Why Is Chemotherapy Used To Treat Cancer?
I'm going to go from memory, but i'm citing as my source my interpretation of what can be read in more detail in "The Emperor of All Maladies", a book that you should take the time to read if this question is of real interest. David Chan's answer to Why is chemotherapy used to treat cancer? is a good start, but I think his ontological reason is "because it works", and I think we know more than that. Some narrative requires some storytelling: I deliberately skip over mustard gas chemotherapies because their use was luck/chance, not theory driven (I dub it "modern", could have used "scientific") practice. The modern practice of chemotherapy finds its roots with Sidney Farber (of Dana Farber Cancer Institute fame) and Yellapragada Subbaro. Their insight, iirc, was that for certain types of leukemia, the white blood cells were growing out of control- instead of red blood, they had pinkish fluid as the abundance of WBC overwhelmed everything else. Since folic acid is required for growth and development, he began trying to create a series of "anti-folate" drugs- drugs that looked like folic acid but actually turned off or down-regulated the signaling. One kind of approach is called non-competitive inhibition, and is why, as a simple example, cyanide kills you: the cyanide binds to cytochrome enzyme, which is produced in the mitochondria and is essential to consuming oxygen and food to produce energy for the body. (Phosgene-derivative chemotherapies are non-competitive and irreversible. ) Anti-folates are competitive inhibitors- that is, they don't shut it down completely, but compete for the binding of folic acid, except that when they bind, they fail to do the signaling that folic acid would help. Folic acid, a vitamin. Source: Methotrexate, a chemotherapy agent. If you look Continue reading >>
Hyperkalemia In Emergency Medicine
Practice Essentials Hyperkalemia can be difficult to diagnose clinically because symptoms may be vague or absent. The fact, however, that hyperkalemia can lead to sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias requires that physicians be quick to consider hyperkalemia in patients who are at risk for it. See the electrocardiogram below. See also Can't-Miss ECG Findings, Life-Threatening Conditions: Slideshow, a Critical Images slideshow, to help recognize the conditions shown in various tracings. Signs and symptoms Patients with hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic, or they may report the following symptoms (cardiac and neurologic symptoms predominate): Evaluation of vital signs is essential for determining the patient’s hemodynamic stability and the presence of cardiac arrhythmias related to hyperkalemia.  Additional important components of the physical exam may include the following: Signs of renal failure, such as edema, skin changes, and dialysis sites, may be present Signs of trauma may indicate that the patient has rhabdomyolysis, which is one cause of hyperkalemia See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Laboratory studies The following lab studies can be used in the diagnosis of hyperkalemia: Potassium level: The relationship between serum potassium level and symptoms is not consistent; for example, patients with a chronically elevated potassium level may be asymptomatic at much higher levels than other patients; the rapidity of change in the potassium level influences the symptoms observed at various potassium levels Calcium level: If the patient has renal failure (because hypocalcemia can exacerbate cardiac rhythm disturbances) Urinalysis: To look for evidence of glomerulonephritis if signs of renal insufficiency without a known cause are present Cortisol a Continue reading >>
Why Is Diazepam Used To Treat Anxiety Disorders?
It is a GABA agonist like alcohol and relieves anxiety generated in the faulty right brain, it is especially effective for people with loud minds or conscious anxiety it usually puts people with quiet anxiety or subconscious anxiety to sleep. I used if for years until I abused it and it stopped working which is common, now I practice EGMi reducing right brain use this is much more effective with no side effects. Continue reading >>
Is It Possible To Treat Insulin Resistance?
Yes. The reason you are insulin resistant because you are drowning your body in blood sugar for most of the day forcing insulin to be pumped out all the time in high doses and sometimes in very large spikes (like for addressing refined carbs). I reduced my fasting insulin to the very low end of the normal range using these 5 techniques: Diet. Your food choice as the #1 most important thing. Ditch the refined carbs, added fructose. Lower your carb %, increase fat %. Ditch the fruit juices, added sugars, etc. Eat real foods (not man-made processed foods which add sugar and remove fiber) as much as possible → these won’t spike your blood sugar so less insulin needed, and no more insulin peaks. Intermittent fasting (8 hour eating window; 16 hour fast) → 10 hours per day where insulin is at the lowest giving body recovery time. Workout intensely while fasted (weightlifting or HIIT). This will make muscles more insulin sensitive, requiring less insulin. Lower your body fat %. Eat at a 20% caloric deficit consistently to lower your body fat %. Much more than that, will sacrifice a proportionately more lean mass. Also, losing belly fat is particularly helpful as fat around the liver appears to cause insulin resistance. See Steve Kirsch's answer to Why is belly fat so hard to lose in adults? Check your testosterone levels. Low testosterone levels may predispose to visceral obesity, leading to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism, which in turn promotes insulin resistance. Low T may be caused by too much belly fat (it’s a vicious cycle). These techniques are not the only things that impact insulin resistance, but are probably going to be very helpful for most people. Basically, you keep your blood sugar low (or lower) at all times, which does 3 key things: lowers the to Continue reading >>
What Is The Molecular Mechanism For Insulin To Treat Insulin Resistance Even At A Severe State?
I can't give you a molecular answer, because I am not a biologist nor an endocrinologist. But I am the next-best thing: A type 1 diabetic. Like most type 1 diabetics you'll encounter, I have been forced into the position of becoming more knowlegeable about the endocrine system than the average person. You'll forgive me if some of what I am about to write isn't perfect. It's what I currently understand as of today. Injecting insulin does not improve insulin resistance at all. What it does is it makes up the insulin "shortfall" caused by the insulin resistance. It helps the type 2 diabetic avoid some of the terrible complications associated with persistent high blood sugar. So, insulin therapy is not a cure for type 2 diabetes at all, it is simply a way to avoid complications. But, there is some evidence to suggest that injecting insulin can help a type 2 diabetic preserve beta cell functionality. (Beta cells are the pancreatic cells responsible for insulin production.) If one's beta cells are constantly under the strain of excessive insulin production, eventually they will fail and then even the type 2 diabetic will have something like type 1 diabetes. That's not good. So please, take your insulin. It is possible for a type 2 diabetic to work hard enough that s/he can go off of insulin therapy. In order to accomplish this, the type 2 diabetic must radically change his or her diet, lose weight, and increase insulin sensitivity. The truth is, this should be the goal of every type 2 diabetic. It is possible to completely cure yourself - no more insulin, no more metformin, no more Januvia, no more nothing. But this will require you to work out diligently, manage your diet like a mad scientist, and above all, preserve the functionality of your beta cells. You can see how impo Continue reading >>
- A vegan diet could prevent, treat and even reverse type 2 diabetes, say leading experts this Diabetes Week (12-18 June).
- Resistance Training for Diabetes Prevention and Therapy: Experimental Findings and Molecular Mechanisms
- Predicting severe liver disease: Obesity, insulin, diabetes, cholesterol, alcohol