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Who Needs To Take Insulin?

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Type 2 Diabetes Faqs

Common questions about type 2 diabetes: How do you treat type 2 diabetes? When you have type 2 diabetes, you first need to eat a healthy diet, stay physically active and lose any extra weight. If these lifestyle changes cannot control your blood sugar, you also may need to take pills and other injected medication, including insulin. Eating a healthy diet, being physically active, and losing any extra weight is the first line of therapy. “Diet and exercise“ is the foundation of all diabetes management because it makes your body’s cells respond better to insulin (in other words, it decreases insulin resistance) and lowers blood sugar levels. If you cannot normalize or control the blood sugars with diet, weight loss and exercise, the next treatment phase is taking medicine either orally or by injection. Diabetes pills work in different ways – some lower insulin resistance, others slow the digestion of food or increase insulin levels in the blood stream. The non-insulin injected medications for type 2 diabetes have a complicated action but basically lower blood glucose after eating. Insulin therapy simply increases insulin in the circulation. Don’t be surprised if you have to Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. James

    My thoughts are that maybe the TB antigens necessary to produce an immune response are proteins; therefore they can be digested in the stomach and small intestine. But I may be wrong though. I am confused why I can't say the same for polio vaccine.

  2. Chris

    There are different polio vaccines - one live (attenuated) vaccine which is given orally and one inactivated, which is injected. The main reason for using the live orally vaccine is that it provides excellent immunity (better than the inactivated) since it uses the natural infection route (oral-faecal) in the body where it enters through cells in the intestine. Besides that, it is also much less expensive than the inactivated form, which is a big thing when doing mass immunisations in developing countries.
    The live vaccine, however, may mutate back into a more infectious form as you shed live (attenuated) viruses after the immunisation, so these are not used anymore. Now we are very close to the eradication of the poliovirus. The risk of getting new infections is viewed as being too high these days. See this paper for more information: "Vaccine-derived polioviruses and the endgame strategy for global polio eradication."

  3. Thawn

    The reason why the oral polio vaccine is not digested in the stomach is that the poliovirus itself has adapted such that it can survive the acidic conditions of the stomach. By using an attenuated (mutated to not cause neurological symptoms) version of the virus, the oral vaccine can also survive the acidic conditions of the stomach. For TB which is transmitted not through ingestion but through inhalation, the bacterium is not resistive to the stomach acid and therefore a different vaccination strategy had to be used which requires injection (which, as described in the answer by Chris, is also less dangerous).

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