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Who Discovered Insulin Paulescu?

Dr. Nicolae Paulescu’s Discovery Of Insulin

Dr. Nicolae Paulescu’s Discovery Of Insulin

Romanian scientist Dr. Nicolae Paulescu is notable, and controversial, for two things. He is cited, along with his friend Professor A.C. Cuza, as one of the major influences on Corneliu Zelea Codreanu in the latter’s autobiography, For My Legionaries. Dr. Paulescu’s influential views on religion, history, and politics were most famously expressed in his 1913 book, The Hospital, the Qu’ran, the Talmud, the Kahal, and Freemasonry. This classic work of occult war scholarship has been translated into English, and will be published later this year. Dr. Paulescu was also the discoverer of what is now known as insulin. The latter achievement is, like the rest of Dr. Paulescu’s life, shrouded in controversy. Although he patented his use of insulin, which he called “pancreine,” the only practical use to which he applied it was on dogs, not on humans. Canadian doctor Frederick Banting and Scottish biochemist John James Richard Mcleod read his published work on his experiments with dogs and applied it to human medicine, and then incorrectly claimed Dr. Paulescu’s experiment was unsuccessful. In 1923, they won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their supposed discovery of insulin. Banting later confessed to “an error in our translation of Professor Paulescu’s article,” attributing this misrepresentation to his and Mcleod’s “poor French.”[1] Many have contended that Dr. Paulescu was unfairly passed over for the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his achievement. Even if we assume that Banting and Mcleod merely made an honest mistake in their misreporting of Dr. Paulescu’s published results, it can still be argued that he deserved the Prize for his discovery of insulin. In 1996, veterinarian Peter C. Doherty won the Nobel Prize in P Continue reading >>

Nicolae Paulescu - The Discoverer Of Insulin.

Nicolae Paulescu - The Discoverer Of Insulin.

1. Nicolae C. Paulescu 1869-1931 Antonia Cornejo Campos English Practice I Universidad de las 2. Who was Nicolae Paulescu?Who was Nicolae Paulescu? Nicolae was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, politician, and the discoverer of insulin, which he called pancre ine , an extract of bovine pancreas in salted water, after which some impurites were removed with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. He was also, with Alexandru Cuza, co-founder of the National Christian Union and later, of the National-Christian Defense League in Romania. 3. The life of Nicolae PaulescuThe life of Nicolae Paulescu  He was born on October 30,1869 in Bucharest, Romania.  He learned French, Latin and Ancient Greek at an early age and as a young student, Paulescu developed an interest in the arts and in the natural, physical, and chemical sciences.  In 1888 he went to Paris to study medicine, and three years later he took a post as a nonresident medical student at the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. There he worked with French physician Étienne Lancereaux, who was the first to suggest that diabetes mellitus originated in the pancreas, and with French scientist Albert Dastre, who had studied with Claude Bernard, the renowned physiologist who discovered the role of 4. In 1901, after having received a degree in medicine (1897) and doctorates in physiology (1898) and the natural sciences (1899) from the University of Paris, Paulescu returned to Romania, where he joined the faculty of medicine at the University of Bucharest. There he undertook studies in experimental physiology and in 1903 published with Lancereaux Traité de Mé de cine , No so lo g ie (“Treaty of Medicine, Nosology”), the first of a four-volume series on disease and physiology (the other three volumes were publishe Continue reading >>

The Story Of Insulin Discovery.

The Story Of Insulin Discovery.

Abstract Many researchers had tried to isolate insulin from animal pancreas, but Frederick Banting, a young surgeon, and Charles Best, a medical student, were the ones that succeeded. They both worked hard in very difficult conditions in the late 1921 and early 1922 until final success. They encountered problems with the impurities of their extract that was causing inflammations, but J. Collip, their late biochemist collaborator, worked many hours and was soon able to prepare cleaner insulin, free from impurities. This extract was administered successfully to L. Thomson, a ketotic young diabetic patient, on 23 January 1922. Following this, Eli Lilly & Co of USA started the commercial production of insulin, soon followed by the Danish factories Nordisc and NOVO as well as the British Wellcome. Nicolae Paulescu who was professor of Physiology in Bucharest, was also quite close to the discovery of insulin but the researchers in Toronto were faster and more efficient. Banting and Macleod won the Nobel price, which Banting shared with Best and Macleod with J. Collip. The contribution of Paulescu in insulin discovery was recognized after his death. Continue reading >>

Nicolae Paulescu

Nicolae Paulescu

Tweet Nicolae Paulescu was a Romanian scientist who claimed to have been the first person to discover insulin, which he called pancreine. were awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for creating usable insulin, Paulescu wrote to the Nobel Prize committee claiming that he had discovered and used insulin first. His claims were rejected, but thanks to a British professor called Ian Murray Paulescu’s achievements are now recognised as being significant in the history of insulin. Medical training Paulescu was born in Bucharest in 1869. He became fascinated with physics and chemistry as he grew up and, upon graduating from the Mihai Viteazul High School in Bucharest in 1888, moved to Paris and enrolled in medical school. Paulescu graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree and was soon appointed assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital in 1897. Three years later he returned to Romania where he served as Head of the Physiology Department of the University of Bucharest Medical School. He remained in this position until his death in 1931 Pancreine research In 1916, Paulescu developed an aqueous (watery) pancreatic extract which, when injected into a dog with diabetes, had a normalising effect on its blood sugar levels. Paulescu’s pancreine was an extract of bovine pancreas in salted water, purified with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Shortly after, Paulescu was called to service in the Romanian Army during World War I, returning in 1921. He then wrote an extensive whitepaper about the effect of the extract, titled ‘Research on the role of the pancreas in food assimilation’, which was published in August 1921. Paulescu secured the patent rights for his method of manufacturing pancreine on April 10 1922 by the Romanian Mi Continue reading >>

Insulin Inventor – Nicolae Paulescu, Romanian Inventor

Insulin Inventor – Nicolae Paulescu, Romanian Inventor

Romanian Nicolae Paulescu, inventor of insulin, discovery of insulin, pancreatic extract Nicolae Paulescu (October 30, 1869 – July 17, 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine and the discoverer of insulin. Early life and activities Born in Bucharest, he was the first of four children of father Costache Paulescu and mother Maria Paulescu. He displayed remarkable abilities as early as his first school years. He learned French, Latin and Ancient Greek at an early age, so that a few years later he became fluent in all these languages and was able to read classical works of Latin and Greek literature in the original. He also had a particular gift for drawing and music and special inclinations towards natural sciences, such as physics and chemistry. He graduated from the Mihai Viteazu High School in Bucharest, in 1888. In the autumn of 1888, Paulescu left for Paris, where he enrolled in medical school. In 1897 he graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree, and was immediately appointed as assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital. In 1900, Paulescu returned to Romania, where he remained until his death (1931) as Head of the Physiology Department of the University of Bucharest Medical School, as well as a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital in Bucharest.Paulescu’s discovery of insulinIn 1916, he succeeded in developing an aqueous pancreatic extract which, when injected into a diabetic dog, proved to have a normalizing effect on blood sugar levels. After a gap during World War I, he resumed his research and succeeded in isolating the antidiabetic pancreatic hormone (pancreine). From April 24 to June 23, 1921, Paulescu published four papers at the Romanian Section of the Society of Biology in Paris: • Continue reading >>

Nicolae Constantin Paulescu

Nicolae Constantin Paulescu

Hello dear readers! Is Thursday, today we are talking about a personality, but certain about Nicolae Constantin Paulescu, which deserves special praise. Nicolae Constantin Paulescu was born on 8 November in Bucharest and died on 19 July 1931 in the capital. He was a Roman scientist, physician and physiologist, professor at the Faculty of Medicine in Bucharest, contributed to the discovery of antidiabetic hormone released depancreas, later called insulin. "Pancreine" Paulescu patented in April 1922 was an aqueous extract of bovine pancreas tissue homogenizers, partially purified by adding hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. This preparation was administered to patients Paulescu its only form of enema and has no effect on blood sugar. Insulin was extracted and purified for the first time biochimistulcanadian James B. Collip in December 1921 by treating bovine pancreatic tissue homogenizers with alcohol, ether and alcohol again. This extract has proved effective in dramatically since January 1922, when it was injected Frederick G. Banting patients laToronto General Hospital. Laguesse in 1893 and Leonid V. Sobolev in 1899 suggested that the islets of Langerhans (discovered it in 1869) produce a substance that controls the metabolism of carbohydrates. [1]. This substance was called "insulin" by Belgian Jean de Meyer in 1909. In 1903 John and Thomas Fraser Rennnie tried unsuccessfully treated orally with the extract of code (which is separate islands exocrine pancreas). In 1904 they tried hypodermic injection in humans, but gave up because of side effects. In 1906, in Berlin, Georg Zuelzer applied the method pancreatic extract protein precipitation with alcohol and tested the treatment on 8 patients, finding glycosuria and ketonuria removal, but dropped again because of s Continue reading >>

Nicolae Păulescu – The Romanian Scientist Who Discovered Insulin

Nicolae Păulescu – The Romanian Scientist Who Discovered Insulin

Nicolae Păulescu – the Romanian scientist who discovered insulin The two Canadians are believed to have made the discovery, because Păulescu had only managed to create a substance administrable to dogs when the First World War started in Romania and the scientist was forced to postpone the final stages of his research. Banting and Best used Păulescu’s work and developed the substance that was called insulin and could be administered to humans. Nicolae Păulescu was born on the 8th of November 1869 in Bucharest, Romania. He was the first of the four children born to the Păulescu family. The young Păulescu showed remarkable abilities from a very early age by rapidly becoming fluent in French, Latin and Ancient Greek. He also had a talent for drawing, music and an inclination towards natural sciences. He finished high school in 1888 and then went to Paris to enroll in Medical School. He obtained his Doctor of Medicine degree in 1897 and then he worked at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital until 1900, when he returned to Romania. In 1916, he managed to obtain a substance which he extracted from a bovine pancreas and which he called pancreine. He wrote a paper in which he described his findings, called “Research on the Role of the Pancreas in Food Assimilation”, which he submitted to the Archives Internationales de Physiologie in Liège, Belgium. It was published in August 1921. Prof. Paulescu used this article and his patent to try to prove that was the true discoverer of insulin and the one who truly deserved the Nobel Prize, but it was to no avail. He died in 1931 very unhappy about not receiving the recognition he deserved. In 1968, the Scottish physiologist Ian Murray initiated an international campaign to restore the truth and as a result, the N Continue reading >>

Who Really Discovered Insulin?

Who Really Discovered Insulin?

For people with diabetes mellitus, the year 1921 is a meaningful one. That was the year Canadian physician Frederick Banting and medical student Charles H. Best discovered the hormone insulin in pancreatic extracts of dogs. On July 30, 1921, they injected the hormone into a diabetic dog and found that it effectively lowered the dog’s blood glucose levels to normal. By the end of that year, with the help of Canadian chemist James B. Collip and Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod, Banting and Best purified insulin, and the next year it was used to successfully treat a boy suffering from severe diabetes. The researchers were celebrated and honored for their breakthrough. Banting and MacLeod even shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for their work. Indeed, they were the “discoverers” of insulin. But the story of the discovery of insulin actually begins much earlier than 1921. According to Britannica’s pharmaceutical industry article: In 1869 Paul Langerhans, a medical student in Germany, was studying the histology of the pancreas. He noted that this organ has two distinct types of cells—acinar cells, now known to secrete digestive enzymes, and islet cells (now called islets of Langerhans). The function of islet cells was suggested in 1889 when German physiologist and pathologist Oskar Minkowski and German physician Joseph von Mering showed that removing the pancreas from a dog caused the animal to exhibit a disorder quite similar to human diabetes mellitus (elevated blood glucose and metabolic changes). After this discovery, a number of scientists in various parts of the world attempted to extract the active substance from the pancreas so that it could be used to treat diabetes. One of those scientists was Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paule Continue reading >>

The Priority Of N.c. Paulescu In The Discovery Of Insulin By Ion Pavel. Bucharest: Academy Of The Socialist Republic Of Romania, 1976, 251pp, 13.50 Lei.

The Priority Of N.c. Paulescu In The Discovery Of Insulin By Ion Pavel. Bucharest: Academy Of The Socialist Republic Of Romania, 1976, 251pp, 13.50 Lei.

Book Reviews No award is more highly regarded around the world than the Nobel Prize. It is the most coveted recognition of exceptional achievement in the major fields of human endeavor. Despite its prestige, the Prize is not an infallible indication of merit. Literary giants such as Leo Tolstoi, Theodore Dreiser and Anton Chekhov were passed over in favor of unquestionably less-deserving writers. The Peace Prize award to Henry Kissinger (with Le Duc Tho) in 1973 and to Menachem Begin (with Anwar Sadat) in 1978 provoked intense worldwide controversy. In 1923, the Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded jointly to Sir Frederick G. Banting, a Canadian, and John J.R. Maclead, a Scotsman, for the discovery of insulin, one of the greatest medical advances of modern times. Insulin is a hormone produced by cells in the pancreas that regulate sugar production in the human body. The discovery of insulin has saved countless victims of diabetes from death, allowing them to lead practically normal lives. Largely because of the 1923 Nobel award, standard reference works credit Banting and his Toronto co-workers, Maclead and Charles H. Best, with this epochal medical breakthrough. However, a substantial body of persuasive evidence indicates that the Nobel Committee made a major error in 1923, and that the award should rightfully have gone to an almost forgotten Romanian physiologist, Nicalai Paulescu. The only book available in English that makes the case for Paulescu is this passionately argued but poorly organized volume published in 1976. The work was put together by Ion Pavel, an elderly Bucharest scholar who has championed Paulescu's case for years in various journals and at international scientific conferences. Unfortunately, Pavel's often cumbersome and opaque writing style, poor Continue reading >>

Nicolae Paulescu

Nicolae Paulescu

Nicolae Paulescu (October 30, 1869 – July 17, 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and a discoverer of insulin (which he termed pancreatine). He is famous for re-uniting science and Christian religiosity, arguing that belief in God's role in creation and the studies of science are not actually contradictory. Contents [hide] 1 Biography 2 Paulescu's discovery of insulin 3 Nobel Prize controversy 4 Relations Between Science and Religion 5 Political Activity and Works on the Jewish Problem 6 "The Talmud, The Kahal, Freemasonry" 6.1 Background to the Article 6.2 Article: "The Talmud, The Kahal, Freemasonry" 7 References 8 See Also 9 External Links Biography Born in Bucharest, he was the first of four children of father Costache Paulescu and mother Maria Paulescu. He displayed remarkable abilities as early as his first school years. He learned French, Latin and Ancient Greek at an early age, so that a few years later he became fluent in all these languages and was able to read classical works of Latin and Greek literature in the original. He also had a particular gift for drawing and music and special inclinations towards natural sciences, such as physics and chemistry. He graduated from the Mihai Viteazu High School in Bucharest, in 1888.In the autumn of 1888, Paulescu left for Paris, where he enrolled in medical school. In 1897 he graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree, and was immediately appointed as assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital. In 1900, Paulescu returned to Romania, where he remained until his death (1931) as Head of the Physiology Department of the University of Bucharest Medical School, as well as a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital in Bucharest.In 1990, he was elected p Continue reading >>

Discovery Of Insulin

Discovery Of Insulin

The discovery of insulin was one of the most dramatic and important milestones in medicine - a Nobel Prize-winning moment in science. Witnesses to the first people ever to be treated with insulin saw "one of the genuine miracles of modern medicine," says the author of a book charting its discovery.1 Starved and sometimes comatose patients with diabetes would return to life after receiving insulin. But how and when was the discovery made, and who made it? How and when was insulin discovered? The discovery of insulin did not come out of the blue; it was made on the back of a growing understanding of diabetes mellitus during the nineteenth century. Diabetes itself had been understood by its symptoms as far back as the 1600s - when it was described as the "pissing evile" - and the urination and thirst associated with it had been recognized thousands of years before. A feared and usually deadly disease, doctors in the nineteenth century knew that sugar worsened diabetes and that limited help could be given by dietary restriction of sugar. But if that helped, it also caused death from starvation. Scientists observed the damaged pancreases of people who died with diabetes. In 1869, a German medical student found clusters of cells in the pancreas that would go on to be named after him. Paul Langerhans had discovered the beta cells that produce insulin. Other work in animals then showed that carbohydrate metabolism was impossible once the pancreas was removed - the amount of sugar in the blood and urine rose sharply, and death from diabetes soon followed. In 1889, Oscar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering removed a dog's pancreas to study its effects on digestion. They found sugar in the dog's urine after flies were noticed feeding off it. In humans, doctors would once have diagnose Continue reading >>

Nicolae Paulescu

Nicolae Paulescu

Tweet Nicolae Paulescu was a Romanian scientist who claimed to have been the first person to discover insulin, which he called pancreine. were awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for creating usable insulin, Paulescu wrote to the Nobel Prize committee claiming that he had discovered and used insulin first. His claims were rejected, but thanks to a British professor called Ian Murray Paulescu’s achievements are now recognised as being significant in the history of insulin. Medical training Paulescu was born in Bucharest in 1869. He became fascinated with physics and chemistry as he grew up and, upon graduating from the Mihai Viteazul High School in Bucharest in 1888, moved to Paris and enrolled in medical school. Paulescu graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree and was soon appointed assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital in 1897. Three years later he returned to Romania where he served as Head of the Physiology Department of the University of Bucharest Medical School. He remained in this position until his death in 1931 Pancreine research In 1916, Paulescu developed an aqueous (watery) pancreatic extract which, when injected into a dog with diabetes, had a normalising effect on its blood sugar levels. Paulescu’s pancreine was an extract of bovine pancreas in salted water, purified with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Shortly after, Paulescu was called to service in the Romanian Army during World War I, returning in 1921. He then wrote an extensive whitepaper about the effect of the extract, titled ‘Research on the role of the pancreas in food assimilation’, which was published in August 1921. Paulescu secured the patent rights for his method of manufacturing pancreine on April 10 1922 by the Romanian Mi Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin: Continued Controversies After Ninety Years

The Discovery Of Insulin: Continued Controversies After Ninety Years

The introduction of insulin into the treatment of diabetes mellitus had a clinical and social impact similar to that of the introduction of antibiotic therapy. By the middle of the 20th century, patients with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at 10 years of age had prolonged their life expectation by 34 additional years, while the life expectations of patients diagnosed at 30 and 50 years of age had increased by 26 and 8 years, respectively.1 On October 25, 1923, the 19 professors of the Karolinska Institutet decided by secret vote to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Frederick Grant Banting and John James Richard Macleod, of the Department of Physiology, Toronto University, for the discovery of insulin, reported in 1922. Banting was nominated by GW Crile (Cleveland), FG Benedict (Boston), and August Krogh; Macleod was proposed by GN Stuart (Cleveland), and also by August Krogh.2 This decision prompted claims by the German Georg Ludwig Zuelzer, the Americans Ernest Lyman Scott and John Raymond Murlin, and the Romanian Nicolae Constantin Paulescu. Years later, Charles Herbert Best, a collaborator of Macleod and Banting, would also claim the discovery. Pioneering work conducted between 1890 and 1919 in the treatment of experimental diabetes by administering pancreatic extracts or subcutaneous implants of pancreatic tissue to pancreatectomized dogs had met with negative results, with some exceptions.3 Rennie and Fraser, researchers at the Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, investigated the effects of islets of Langerhans from Lophius piscatorius and other teleost fishes, which are unique in that their islets are located separately from the pancreas. From 1902 to 1904, these Scottish researchers administered extracts from these islets to a group of five diabetic pati Continue reading >>

Nicolae Paulescu

Nicolae Paulescu

Nicolae Constantin Paulescu (Romanian pronunciation: [nikoˈla.e pa.uˈlesku]; 30 October 1869 (O.S.) – 17 July 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and politician, most famous for discovering insulin, who worked on pancreine (a pancreatic extract containing insulin). The "pancreine" was an extract of bovine pancreas in salted water, after which some impurites were removed with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Paulescu was also, with A. C. Cuza, co-founder of the National Christian Union and later, of the National-Christian Defense League in Romania. Early life and activities[edit] Nicolae Paulescu in Paris in 1897 Born in Bucharest, he was the first of four children of father Costache Paulescu and mother Maria Paulescu. He displayed remarkable abilities as early as his first school years. He learned French, Latin and Ancient Greek at an early age, so that a few years later he became fluent in all these languages and was able to read classical works of Latin and Greek literature in the original. He also had a particular gift for drawing and music and special inclinations towards natural sciences, such as physics and chemistry. He graduated from the Mihai Viteazul High School in Bucharest, in 1888. In the autumn of 1888, Paulescu left for Paris, where he enrolled in medical school. In 1897 he graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree, and was immediately appointed as assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital. In 1900, Paulescu returned to Romania, where he remained until his death (1931) as Head of the Physiology Department of the University of Bucharest Medical School, as well as a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital in Bucharest. In 1916, he succeeded in developing an aqueous pancrea Continue reading >>

The True Inventor Of Insulin – Nicolae Paulescu

The True Inventor Of Insulin – Nicolae Paulescu

Without the work of Nicolae Paulescu the history of medicine would probably have a different course, particularly the history of diabetic medicine. The distinguished Romanian scientist was the first to discover insulin (which he called pancreine). In 1916 Paulescu developed an aqueous pancreatic extract which normalized the blood sugar levels in a diabetic dog. He had to interrupt his experiments during the World War I till 1921 when he wrote an extensive whitepaper on the effect of the pancreatic extract injected into a diabetic animal: Research on the Role of the Pancreas in Food Assimilation. The paper was published in August 1921 in the Archives Internationales de Physiologie. His discovery was patented on April 10, 1922 by the Romanian Ministry of Industry and Trade – patent no. 6254. And the Nobel Prize Goes to… In 1923 two other scientists were to be recognized as the creators of insulin: doctor Frederick Grant Banting and biochemist John James Richard Macleod. Curiously enough, in 1921 Banting started performing the experiments that led to the “discovery of insulin” on dogs, inspired by the early works of Polish-German physician Oscar Minkowski who in 1889 removed the pancreas from a healthy dog to test its assumed role in digestion. If you go back at the beginning of the article you will note that Paulescu was successfully performing the same type of experiments in 1916. By the time Banting isolated insulin, Paulescu already held a patent for its discovery. Moreover, Banting was familiar with Paulescu’s work. He even uses Paulescu’s “Research on the Role of the Pancreas in Food Assimilation” as reference in the paper that brought him the Nobel, although he misquotes: He states that injections into peripheral veins produce no effect and his exper Continue reading >>

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