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Why Are Insulin Injections Needed

My Coworker Administers His Insulin Injections At His Desk Or At The Lunch Table In Front Of Everyone. Is It Appropriate?

My Coworker Administers His Insulin Injections At His Desk Or At The Lunch Table In Front Of Everyone. Is It Appropriate?

This is what keeps him alive every day. It is no different from taking a pill. “I find it extremely gross and I don’t understand why he feels the need to do this in front of everyone: ”I find your judgmental comment rather disgraceful. It demonstrates an astounding lack of empathy and compassion. Maybe “despicable” rather than “disgraceful” is a better word, actually. My son, who is 12, is a Type 1 diabetic (T1D). When at the restaurant, I encourage him to inject insulin at the table rather than in the bathroom, where hygiene could contaminate his diabetes gear. I tell him that he should never worry about doing what he needs to do for diabetes management in public, and that he should never take into account feedback from people like you who have a problem with it. After all, it’s only his life we are talking about. If what he does convinces people like you to forsake the restaurants we eat at, I would find it a positive development. Someday you may develop diabetes too — 1/3 of the US population today will. I am curious to see what you’ll say then. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

The young people we talked to tell us what it is like to inject insulin every day, the problems they've had and how they've coped with them. Where and how to inject Young people are taught by specialist diabetes nurses and doctors how and where to inject. Arms, legs and the stomach are all parts of the body recommended for injection. Most people said that their preferred place was the stomach. But they also said that it's important to vary the place where they inject, over a wide area. They said that injecting in the same place can cause lumps or other changes, called hyperlipotrophy, to develop under the skin. Your healthcare team can teach you how to recognise these changes. Injecting into the areas that have developed this problem is usually completely painless but the insulin may then be absorbed unevenly, which makes blood sugar much harder to control. Some young people who were small children when diagnosed said that they have grown up with doing daily injections and thought it was normal. Other children were scared of needles at first and their parents had to inject them, to begin with. Young people have different opinions as to whether insulin injections hurt or not. Some said that the needles they use are so thin that they don't feel it, but others said it depends on how relaxed and comfortable they are at the time of the injection. Several young people commented that it's much easier and painless to do the injections themselves because they know their own body. Most young people said that it is down to practice and that 'practice makes it perfect'. The people we talked to said that doing their own injections made them feel in control and gave them a feeling of independence. Getting used to injecting everyday It could take a long time to get used to injecting e Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 2 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas (an organ in the abdomen) produces insufficient amounts of the hormone insulin and/or the body's tissues become resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin. This causes high blood glucose (sugar) levels, which can lead to a number of complications if untreated. People with type 2 diabetes require regular monitoring and ongoing treatment to maintain normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Treatment includes lifestyle adjustments, self-care measures, and medications, which can minimize the risk of diabetes-related and cardiovascular complications (eg, heart attacks and strokes). Learning to manage diabetes is a process that continues over a lifetime. The diagnosis of diabetes can be overwhelming at the beginning; however, most people are able to lead normal lives, and many patients become experts in their own care. This topic review discusses the role of insulin in blood sugar control for patients with type 2 diabetes. Separate topic reviews about other aspects of type 2 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Alcohol, exercise, and medical care (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Preventing complications in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL IN TYPE 2 DIABETES Keeping blood sugar levels in control is one way to decrease the risk of complications related to type 2 diabetes. The most common complication of type 2 diabetes is heart d Continue reading >>

Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes: What You Should Know

Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes: What You Should Know

Insulin and Type 2 Diabetes If your health care provider offered you a medication to help you feel better and get your blood sugar under control, would you try it? If so, you might be ready to start taking insulin. Does insulin immediately make you think of type 1 diabetes? Think again. Between 30 and 40 percent of people with type 2 diabetes take insulin. In fact, there are more people with type 2 diabetes who take insulin than type 1 because of the much larger number of people with type 2. Experts believe even more people with type 2 should be taking insulin to control blood sugar -- and the earlier, the better. With an increase in people developing type 2 at a younger age and living longer, more and more people with type 2 will likely be taking insulin. "If you live long enough with type 2 diabetes, odds are good you'll eventually need insulin," says William Polonsky, Ph.D., CDE, associate clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego; founder and president of the Behavioral Diabetes Institute; and author of Diabetes Burnout: What to Do When You Can't Take It Anymore (American Diabetes Association, 1999). Producing Less Insulin Naturally Over Time Research has shown that type 2 diabetes progresses as the ability of the body’s pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin dwindles over time. Your beta cells -- the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin -- slowly lose function. Experts believe that by the time you're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you've already lost 50-80 percent of your beta cell function and perhaps the number of beta cells you had. And the loss continues over the years. "About six years after being diagnosed, most people have about a quarter of their beta cell function left," says Anthony McCall, M.D., Ph.D., endocri Continue reading >>

Diabetes: How To Use Insulin

Diabetes: How To Use Insulin

Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website. What is insulin, and why do I need it? Insulin is a hormone that controls the level of blood sugar (also called glucose) in your body. People with diabetes may not have enough insulin or may not be able to use it properly. The sugar builds up in the blood and overflows into the urine, passing out of your body unused. Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause serious health problems. All people with type 1 diabetes, and some people with type 2 diabetes, need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. (The box below lists the different types of insulin.) The goal in treating diabetes is to keep the blood sugar level within a normal range. Do I need to monitor my blood sugar level? Yes. You need to check your blood sugar level regularly using a blood glucose monitor. Your doctor or the office staff can teach you how to use the monitor. You'll need to write down each measurement and show this record to your doctor, so your doctor can tell you how much insulin to take. How often will I need to take insulin? Your doctor will give you a schedule. Most people with diabetes need at least 2 insulin shots a day. Some people need 3 or 4 shots for good blood sugar control. When should I take insulin? If you take Regular insulin or a longer-acting insulin, you should generally take it 15 to 30 minutes before a meal. If you take insulin lispro (brand name: Humalog), which works very quickly, you should generally take it less than 15 minutes before you eat. What is different Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin And Why Does It Need To Be Injected?

What Is Insulin And Why Does It Need To Be Injected?

Dear Diabetes Educator, My name is Lori and my doctor told me I have diabetes and need to take insulin. I don’t understand what insulin is and why I need to use a needle to inject it. I would like to take an insulin pill instead. Please explain this to me. Dear Lori, Thank you for your question. Insulin is a hormone made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans which is located in the pancreas. When you eat, the fats proteins and carbohydrates in our food is broken down to be used by our body. These substances are called macronutrients and are needed for growth and maintenance. The carbohydrates in our food are broken down to glucose as part of the digestion process. Glucose travels through the bloodstream to the cells in our body to be used as energy. To enter most cells, insulin is needed. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. When the body cannot make insulin or make enough insulin, it must be taken through injection. Pills that are used to help control diabetes are not insulin. These pills are to help the body use the insulin it already makes. The hormone insulin is made up of proteins that if taken by mouth is denatured by the digestive process. This would inactivate the insulin. Therefore, when the body can’t make insulin, it can’t be taken in pill form and at this time must be injected. *Please ask your physician and medical team for guidance in understanding the types of insulin you need and when and how much to take. You should also learn how to properly inject your insulin. Ask your doctor if you can see a diabetes educator to learn all about insulin and other aspects of taking care of your diabetes. Continue reading >>

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. In people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin as the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by an autoimmune reaction in the body. Insulin replacement by daily injections is required. In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. To compensate the body makes more but eventually cannot make enough to keep the balance right. Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. When insulin is required, it is important to understand that this is just the natural progression of the condition. RMIT University have produced a short overview of insulin, a drug that keeps in excess of one million Australians alive. Watch the video to understand why insulin is important and why so many Australians rely on it to stay alive. Copyright © 2015 RMIT University, Prepared by the School of Applied Sciences (Discipline of Chemistry). At this stage, insulin can only be injected. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as it would be destroyed in the stomach, meaning it would not be available to convert glucose into energy. Insulin is injected through the skin into the fatty tissue known as the subcutaneous layer. You do not inject it into muscle or directly into the blood. Absorption of insulin varies depending on the part of the body into which you inject. The tummy (abdomen) absorbs insulin the fastest and is the site used by most people. The buttocks and thighs are also used by some people. While i Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin And Why Do Some Diabetics Need To Take It?

What Is Insulin And Why Do Some Diabetics Need To Take It?

Question: What is insulin and why do some diabetics need to take it? Answer: Insulin is a hormone. It's made by certain cells in the pancreas, which are called the beta cells of the pancreas, and the beta cells from the pancreas are part of these little islets called the Islets of Langerhans. That's where insulin normally comes from, and in type 2 diabetes there is always some insulin coming out from those beta cells; in type 1 diabetes, you tend to lose the beta cells and make no insulin. Since 1921 or so, though, insulin has been available as a pharmacologic approach, so you can take insulin by injection, and you can replace what's not being made in the pancreas. Who needs insulin? Well, it really is two situations. First of all, in type 1 diabetes, insulin is always necessary because the beta cells in the pancreas are not making any insulin. So, people with type 1 or juvenile onset diabetes always need insulin injections. In type 2 diabetes, you may also need insulin if your pancreas has sort of worn out to the point that it's not making anywhere near enough insulin, and you do need insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes often can be treated by different pills that might improve the insulin release by the pancreas or improve the response of the body to insulin, but eventually even type 2 diabetes may simply not be making, the pancreas may not be making enough insulin, and the person may need insulin by injection. Next: What Causes Diabetes? Previous: What Is Gestational Diabetes And Can It Hurt My Baby? Continue reading >>

How Many Kids With Type Two Diabetes In The United States Need To Give Insulin Injections For Treatment?

How Many Kids With Type Two Diabetes In The United States Need To Give Insulin Injections For Treatment?

The answer to this question depends on what population group you are talking about. But Native Americans, African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Latinos are especially vulnerable to the disease. So their children are 3.5 and 6.1 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Doctors at a Southern California diabetes clinic recently reported that 31 percent of Mexican-American children had type 2 diabetes. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children: Unlike children with type 1 diabetes, those with type 2 usually don't need insulin shots to control their blood sugar levels, if their hemoglobin A1C is less than 7%. Their pancreas produces ample amounts of insulin to process sugar and fat. They just have to eat fewer calories, cut back on fats and sugars, and get more exercise. Unfortunately their parents are often type 2 diabetics and their lifestyle likely is not the best, so they are poor role models. There is one exception to this rule: if hemoglobin A1C in the blood is above 8.5%. This means the child had diabetes for some time and there is a danger of a deranged metabolism with ketosis developing. These children have to be hospitalized and insulin is given intravenously by a slow drip. Once ketosis has stopped, the physician will switch the treatment to lifestyle changes and metformin (=oral diabetic medicine). Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in Youth Answer to your question: Type 2 diabetes in children does not normally require insulin injections. It is treated with dietary intervention, exercise and weight loss. Sometimes metformin is used as well, a diabetic medication. In type 1 diabetes where the child is insulin deficient, insulin injections are mandatory. The only exception for type 2 diabetic kids as explained before is a severe case of type 2 di Continue reading >>

Which Places On The Human Body Do People Need To Get Injected In Case A Person Ever Needs To Inject (antidote Or Insulin) Someone But Don't Know How?

Which Places On The Human Body Do People Need To Get Injected In Case A Person Ever Needs To Inject (antidote Or Insulin) Someone But Don't Know How?

PLEASE DO NOT EVER CONSIDER STICKING A HYPODERMIC NEEDLE INTO SOMEONE IF YOU DON'T HAVE THE QUALIFICATIONS. The only possible exception to this rule is using an Epipen™ on a rapidly collapsing victim of allergic anaphylactic shock — the patient will usually be feebly trying to administer the injection for themselves and will be grateful for your help — it doesn't really matter where you stick it … well, it does but we have to hope you don't think an eyeball or kneecap is a good place. Seriously. DON'T even think about injecting people with drugs. Call for EMTs or paramedics. Continue reading >>

The Truth About Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes

The Truth About Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes

Most people associate taking insulin with type 1 diabetes. However, some people with type 2 diabetes also need to take insulin. We talked with Andrea Penney, RN, CDE, Joslin Diabetes Center, to find out the truth about insulin and type 2 diabetes. Why would someone with type 2 diabetes who has been controlling their diabetes with diet and exercise need to start taking insulin? There are several reasons why someone would require insulin, even if they hadn’t needed it before. Temporary insulin usage– Some people need to take insulin for a short amount of time, because of things like pregnancy, surgery, broken bones, cancer, or steroidal medicines (like Prednisone). Permanent insulin usage - Sometimes the pancreas becomes unable to produce enough insulin. This happens frequently with aging. People can also become insulin resistant due to weight gain or chronic emotional or physical stress. Simply put, pills can no longer control diabetes. So, it’s not usually “bad” behavior that would cause someone to start insulin? Correct. However, non adherence to diet and exercise might result in high blood glucose levels that only insulin can control. Is insulin dosage different for someone who has type 2 rather than type 1? The doses will vary; either type may require very little or a lot of medication. It depends on weight, eating habits, exercise levels, existence of other illnesses and level of insulin resistance. Can someone start taking insulin and then not need to take it anymore? Absolutely! But only for those with type 2 diabetes. Often weight reduction and /or exercise can allow insulin to be stopped. Also, if any of the temporary situations listed above resolve, insulin might be stopped. Continue reading >>

Do You Worry About Getting Insulin Shots For Type 2 Diabetes?

Do You Worry About Getting Insulin Shots For Type 2 Diabetes?

When your doctor says you have type 2 diabetes, you may worry about getting shots of insulin to control the disease. But that’s seldom the first step, and some people don’t need insulin for years — or ever. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin, as the body is unable to use it properly. Without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels rise. High blood glucose levels can damage your organs, including blood vessels, nerves, kidneys and eyes. But with lifestyle changes and medications, many people are staying healthier longer with type 2 diabetes. Endocrinologist Richard Shewbridge, MD, says there is lot you can do to live well with diabetes. What’s behind type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes develops because the body becomes resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas to turn blood sugar into energy. “Type 2 diabetes means the process to turn food into energy isn’t working as well,” says Dr. Shewbridge. Poor choices in diet and lack of exercise work to worsen insulin resistance, he says. And genetics can play a role, too. Additionally, people with type 2 diabetes tend to make less and less insulin over time and that causes a rise in blood sugar after meals. The role of eating right and exercising Many people with type 2 diabetes aren’t put on medication right away. Your doctor will likely suggest changes in your eating and exercise habits first. “Once someone is put on medication, they may need it for the rest of their life. But, they also can treat diabetes with a healthy lifestyle and exercise,” says Dr. Shewbridge. Healthier eating habits are a good place to start. “Cut out simple sugars. Eat less starchy bread, pasta, noodles and cereal. These foods don’t necessarily taste sweet, but they break down Continue reading >>

Painful Insulin Injections May Be A Thing Of The Past

Painful Insulin Injections May Be A Thing Of The Past

One of the biggest complaints of those diagnosed with diabetes or fear of those who have heard their doctor’s mention ‘insulin’ is the pain associated with the injections. For millions of people worldwide with diabetes, these painful injections may be a thing of the past soon. This is all possible thanks to an innovative invention from the researches at the University of NC State and North Carolina. What have they created to make these injections go away? An Invention that May Save Lives There are many type 2 patients who refuse an insulin treatment regime simply because they do not want to give themselves insulin injections. Whether they are afraid of needles or simply do not want to deal with the pain that comes along with them, this new invention could literally save their lives. They have designed a smart insulin patch that will detect any increase in blood sugar and then secretes a dose of insulin into their bloodstream when it is needed. This amazing device is no bigger than that of a penny and on it has hundreds of teeny tiny needles that are only the size of an eyelash. These needles are known as microneedles. I recommend reading the following articles: These microneedles really make the world of a difference. They have microscopic storage for units of insulin and the glucose sensing enzymes which will release when blood sugar levels get to be too high. The study conducted had found that this painless little patch was able to lower the blood sugar levels in the mice subjects who had type 1 diabetes for up to nine hours. There is more clinical testing needed and then clinical trials for humans will be required before the patch can be used on patients, but it’s definitely something that is showing wonderful promise for those with diabetes. Removing Human E Continue reading >>

Why Can't G6pd-deficient Patients Be Given G6pd Injections, In The Same Manner That Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Treated Using Insulin Injections?

Why Can't G6pd-deficient Patients Be Given G6pd Injections, In The Same Manner That Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Treated Using Insulin Injections?

Insulin, a hormone, binds to a receptor on the cell membrane (so outside the cell) to have its effect, no need to enter the cell. G6PD is an enzyme, which can be found inside the cell in the Cytosol, so even if we were able to produce enough G6PD to administer it to a patient, it would end up outside the cell, so not in the place where it is needed to do its work, therefore as yet not possible. In short, it's because G6PD acts intracellularly (inside cells), while insulin's method of action is extracellular. Insulin is produced and secreted by cells in your pancreas into the bloodstream where it can travel to the tissues where it is needed, like muscle and fat. It binds to surface receptors on those cells, causing a signaling cascade that directs the cell to take up glucose. G6PD, however is needed within each cell, particularly red blood cells, since it is an enzyme that directly acts on the carbohydrate molecules (not via a signaling system like insulin). As a defense mechanism, cells typically tend to denature or degrade foreign proteins, so it's difficult to deliver fully functioning proteins to cells. This is why gene therapy was created because it's easier to package DNA for delivery. The idea is to deliver the blueprints for the protein and have the cell assemble it rather than delivering a pre-assembled protein. Therefore G6PD deficiency is a great candidate for this approach and many groups all over the world are working on it. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Could Reduce Need For Insulin Injections

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Could Reduce Need For Insulin Injections

Human trials have begun on a new type 1 diabetes treatment that could improve the lives of future sufferers of the disease. Developed by scientists at the University of Cambridge, the treatment could reduce a patient's insulin injections from several per day to potentially just a few times a week. The immunological treatment slows damage to the pancreas, meaning that newly diagnosed patients, in future, may be able to retain the ability to produce insulin naturally. "Our aim is [...] to rebalance the immune system so that patients can significantly reduce the number of insulin injections needed to just once or twice a week by slowing the progression of the disease," says Frank Waldron-Lynch, clinical study lead at the University of Cambridge. Type 1 diabetes is caused when the body's immune system attacks insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Around 400,000 people in the UK suffer from the disease. Unlike type 2 diabetes, it is not triggered by lifestyle factors like obesity. Over the last ten years researchers at Cambridge, led by Professor John Todd, have identified the IL-2 gene pathway as one of the origins of the disease. The pathway codes the protein "interleukin-2", which controls the regulatory part of the immune system. Low levels of interleukin-2 result in an unbalanced immune system, resulting in damage to the pancreas. This damage reduces and eventually destroys the pancreas' ability to create insulin, causing type 1 diabetes. Sufferers of the disease require injections of artificial insulin on a regular basis, usually before or after eating meals. Waldron-Lynch and his colleagues, with support from the Wellcome Trust, are investigating whether injections of interleukin-2, in the form of a drug called aldesleukin, can slow the damage caused by the immune Continue reading >>

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