when given by mouth would be useful in treating diabetic dogs. That has not proven to be the case in most instances. Reasons Why Insulin Is the Best Treatment for Diabetic Dogs The primary reason that insulin is the best treatment for canine diabetes is the fact that dogs with diabetes almost always suffer from insulin-dependent diabetes. This means that the cells in the pancreas that normally secrete insulin are no longer functional and the pancreas can no longer secrete insulin in quantities sufficient to regulate your diabetic dog's blood glucose levels. This differs from feline diabetes because, especially early in the disease, cats may suffer from non-insulin dependent diabetes, meaning that their pancreas still retains some ability to secrete insulin. Because some insulin-secreting ability exists for these cats, oral hypoglycemic products may (or may not) be effective. However, in dogs, these products do not work well because the canine diabetic pancreas simply cannot rally to secrete insulin. So, in most cases of canine diabetes, insulin is a necessary part of treatment. In fa Continue reading >>

12 Myths About Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes

12 Myths About Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin facts vs. fiction When you hear the word “insulin,” do you picture giant needles (ouch!) or pop culture portrayals of insulin users with low blood sugar (like Julia Roberts losing it in Steel Magnolias)? Either way, most people think of insulin as a difficult, painful, or potentially scary medical treatment. The problem is that if you have type 2 diabetes, you need to know the real deal before you can make an informed choice about whether or not this potentially lifesaving therapy is right for you. Here, we take a look at the facts and fiction about insulin when it comes to treating type 2 diabetes. Diabetics always need insulin Not necessarily. People with type 1 diabetes (about 5% to 10% of diabetics) do need insulin. If you have type 2, which includes 90% to 95% of all people with diabetes, you may not need insulin. Of adults with diabetes, only 14% use insulin, 13% use insulin and oral medication, 57% take oral medication only, and 16% control blood sugar with diet and exercise alone, according to the CDC. The point is to get blood sugar—which can be a highly toxic poison in the body—into the safe zone by any means necessary. Taking insulin means you’ve ‘failed’ “This is a big myth,” says Jill Crandall, MD, professor of clinical medicine and director of the diabetes clinical trial unit at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in the Bronx, N.Y. “Many people who try very hard to adhere to a diet, exercise, and lose weight will still need insulin.” The fact is that type 2 diabetes is a progressive illness, meaning that over time you may need to change what you do to make sure your blood sugar is in a healthy range. Eating right and exercise will always be important, but medication needs can vary. “A large percentage of people with ty Continue reading >>

Facts About Insulin Treatment

Facts About Insulin Treatment

Insulin is an essential hormone. Without it, the body cannot control or properly use glucose (sugar) – one of its main energy supplying fuels. How does insulin help diabetes? People with type 1 diabetes produce inadequate amounts of insulin, so insulin replacement is their key treatment. Without adequate insulin replacement, people with type 1 diabetes will see their blood sugar levels rise and the body will start to burn up its fat stores. In a few days this leads to a condition called diabetic acidosis, which is life threatening. Too much insulin, on the other hand, leads to such low levels of blood sugar that it causes a condition called hypoglycaemia. The symptoms include paleness, shaking, shivering, perspiration, rapid heartbeat, hunger, anxiety and blurred vision. In some cases it can cause loss of consciousness (hypoglycaemic coma) and convulsions. In type 2 diabetes the problem is not a lack of insulin output, but increasing resistance of your cells to the effects of insulin. In the early years, the body compensates for this insulin resistance by increasing the output of insulin from the pancreas gland. Ultimately, the pancreas becomes unable to cope. About 30 per cent of people with type 2 diabetes eventually need treatment with insulin. The longer a person has type 2 diabetes, the more likely they will have to start insulin treatment at some point. There are four main kinds of injectable insulin. The type of insulin you use will depend on your individual needs and lifestyle. Rapid-acting insulin analogues start working within 10 or 15 minutes and last between 2 to 4 hours. Examples are insulin aspart, insulin aspart and insulin glulisine. Short-acting insulin, eg Actrapid: soluble insulin starts working within 30 to 60 minutes and lasts six to eight hours. Continue reading >>

Description And Brand Names

Description And Brand Names

Drug information provided by: Micromedex Descriptions Insulin is one of many hormones that helps the body turn the food we eat into energy. Also, insulin helps us store energy that we can use later. After we eat, insulin works by causing sugar (glucose) to go from the blood into our body's cells to make fat, sugar, and protein. When we need more energy between meals, insulin will help us use the fat, sugar, and protein that we have stored. This occurs whether we make our own insulin in the pancreas gland or take it by injection. Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) is a condition in which the body does not make enough insulin to meet its needs or does not properly use the insulin it makes. Without insulin, glucose cannot get into the body's cells. Without glucose, the cells will not work properly. To work properly, the amount of insulin you use must be balanced against the amount and type of food you eat and the amount of exercise you do. If you change your diet, your exercise, or both without changing your insulin dose, your blood glucose level can drop too low or rise too high. A prescription is not necessary to purchase most insulin. However, your doctor must first determine your insulin needs and provide you with special instructions for control of your diabetes Insulin can be obtained from beef or pork pancreas glands. Another type of insulin that you may use is called human insulin. It is just like the insulin made by humans but it is made by methods called semi-synthetic or recombinant DNA. All types of insulin must be injected because, if taken by mouth, insulin is destroyed in the stomach. Insulin is available only with your doctor's prescription. Copyright © 2018 Truven Health Analytics Inc. All rights reserved. Information is for End User's use only and may no Continue reading >>

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