> Diabetes: What's True And False?
If you're like most people with diabetes, you'll get all kinds of advice about it from friends and family or online. Some of this information is wrong. Here's the truth about some of the common things you might hear. No, it doesn't. Type 1 diabetes happens when cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed. This happens because something goes wrong with the body's immune system. It has nothing to do with how much sugar a person eats. Sugar doesn't cause diabetes. But there is one way that sugar can influence whether a person gets type 2 diabetes. Consuming too much sugar (or sugary foods and drinks) can make people put on weight. Gaining weight leads to type 2 diabetes in some people. Of course, eating too much sugar isn't the only reason why people gain weight. Weight gain from eating too much of any food can make a person's chance of getting diabetes greater. Can people with diabetes eat sweets? Yes! You can have your cake and eat it too, just not the whole cake! Like everyone, people with diabetes should put the brakes on eating too many sweets. But you can still enjoy sweets sometimes. Do people "grow out of" diabetes? People with type 1 diabetes don't grow out of it. With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin and won't make it again. People with type 1 diabetes will always need to take insulin, at least until scientists find a cure for diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes will always have a tendency to get high blood sugar levels. But if they take steps to live a healthier life, it can sometimes lower their blood sugar. If people eat healthy foods and exercise enough to get their blood sugar levels back on track, doctors might say they can stop taking insulin or other medicines. Can you catch diabetes from a person who has it? No. Diabetes is Continue reading >>
Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes: Who, When, And Why?
Physicians who treat people with type 2 diabetes face difficult choices when selecting the best medical therapy for each patient. The decision process is further complicated by the fact that because type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, therapeutic agents that were initially successful may fail five or ten years later. As recently as 1994, there were only two options for patients with type 2 diabetes: insulin and the sulfonylureas (such as glyburide and glipizide). The good news is that today, seven totally different classes of medications are available, as well as much better insulins. The bad news is that many physicians are more confused than ever, especially when faced with the option of combining two, three, or even more drugs at one time. In addition, the past several years have seen the advent of six combination drugs (such as Glucovance, Avandamet, and Janumet), with more on the way. Faced with this explosion of therapeutic options, many physicians are reluctant to start insulin therapy even when it is clearly indicated. Insulin Resistance and Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Most patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from two major defects: insulin resistance and beta cell “burnout.” Insulin resistance typically precedes outright diabetes by several years, appearing in adults and children who are overweight, sedentary, and have a genetic predisposition to diabetes. Patients with insulin resistance are often diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome, which predisposes them to both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. When food is ingested, insulin is secreted by the beta cells into the bloodstream. The insulin travels to the liver or muscles, where it attaches to receptors on the surface of the cells like a key in a lock. In non-diabetic people, this proc Continue reading >>
- Stressing The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: Why Do We Care?
- This is why it's so important to know the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes
- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes
Who Needs Insulin?
Everyone with type 1 diabetes must take insulin, and some people with type 2 diabetes may need to take insulin to help control their blood glucose levels. To understand who many need to take insulin, you need a quick background on insulin production in the body and how it's affected by diabetes. Insulin Production in Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes The difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is the amount of insulin produced. People with type 1 diabetes have little or no production insulin production; most people do not have the ability to produce insulin. That is because their beta cells, which are in charge of insulin production, have been destroyed and can no longer make insulin. In type 2 diabetes, however, the body either doesn't make enough insulin, or it can't use it effectively. Not being able to use insulin effectively is called insulin resistance. What Does Insulin Do? Insulin is important to control the glucose levels in the blood; it helps transport the glucose from the blood into the tissues that need it. In fact, you can think of it this way: insulin is the key that unlocks the muscles and other tissues to let the glucose in. Without insulin, the body can't properly use glucose, which is how we get energy. Who Will Need to Take Insulin? As previously mentioned, everyone with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin. Their bodies must have insulin injected in order to use the glucose that's created when their bodies break down the food they eat. Not everyone with type 2 diabetes will need insulin. Some people will be able to manage their blood glucose levels with diet, exercise, and medications. However, some people will need insulin—and here's a key point to remember: just because you need insulin to manage your type 2 diabetes, that doesn't m Continue reading >>
Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)
TYPE 2 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas (an organ in the abdomen) produces insufficient amounts of the hormone insulin and/or the body's tissues become resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin. This causes high blood glucose (sugar) levels, which can lead to a number of complications if untreated. People with type 2 diabetes require regular monitoring and ongoing treatment to maintain normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Treatment includes lifestyle adjustments, self-care measures, and medications, which can minimize the risk of diabetes-related and cardiovascular complications (eg, heart attacks and strokes). Learning to manage diabetes is a process that continues over a lifetime. The diagnosis of diabetes can be overwhelming at the beginning; however, most people are able to lead normal lives, and many patients become experts in their own care. This topic review discusses the role of insulin in blood sugar control for patients with type 2 diabetes. Separate topic reviews about other aspects of type 2 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Alcohol, exercise, and medical care (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Preventing complications in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL IN TYPE 2 DIABETES Keeping blood sugar levels in control is one way to decrease the risk of complications related to type 2 diabetes. The most common complication of type 2 diabetes is heart d Continue reading >>
What Is Insulin?
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>
“do I Need Insulin For My Type 2 Diabetes?”
After a type 2 diabetes diagnosis, there are four treatment options that you can discuss with your doctor: Diet & Exercise: Learning how to reduce the carbohydrates and overall calories in your diet along with regular exercise for weight loss. Losing weight helps improve insulin sensitivity (gaining weight promotes insulin resistance). For some people with type 2 diabetes, these changes can be enough to achieve healthier blood sugar levels. Oral Medications: There are a variety of oral medications (pills) for improving blood sugars in people with type 2 diabetes. They each are classified by their make-up and the impact on the body. While some pills increase natural insulin production, other pills are designed to decrease the amount of glycogen (which is eventually converted to glucose) secreted by your liver. The 6 primary classifications of pills are, Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, Biguanides, Thiazolidinediones, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and DPP-4 inhibitors. You may know some of the brand names, like Metformin, Avandia, or Januvia. Your diabetes healthcare team will help you determine the best fit for you. Injectable Medications: Known well as “Byetta” or “Symlin,” these medications are injected, but are very different than insulin. Symlin is known for helping with reducing blood sugars but also for promoting weight loss. Byetta works by increasing your own natural insulin production. Insulin: Lastly, there is insulin, which is administered with a syringe, pen, or pump. While most doctors will take you through the options above before prescribing insulin, this option might be exactly what you need. Insulin is the most powerful hormone in the body for regulating blood sugars, and as a person with type 2 diabetes, you either don’t produce enough to meet you Continue reading >>
Which Organs Do Not Need Insulin For Glucose Absorption?
As noted, muscle and adipose have the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 transporter, whereas other tissues do not. But why? Before offering an explanation, it should be pointed out that the GLUT family of transporters are passive, so glucose flows down its concentration gradient. This is in contrast to the sodium-linked transporters of the gut and kidney, which actively transport glucose against a gradient. Reasonable explanations for the tissue distribution of the GLUT4 are as follows: Brain and red blood cells need a constant supply of glucose, and cannot be dependent on the insulin status of the blood. They cannot afford to have their transporters switched off by low insulin. Liver must be able to take up glucose after a meal and release glucose during a fast, so its transporter must be active all the time, and not dependent on insulin fluctuations. It makes sense for muscle to be insulin-sensitive. After a meal, when blood glucose levels are high, insulin promotes glucose uptake so that muscle can load up with glycogen. During the between meal fast, muscle internalizes the transporters, and switches to fatty acid oxidation for ATP production. This switch leaves glucose for tissues such as brain and RBC that are absolutely dependent on it. The ability of muscle to take up glucose and synthesize glycogen in response to insulin is an important mechanism for lowering blood glucose after a meal. Any impairment of this function, as seen in insulin resistant individuals, contributes to hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue requires glucose in order to store fat. It is an odd thing, but true. Glucose provides the glycerol backbone for intracellular triglyceride synthesis. Therefore it makes sense for the glucose transporter of adipose to be activated after a high carbohydrate/fat meal. Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin
People with type 2 diabetes do not always have to take insulin right away; that is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. The longer someone has type 2 diabetes, the more likely they will require insulin. Just as in type 1 diabetes, insulin is a way to control your blood glucose level. With type 2 diabetes, though, dietary changes, increasing physical activity, and some oral medications are usually enough to bring your blood glucose to a normal level. To learn about how the hormone insulin works, we have an article that explains the role of insulin. There are several reasons people with type 2 diabetes may want to use insulin: It can quickly bring your blood glucose level down to a healthier range. If your blood glucose level is excessively high when you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the doctor may have you use insulin to lower your blood glucose level—in a way that’s much faster than diet and exercise. Insulin will give your body a respite; it (and especially the beta cells that produce insulin) has been working overtime to try to bring down your blood glucose level. In this scenario, you’d also watch what you eat and exercise, but having your blood glucose under better control may make it easier to adjust to those lifestyle changes. It has fewer side effects than some of the medications: Insulin is a synthetic version of a hormone our bodies produce. Therefore, it interacts with your body in a more natural way than medications do, leading to fewer side effects. The one side effect is hypoglycemia. It can be cheaper. Diabetes medications can be expensive, although there is an array of options that try to cater to people of all economic levels. However, insulin is generally cheaper than medications (on a monthly basis), especially if the doctor wants yo Continue reading >>
- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes
- Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE)
- Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in the pancreas of subjects with type-2 diabetes and their lean and obese non-diabetic controls
Will A Person With Type 2 Diabetes Under Control End Up With The Need For Insulin?
Not necessarily, but sometimes it can, especially if obese (which often is seen in type 2 diabetics and further lowers one’s sensitivity to insulin) and having had diabetes for a long time, yes. And then there are those with Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) who don’t fit the “regular” type 2 profile being not overweight, these people will be needing insulin soon. Some think of those initially diagnosed as type 2 diabetes, around 5 - 10% in fact have unrecognized/undiagnosed LADA. In obese type 2 diabetes losing lots of weight > 10kg can sometimes reverse one’s diabetes if one is able to hold their weight down afterwards. Professor Robert Taylor of Newcastle in 2011 published a paper in Diabetologica Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol in which he reversed type 2 diabetes is 11 quite obese patients having had diabetes for no longer than 5 years, not on insulin (so their pancreas hadn’t been “worn out” yet) by putting them on a grueling 600 kCal/day diet for 8 weeks, so they lost a mean of 15 kg of weight (±20% of body weight) and both their liver and pancreas lost the fat= triglycerides (that made these organs not function properly = dysfunction) as shown on serial abdominal MRI, know that after a 3 months follow-up 3 out of the 11 again became diabetic again after resuming a more normal diet. However, there are reports that in people doing it at home if very well motivated so losing 15 kg it can work see Population response to information on reversibility of Type 2 diabetes. A new study by Professor Taylor’s group published in Diabetes Care of May 2016 Very Low-Calorie Diet and 6 Months of Weight Stability in Type 2 Diabetes: Pathophysiological Cha Continue reading >>
Who Needs Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes?
There are no hard-and-fast rules, but certain factors indicate when progressing to insulin therapy is needed to control blood sugar with type 2 diabetes. It's one of the first questions likely to cross your mind after receiving a type 2 diabetes diagnosis: Am I going to need insulin therapy someday? The simple answer: No one knows for sure. Insulin use is common. According to the Centers for Disease and Control, about 6 million people with diabetes are being treated with insulin in the United States. That includes mostly all people with type 1 diabetes and an estimated 30 percent of people with type 2 diabetes. At first, most people with type 2 diabetes are treated with medication and lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, says Derek LeRoith, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine, endocrinology, diabetes, and bone disease at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. In fact, simply losing weight, exercising, and changing your diet is sometimes enough to bring blood sugar levels back to a normal range. So how do you know if insulin therapy is right for you? Your doctor will consider factors such as how long you’ve had diabetes, how high your blood sugar is, what other medications you take, and your overall health. Dr. LeRoith says that everyone is different, and there are no absolute rules for determining when someone should be on insulin. But in certain circumstances, using insulin to treat type 2 diabetes is clearly called for. Here are some common reasons that your diabetes treatment may need to progress to include insulin therapy: Your pancreas can't produce insulin on its own. If you have type 2 diabetes, cells in your pancreas that produce, store, and release the hormone insulin (beta cells) are being progressively depleted. Eventual Continue reading >>
Which Places On The Human Body Do People Need To Get Injected In Case A Person Ever Needs To Inject (antidote Or Insulin) Someone But Don't Know How?
PLEASE DO NOT EVER CONSIDER STICKING A HYPODERMIC NEEDLE INTO SOMEONE IF YOU DON'T HAVE THE QUALIFICATIONS. The only possible exception to this rule is using an Epipen™ on a rapidly collapsing victim of allergic anaphylactic shock — the patient will usually be feebly trying to administer the injection for themselves and will be grateful for your help — it doesn't really matter where you stick it … well, it does but we have to hope you don't think an eyeball or kneecap is a good place. Seriously. DON'T even think about injecting people with drugs. Call for EMTs or paramedics. Continue reading >>
Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes: What You Should Know
Insulin and Type 2 Diabetes If your health care provider offered you a medication to help you feel better and get your blood sugar under control, would you try it? If so, you might be ready to start taking insulin. Does insulin immediately make you think of type 1 diabetes? Think again. Between 30 and 40 percent of people with type 2 diabetes take insulin. In fact, there are more people with type 2 diabetes who take insulin than type 1 because of the much larger number of people with type 2. Experts believe even more people with type 2 should be taking insulin to control blood sugar -- and the earlier, the better. With an increase in people developing type 2 at a younger age and living longer, more and more people with type 2 will likely be taking insulin. "If you live long enough with type 2 diabetes, odds are good you'll eventually need insulin," says William Polonsky, Ph.D., CDE, associate clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego; founder and president of the Behavioral Diabetes Institute; and author of Diabetes Burnout: What to Do When You Can't Take It Anymore (American Diabetes Association, 1999). Producing Less Insulin Naturally Over Time Research has shown that type 2 diabetes progresses as the ability of the body’s pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin dwindles over time. Your beta cells -- the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin -- slowly lose function. Experts believe that by the time you're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you've already lost 50-80 percent of your beta cell function and perhaps the number of beta cells you had. And the loss continues over the years. "About six years after being diagnosed, most people have about a quarter of their beta cell function left," says Anthony McCall, M.D., Ph.D., endocri Continue reading >>
Will Weight Loss Result In A Reduction Of Insulin Needed For Type 2 Diabetes?
In short, the answer to your actual question is Yes, losing weight will reduce the amount of insulin you need to take. Unfortunately, the nature of insulin and how it acts in the body can make it VERY difficult to lose weight while taking insulin. The other answers on the page are also true--change you diet, reduce the amount of carbs coming in, and you will (probably) reduce the amount of insulin you need to take to manage your blood sugar. Once you are taking less insulin, it will be easier to lose weight, which will in turn require less insulin... However: We are not doctors. Messing with insulin and blood sugar CAN BE FATAL. (Low blood sugar, that is. High blood sugar will also kill you, but much more slowly.) Do not muck about with this without supervision and guidance from your endocrinologist, nurse educator, or some other health professional who knows what you are doing, knows what you are eating, and can point out where you might have trouble. Good luck. Continue reading >>
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The Truth About Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes
Most people associate taking insulin with type 1 diabetes. However, some people with type 2 diabetes also need to take insulin. We talked with Andrea Penney, RN, CDE, Joslin Diabetes Center, to find out the truth about insulin and type 2 diabetes. Why would someone with type 2 diabetes who has been controlling their diabetes with diet and exercise need to start taking insulin? There are several reasons why someone would require insulin, even if they hadn’t needed it before. Temporary insulin usage– Some people need to take insulin for a short amount of time, because of things like pregnancy, surgery, broken bones, cancer, or steroidal medicines (like Prednisone). Permanent insulin usage - Sometimes the pancreas becomes unable to produce enough insulin. This happens frequently with aging. People can also become insulin resistant due to weight gain or chronic emotional or physical stress. Simply put, pills can no longer control diabetes. So, it’s not usually “bad” behavior that would cause someone to start insulin? Correct. However, non adherence to diet and exercise might result in high blood glucose levels that only insulin can control. Is insulin dosage different for someone who has type 2 rather than type 1? The doses will vary; either type may require very little or a lot of medication. It depends on weight, eating habits, exercise levels, existence of other illnesses and level of insulin resistance. Can someone start taking insulin and then not need to take it anymore? Absolutely! But only for those with type 2 diabetes. Often weight reduction and /or exercise can allow insulin to be stopped. Also, if any of the temporary situations listed above resolve, insulin might be stopped. Continue reading >>
The Donation Of Supplies Is Key To The Mission Of Ifl Usa
Sharing what you no longer need will save lives…. The reasons underlying this tragic and unacceptable circumstance are numerous; the one common thread is that it occurs to each child through no fault of their own. 90,000 children with type 1 diabetes, from over 70 countries, suffer, sometimes even die, for lack of insulin. We collect in-date & unneeded insulin, test strips, as well as other diabetes supplies, and ship them to developing countries. They are then distributed, free of charge, to children and adults with diabetes who otherwise would go without these life saving medications. Continue reading >>