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Which Type Of Insulin Should Never Be Mixed?

4 Interesting Facts About Your Insulin Pen

4 Interesting Facts About Your Insulin Pen

0 0 For most of us, our insulin pens are a daily part of life. But there are a lot of things that you may not have known about the handy little tool that you use day in and day out. Here are four facts about your insulin pen that may come as a surprise. 1. Leaving the Needle In Can Cause Infection. Keeping needles sterile is incredibly important for insulin pen users, since an unsterile needle can cause injury and can even introduce infection into the body. We always tell Timesulin users that it’s especially important to switch out the needles between injections and always keep the protective covering over the needles. 2. Insulin Pens Don’t Let You Mix Insulins. Occasionally, your doctor might prescribe mixing two types of insulin to help you better manage your blood glucose. While some types of insulin should never be mixed (your doctor will tell you what to mix and how to mix it), insulins that can be mixed together can’t be administered together through an insulin pen. Instead, it requires two injections – an initial dose of one insulin followed immediately by the second type of insulin. 3. It’s Necessary to “Waste” a Small Bit of Insulin. Using an insulin pen requires you to waste a tiny bit of insulin before your dose. This is because it’s important to make sure that insulin is inside the needle, otherwise you risk giving yourself an inaccurate insulin dose or none at all. This is even more more important when you are traveling in an airplane with different pressure. 4. Insulin Pen Needles are Less Painful Than Syringes. While this point might be subjective, the needles in insulin pens do differ from traditional syringes in that the polish and coat on an insulin pen needle stays sharp and isn’t dulled by first being injected into an insulin vial. Continue reading >>

Insulin: Types

Insulin: Types

Last week, we started to take a closer look at insulin, a hormone that helps to lower blood sugar levels and a hormone that everyone needs. Insulin works much like a key, unlocking receptors that are located on cells, allowing glucose to enter and be used for energy. When the pancreas works as it should, insulin helps to regulate, or balance out, blood sugar levels. If there is more sugar in the blood than the body currently needs, the sugar gets stored in the liver as glycogen (or, if glycogen stores are full, as fat). Then, when the body needs more sugar, say, for physical activity, the liver will release glucose to provide additional fuel for the body. Types of insulin If you have Type 1 diabetes, you very likely take two types of insulin: rapid-acting or short-acting, also known as mealtime or bolus insulin, and longer-acting, also known as basal insulin. People who have Type 2 diabetes may take just one type or both types. Rapid-acting insulin. This type of insulin starts to work about 15 minutes after you inject it. It will peak about 1 hour later, but it keeps working for 2 to 4 hours. Rapid-acting insulin is generally taken right before eating a meal to “cover” the carbohydrate consumed at that meal. Rapid-acting insulin is generally the only type of insulin used in an insulin pump (longer-acting insulins are never used in a pump). Examples: aspart (brand name NovoLog), lispro (Humalog), glulisine (Apidra) Short-acting insulin. Also a type of mealtime insulin, short-acting insulin is taken about 30 minutes before a meal. It starts to work about 30 minutes after injecting, peaks 2–5 hours later, and lasts up to 12 hours. With the newer rapid-acting insulins now available that offer more flexibility, short-acting insulin isn’t used as much as it used to be Continue reading >>

10 Steps To Prepare A Mixed Dose Of Insulin

10 Steps To Prepare A Mixed Dose Of Insulin

Many individuals that have diabetes need to take insulin in order to keep their blood sugar in a proper range. For certain individuals that can be scary, particularly the first time. You should know that insulin shots are actually not painful since the needles are thin and short. Also, the insulin shots are usually placed in the fatty tissue found below the skin. This is known as a subcutaneous injection. There are cases when the doctor prescribes a mixed insulin dose. This means that you need to take more than 1 type of insulin and you need to do that at once. With mixed dose, you will get the benefits of both longer-acting insulin and short-acting insulin without having two separate shots. In general, one of the insulin is clear and the other cloudy. Also, you should know that certain insulins cannot be mixed in one syringe. For example, you should never mix Levemir or Lantus with other solution. Always make sure to consult your diabetes educator, doctor or pharmacist before mixing. The steps below explain how to mix 2 different insulin types into one single shot properly. 10 Steps to Prepare the Injection Step #1 The first thing you need to do is prepare the supplies and remove the insulin vials from the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before the injection. Also, make sure to check the expiry dates. According to the guide of the manufacturer, you need to discard the vial 6 weeks after its first opening. Step #2 Then, the next thing you need to do is to wash your hands properly and thoroughly with soap and water. Step #3 You need to roll the vial of the cloudy insulin (long-acting or intermediate insulin) and do that until the white power dissolves. Remember, you should not shake the vial. Step #4 Dip a cotton ball in alcohol or take an alcohol wipe an clean the rubb Continue reading >>

Insulin – Pharmacology, Therapeutic Regimens And Principles Of Intensive Insulin Therapy

Insulin – Pharmacology, Therapeutic Regimens And Principles Of Intensive Insulin Therapy

Go to: Since the introduction of insulin analogs in 1996, insulin therapy options for type 1 and type 2 diabetics have expanded. Insulin therapies are now able to more closely mimic physiologic insulin secretion and thus achieve better glycemic control in patients with diabetes. This chapter reviews the pharmacology of available insulins, types of insulin regimens and principles of dosage selection and adjustment, and provides an overview of insulin pump therapy. For complete coverage of this and related aspects of Endocrinology, please visit our FREE web-book, www.endotext.org. Go to: PHARMACOLOGY In 1922, Canadian researchers were the first to demonstrate a physiologic response to injected animal insulin in a patient with type 1 diabetes. In 1955, insulin was the first protein to be fully sequenced. The insulin molecule consists of 51 amino acids arranged in two chains, an A chain (21 amino acids) and B chain (30 amino acids) that are linked by two disulfide bonds (1) (Figure 1). Proinsulin is the insulin precursor that is transported to the Golgi apparatus of the beta cell where it is processed and packaged into granules. Proinsulin, a single-chain 86 amino acid peptide, is cleaved into insulin and C-peptide (a connecting peptide); both are secreted in equimolar portions from the beta cell upon stimulation from glucose and other insulin secretagogues. While C-peptide has no known physiologic function, it can be measured to provide an estimate of endogenous insulin secretion. Go to: SOURCES OF INSULIN With the availability of human insulin by recombinant DNA technology in the 1980s, use of animal insulin declined dramatically. Beef insulin, beef-pork and pork insulin are no longer commercially available in the United States. The United States FDA may allow for persona Continue reading >>

High-alert Medications - Humalog (insulin Lispro)

High-alert Medications - Humalog (insulin Lispro)

Extra care is needed because Humalog is a high-alert medicine. High-alert medicines have been proven to be safe and effective. But these medicines can cause serious injury if a mistake happens while taking them. This means that it is very important for you to know about this medicine and take it exactly as directed. Top 10 List of Safety Tips for Humalog When taking your medicine 1. Know your insulin. Humalog is a rapid-acting form of insulin that should be injected below the skin within 15 minutes before or immediately after a meal. Have food ready before injection. After injecting the insulin, do not skip a meal or delay eating. 2. Prepare your insulin. An intermediate- or long-acting insulin is often prescribed with Humalog. Humalog can be mixed with insulin NPH (intermediate-acting insulin), but always draw Humalog into the syringe first. Never mix Humalog with Lantus. Do not mix Humalog with other insulins if using an insulin pen or external pump. Do not vigorously shake insulin before use. 3. Don't reuse or recycle. Dispose of used syringes/needles, pens, and lancets in a sealable hard plastic or metal container (e.g., empty detergent bottle, special sharps container from your pharmacy). When the container is full, seal the lid before placing it in the trash. Do not reuse or recycle syringes/needles or lancets. 4. Don't share. Even if you change the needle, sharing an insulin pen or syringe may spread diseases carried in the blood, including hepatitis and HIV. To avoid serious side effects 5. Avoid mix-ups. If you use more than one type of insulin, make each vial or pen look different by putting a rubber band around one type of insulin. 6. Check your medicine. Humalog can be confused with NovoLog or Humulin (other insulins). When you pick up your insulin at the ph Continue reading >>

Humalog 50-50

Humalog 50-50

HUMALOG® Mix50/50™ 50% Insulin Lispro Protamine Suspension and 50% Insulin Lispro Injection (Rdna Origin) 100 Units Per Ml (U-100) DESCRIPTION Humalog® Mix50/50™ [50% insulin lispro protamine suspension and 50% insulin lispro injection, (rDNA origin)] is a mixture of insulin lispro solution, a rapid-acting blood glucose-lowering agent and insulin lispro protamine suspension, an intermediate-acting blood glucose-lowering agent. Chemically, insulin lispro is Lys(B28), Pro(B29) human insulin analog, created when the amino acids at positions 28 and 29 on the insulin B-chain are reversed. Insulin lispro is synthesized in a special non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce insulin lispro. Insulin lispro protamine suspension (NPL component) is a suspension of crystals produced from combining insulin lispro and protamine sulfate under appropriate conditions for crystal formation. Insulin lispro has the following primary structure: Insulin lispro has the empirical formula C257H383N65O77S6 and a molecular weight of 5808, both identical to that of human insulin. Humalog Mix50/50 vials and Pens contain a sterile suspension of insulin lispro protamine suspension mixed with soluble insulin lispro for use as an injection. Each milliliter of Humalog Mix50/50 injection contains insulin lispro 100 units, 0.19 mg protamine sulfate, 16 mg glycerin, 3.78 mg dibasic sodium phosphate, 2.20 mg Metacresol, zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.0305 mg zinc ion, 0.89 mg phenol, and Water for Injection. Humalog Mix50/50 has a pH of 7.0 to 7.8. Hydrochloric acid 10% and/or sodium hydroxide 10% may have been added to adjust pH. Continue reading >>

What Is Humalog 75/25?

What Is Humalog 75/25?

QUICK LINKS Insulin lispro protamine and insulin lispro is a combination of a fast-acting insulin and an intermediate-acting type of human insulin. Insulin is used by people with diabetes to help keep blood sugar levels under control. When you have diabetes mellitus, your body cannot make enough or does not use insulin properly. So, you must take additional insulin to regulate your blood sugar and keep your body healthy. This is very important as too much sugar in your blood can be harmful to your health. This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription. Find big savings at pharmacies near you with GoodRx discount coupons Lowest GoodRx Price $322.64 View All Prices A nurse or other trained health professional may give you this medicine. You may also be taught how to give your medicine at home. This medicine is given as a shot under your skin. Always double-check both the concentration (strength) of your insulin and your dose. Concentration and dose are not the same. The dose is how many units of insulin you will use. The concentration tells how many units of insulin are in each milliliter (mL), such as 100 units/mL (U-100), but this does not mean you will use 100 units at a time. Each package of insulin lispro protamine and insulin lispro combination contains a patient information leaflet. Read this leaflet carefully before beginning your treatment and each time you get a refill for any new information, and make sure you understand: How to prepare the medicine. How to inject the medicine. How to use disposable insulin delivery device. How to dispose of syringes, needles, and injection devices. It is best to use a different place on the body for each injection (eg, under the skin of your abdomen or stomach, buttocks, thigh, or upper arm). If you have quest Continue reading >>

Insulin Therapy

Insulin Therapy

Why do I need to take insulin? When you digest food, your body changes most of the food you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin allows this glucose to enter all the cells of your body and be used as energy. When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it properly, so the glucose builds up in your blood instead of moving into the cells. Too much glucose in the blood can lead to serious health problems. All people who have type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. The goal of taking insulin is to keep your blood sugar level in a normal range as much as possible so you’ll stay healthy. Insulin can’t be taken by mouth. It is usually taken with injections (shots). It can also be taken with an insulin pen or an insulin pump. How often will I need to take insulin? You and your doctor will develop a schedule that is right for you. Most people who have diabetes and take insulin need at least 2 insulin shots a day for good blood sugar control. Some people need 3 or 4 shots a day. Do I need to monitor my blood sugar level? Yes. Monitoring and controlling your blood sugar is key to preventing the complications of diabetes. If you don’t already monitor your blood sugar level, you will need to learn how. Checking your blood sugar involves pricking your finger to get a small drop of blood that you put on a test strip. You can read the results yourself or insert the strip into a machine called an electronic glucose meter. The results will tell you whether or not your blood sugar is in a healthy range. Your doctor will give you additional information about monitoring your blood sugar. When should I take insulin? You and your doctor should discuss when and how you Continue reading >>

Health Library

Health Library

Insulin Detemir Solution for injection INSULIN DETEMIR (IN su lin DE te mir) is a human-made form of insulin. This drug lowers the amount of sugar in your blood. It is a long-acting insulin that is usually given once or twice a day. This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions. What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine? They need to know if you have any of these conditions: episodes of hypoglycemia kidney disease liver disease an unusual or allergic reaction to insulin, metacresol, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives pregnant or trying to get pregnant breast-feeding How should I use this medicine? This medicine is for injection under the skin. Take this medicine at the same time(s) each day. Use exactly as directed. This insulin should never be mixed in the same syringe with other insulins before injection. Do not vigorously shake insulin before use. You will be taught how to adjust doses for activities and illness. Do not use more insulin than prescribed. Do not use more or less often than prescribed. Always check the appearance of your insulin before using it. This medicine should be clear and colorless like water. Do not use if it is cloudy, thickened, colored, or has solid particles in it. It is important that you put your used needles and syringes in a special sharps container. Do not put them in a trash can. If you do not have a sharps container, call your pharmacist or healthcare provider to get one. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 2 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply. Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact Continue reading >>

Insulin Types

Insulin Types

What Are the Different Insulin Types? Insulin Types are hormones normally made in the pancreas that stimulates the flow of sugar – glucose – from the blood into the cells of the body. Glucose provides the cells with the energy they need to function. There are two main groups of insulins used in the treatment of diabetes: human insulins and analog insulins, made by recombinant DNA technology. The concentration of most insulins available in the United States is 100 units per milliliter. A milliliter is equal to a cubic centimeter. All insulin syringes are graduated to match this insulin concentration. There are four categories of insulins depending on how quickly they start to work in the body after injection: Very rapid acting insulin, Regular, or Rapid acting insulins, Intermediate acting insulins, Long acting insulin. In addition, some insulins are marketed mixed together in different proportions to provide both rapid and long acting effects. Certain insulins can also be mixed together in the same syringe immediately prior to injection. Rapid Acting Insulins A very rapid acting form of insulin called Lispro insulin is marketed under the trade name of Humalog. A second form of very rapid acting insulin is called Aspart and is marketed under the trade name Novolog. Humalog and Novolog are clear liquids that begin to work 10 minutes after injection and peak at 1 hour after injection, lasting for 3-4 hours in the body. However, most patients also need a longer-acting insulin to maintain good control of their blood sugar. Humalog and Novolog can be mixed with NPH insulin and are used as “bolus” insulins to be given 15 minutes before a meal. Note: Check blood sugar level before giving Humalog or Novalog. Your doctor or diabetes educator will instruct you in determini Continue reading >>

Insulin (and Other Injected Drugs)

Insulin (and Other Injected Drugs)

Diabetes is a disease affecting the body's production of insulin (type 1) or both the body's use and its production of insulin (type 2). Injectable insulin is a lifesaver for people who can no longer produce it on their own Continue reading >>

The Abcs Of Insulin Care

The Abcs Of Insulin Care

Differing opinions about how to best care for insulin are stirring up a whirlwind of confusion. Over the last few months readers have been sending their questions and concerns to DIABETES HEALTH. The questions are simple enough: What is the best temperature to keep my insulin? Is it okay to use insulin past the expiration date? How should I mix my insulin? But answers to these questions can vary, making it hard to be sure one is doing the right thing. Here the questions and comments of insulin users will be presented with the recommendations of the companies who produce insulin. Too Hot or Too Cold? Brian Leslie, a DIABETES HEALTH on-line reader, writes: “I have had great results keeping my vial of insulin at work in my desk … However, I would imagine that taking a vial of medication and constantly fluctuating its temperature would tend to degrade its effectiveness faster.” According to Wayman Wendell Cheatham, MD, medical director at Novo Nordisk, it is okay to keep insulin in and out of the refrigerator while the vial is in use. But prior to being opened, a vial of insulin should be stored in a refrigerator. “As long as the insulin is kept away from high temperatures and freezing, a change in temperature (while in use) is not a problem,” says Dr. Cheatham. He adds that insulin should not be left in the car during the summer months even if only for a short period of time. Laura Stallman, a spokesperson for Eli Lilly and Company, agrees that moving a vial of insulin in and out of the refrigerator while in use does not affect its potency – assuming that it is used before the expiration date. Best If Used By… Eli Lilly and Novo Nordisk, the only two companies who market insulin in the United States, provide directions and expiration dates with their product. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Causes Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Symptoms HIGH BLOOD SUGAR The following symptoms may be the first signs of type 1 diabetes. Or, they may occur when blood sugar is high. Being very thirsty Feeling hungry Having blurry eyesight Feeling numbness or tingling in your feet Losing weight without trying Urinating more often (including urinating at night or bedwetting in children who were dry overnight before) For other people, these serious warning symptoms may be the first signs of type 1 Continue reading >>

Insulin: How To Give A Mixed Dose

Insulin: How To Give A Mixed Dose

Many people with diabetes need to take insulin to keep their blood glucose in a good range. This can be scary for some people, especially for the first time. The truth is that insulin shots are not painful because the needles are short and thin and the insulin shots are placed into fatty tissue below the skin. This is called a subcutaneous (sub-kyu-TAY-nee-us) injection. In some cases, the doctor prescribes a mixed dose of insulin. This means taking more than one type of insulin at the same time. A mixed dose allows you to have the benefits of both short-acting insulin along with a longer acting insulin — without having to give 2 separate shots. Usually, one of the insulins will be cloudy and the other clear. Some insulins cannot be mixed in the same syringe. For instance, never mix Lantus or Levemir with any other solution. Be sure to check with your doctor, pharmacist, or diabetes educator before mixing. These instructions explain how to mix two different types of insulin into one shot. If you are giving or getting just one type of insulin, refer to the patient education sheet Insulin: How to Give a Shot. What You Will Need Bottles of insulin Alcohol swab, or cotton ball moistened with alcohol Syringe with needle (You will need a prescription to buy syringes from a pharmacy. Check with your pharmacist to be sure the syringe size you are using is correct for your total dose of insulin.) Hard plastic or metal container with a screw-on or tightly-secured lid Parts of a Syringe and Needle You will use a syringe and needle to give the shot. The parts are labeled below. Wash the work area (where you will set the insulin and syringe) well with soap and water. Wash your hands. Check the drug labels to be sure they are what your doctor prescribed. Check the expiration date o Continue reading >>

Insulin Analogs

Insulin Analogs

Insulin analogs mimic the body’s natural pattern of insulin release. Once absorbed, they act on cells like human insulin, but are absorbed from fatty tissue more predictably. An analog refers to something that is “analogous” or similar to something else. Therefore, “insulin” analogs are analogs that have been designed to mimic the body’s natural pattern of insulin release. These synthetic-made insulins are called analogs of human insulin. However, they have minor structural or amino acid changes that give them special desirable characteristics when injected under the skin. Once absorbed, they act on cells like human insulin, but are absorbed from fatty tissue more predictably. In this section, you will find information about: Rapid-acting injected insulin analog The fastest working insulins are referred to as rapid-acting insulin. They include: These insulin analogs enter the bloodstream within minutes, so it is important to inject them within 5 to 10 minutes of eating. They have a peak action period of 60-120 minutes, and fade completely after about four hours. Higher doses may last slightly longer, but will last no more than five or six hours. Rapid acting insulin analogs are ideal for bolus insulin replacement. They are given at mealtimes and for high blood sugar correction. Rapid-acting insulins are used in insulin pumps, also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) devices. When delivered through a CSII pump, the rapid-acting insulins provide the basal insulin replacement, as well as the mealtime and high blood sugar correction insulin replacement. The insulins that work for the longest period of time are referred to as long-acting insulin. They provide relatively constant insulin levels that plateau for many hours after injection. Some Continue reading >>

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