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Which Type Of Insulin Should Never Be Mixed?

Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication)

"Insulin therapy" redirects here. For the psychiatric treatment, see Insulin shock therapy. Insulin is used as a medication to treat high blood sugar.[3] This includes in diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.[3] It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.[3] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows.[5] Human versions can be made either by modifying pig versions or recombinant technology.[5] It comes in three main types short–acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate–acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine).[5] Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.39 to $10.61 per 1,000 iu of regular insulin and $2.23 to $10.35 per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[8][9] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds.[5] Medical uses[edit] Giving insulin with an insulin pen. Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacid Continue reading >>

Humalog 50-50

Humalog 50-50

HUMALOG® Mix50/50™ 50% Insulin Lispro Protamine Suspension and 50% Insulin Lispro Injection (Rdna Origin) 100 Units Per Ml (U-100) DESCRIPTION Humalog® Mix50/50™ [50% insulin lispro protamine suspension and 50% insulin lispro injection, (rDNA origin)] is a mixture of insulin lispro solution, a rapid-acting blood glucose-lowering agent and insulin lispro protamine suspension, an intermediate-acting blood glucose-lowering agent. Chemically, insulin lispro is Lys(B28), Pro(B29) human insulin analog, created when the amino acids at positions 28 and 29 on the insulin B-chain are reversed. Insulin lispro is synthesized in a special non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce insulin lispro. Insulin lispro protamine suspension (NPL component) is a suspension of crystals produced from combining insulin lispro and protamine sulfate under appropriate conditions for crystal formation. Insulin lispro has the following primary structure: Insulin lispro has the empirical formula C257H383N65O77S6 and a molecular weight of 5808, both identical to that of human insulin. Humalog Mix50/50 vials and Pens contain a sterile suspension of insulin lispro protamine suspension mixed with soluble insulin lispro for use as an injection. Each milliliter of Humalog Mix50/50 injection contains insulin lispro 100 units, 0.19 mg protamine sulfate, 16 mg glycerin, 3.78 mg dibasic sodium phosphate, 2.20 mg Metacresol, zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.0305 mg zinc ion, 0.89 mg phenol, and Water for Injection. Humalog Mix50/50 has a pH of 7.0 to 7.8. Hydrochloric acid 10% and/or sodium hydroxide 10% may have been added to adjust pH. Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Sort Secretion of insulin Release is stimulated by rise in blood glucose. Most common when eating a meal especially Carbohydrates. Also release can be triggered by amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies and gut hormones example Hormone GLP. Sympathetic nervous system provides control of release in pancreas. Activation of Beta2-adrenergic receptors promotes secretion of insulin( which is more important). alpha-adrenergic receptors inhibits insulin release Types of insulin 7 types of insulin Short duration:Rapid Acting Three-lispro, aspart, glulisine all act more rapidly than regular insulin but have shorter duration of action. Short Duration: Slower Acting Regular insulin Intermediate Duration NPH Long Duration Glargine and detemir Short duration:Slower Acting Regular insulin- has four approved routes: SubQ injection, SubQ infusion, IM (rarely) and PO inhalation( not used) Also IV therapy (only U-100 formulation should be used). Slower than with rapid acting and faster than with longer acting. Higher dose of U-500 used for extreme insulin resistance and Should Never Be Given IV, this one need prescription. All lower dose are available without prescription. Routine treatment: 1. inject before meal 2. Infused subQ following subQ injection. Effects begin 30min to 60min, peak 1 to 5 hours and last up to 10hr Long Duration Glargine: 24hr of duration, subQ once-daily; some require twice daily, given anytime but same time everyday if possible. SubQ injection low solubility that slowly dissolve and release small amount over time. Blood levels relatively steady. Clear solution, should Never be given IV or mixed with other insulin. Detemir: low dose 12hr duration, high dose 20hr to 24hr. Provides basal glycemic control. Absorption (structural changes) and distribution ( binds str Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About The New Insulins

Everything You Should Know About The New Insulins

Although many people can control their diabetes by eating well and exercising, medication is a necessity for others. Fortunately for these folks, there are more options than ever before to help control their blood sugar. And several new insulins have recently been added to the mix: Afrezza, Toujeo, Humalog U-200, Tresiba and Ryzodeg . Here we highlight these new weapons in the diabetes therapy arsenal. Afrezza: Could this be the end of insulin injections? A new insulin delivery system, Afrezza, was just approved by the FDA and is currently available. Afrezza is an inhaled, man-made insulin that is approved for adults with type 1 diabetes (the diabetes in which your own body produces antibodies against your insulin-producing cells) or type 2 diabetes (the type of diabetes where the insulin being produced does not work as it should combined with the body producing less insulin over time). Afrezza is a meal-time insulin taken before eating. This new insulin therapy may be added when your blood sugars can no longer be controlled by pill medication alone or when long-acting insulin injection is not enough to manage your diabetes. It is currently available in a cartridge form which is loaded into a small device. Cartridges come in four, eight and twelve units. Prior to eating, you would inhale the dose of insulin prescribed by your clinician. Long-acting insulin administration is still required if you have type 1 diabetes. Like other FDA-approved insulin products, Afrezza has potential side effects, such as low blood sugar. Also, the dosing is limited to four, eight, or twelve units or a combination of these units: for example, you cannot administer three units or 10 units with this insulin delivery system. Insurance coverage issues as well as possible higher co-pays – and, Continue reading >>

Insulin Aspart (recombinant), Insulin Degludec Solution For Injection

Insulin Aspart (recombinant), Insulin Degludec Solution For Injection

What is this medicine? INSULIN DEGLUDEC; INSULIN ASPART (IN su lin de GLOO dek; IN su lin AS part) is a human-made form of insulin. This drug lowers the amount of sugar in your blood. It is a combination insulin that starts working about 15 minutes after it is injected and works for as long as 24 hours. How should I use this medicine? This medicine is for injection under the skin. Use exactly as directed. This insulin should never be mixed in the same syringe with other insulins before injection. Do not vigorously shake before use. Your doctor or health care professional will tell you how long to wait after you inject your dose before eating a meal. You will be taught how to use this medicine and how to adjust doses for activities and illness. Do not use more insulin than prescribed. Always check the appearance of your insulin before using it. This medicine should be clear and colorless like water. Do not use it if it is cloudy, thickened, colored, or has solid particles in it. It is important that you put your used needles and syringes in a special sharps container. Do not put them in a trash can. If you do not have a sharps container, call your pharmacist or healthcare provider to get one. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed. What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine? Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible: allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue breathing problems signs and symptoms of high blood sugar such as dizziness, dry mouth, dry skin, fruity breath, nausea, stomach pain, increased hunger or thirst, increased urination signs and symptoms of low blood sugar such as feelin Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Definition Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Alternative Names Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Symptoms HIGH BLOOD SUGAR The following symptoms may be the first signs of type 1 diabetes. Or, they may occur when blood sugar is high. Being very thirsty Feeling hungry Feeling tired all the time Having blurry eyesight Feeling numbness or tingling in your feet Losing weight without trying Urinating more often (including urinating at night or bedwetting in children who were dry overnight before) For other people, these se Continue reading >>

Insulin Therapy

Insulin Therapy

Why do I need to take insulin? When you digest food, your body changes most of the food you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin allows this glucose to enter all the cells of your body and be used as energy. When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it properly, so the glucose builds up in your blood instead of moving into the cells. Too much glucose in the blood can lead to serious health problems. All people who have type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. The goal of taking insulin is to keep your blood sugar level in a normal range as much as possible so you’ll stay healthy. Insulin can’t be taken by mouth. It is usually taken with injections (shots). It can also be taken with an insulin pen or an insulin pump. How often will I need to take insulin? You and your doctor will develop a schedule that is right for you. Most people who have diabetes and take insulin need at least 2 insulin shots a day for good blood sugar control. Some people need 3 or 4 shots a day. Do I need to monitor my blood sugar level? Yes. Monitoring and controlling your blood sugar is key to preventing the complications of diabetes. If you don’t already monitor your blood sugar level, you will need to learn how. Checking your blood sugar involves pricking your finger to get a small drop of blood that you put on a test strip. You can read the results yourself or insert the strip into a machine called an electronic glucose meter. The results will tell you whether or not your blood sugar is in a healthy range. Your doctor will give you additional information about monitoring your blood sugar. When should I take insulin? You and your doctor should discuss when and how you Continue reading >>

Insulin: How To Give A Mixed Dose

Insulin: How To Give A Mixed Dose

Many people with diabetes need to take insulin to keep their blood glucose in a good range. This can be scary for some people, especially for the first time. The truth is that insulin shots are not painful because the needles are short and thin and the insulin shots are placed into fatty tissue below the skin. This is called a subcutaneous (sub-kyu-TAY-nee-us) injection. In some cases, the doctor prescribes a mixed dose of insulin. This means taking more than one type of insulin at the same time. A mixed dose allows you to have the benefits of both short-acting insulin along with a longer acting insulin — without having to give 2 separate shots. Usually, one of the insulins will be cloudy and the other clear. Some insulins cannot be mixed in the same syringe. For instance, never mix Lantus or Levemir with any other solution. Be sure to check with your doctor, pharmacist, or diabetes educator before mixing. These instructions explain how to mix two different types of insulin into one shot. If you are giving or getting just one type of insulin, refer to the patient education sheet Insulin: How to Give a Shot. What You Will Need Bottles of insulin Alcohol swab, or cotton ball moistened with alcohol Syringe with needle (You will need a prescription to buy syringes from a pharmacy. Check with your pharmacist to be sure the syringe size you are using is correct for your total dose of insulin.) Hard plastic or metal container with a screw-on or tightly-secured lid Parts of a Syringe and Needle You will use a syringe and needle to give the shot. The parts are labeled below. Wash the work area (where you will set the insulin and syringe) well with soap and water. Wash your hands. Check the drug labels to be sure they are what your doctor prescribed. Check the expiration date o Continue reading >>

Intermittent Insulin Injections Insulin Overview

Intermittent Insulin Injections Insulin Overview

Insulin is the cornerstone of therapy in the management of type 1 diabetes. Insulin therapy also has a clear role in type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with long-standing or poorly controlled disease. Since the discovery of insulin approximately 80 years ago, insulin therapy has undergone various changes in formulations with different pharmacokinetics. In the 1930s, protamine zinc insulin, the first long-acting preparation, was introduced. In the 1950s, the neutral protamine hagedorn (NPH) and insulin zinc (lente) were introduced. [1] Newer formulations have since been developed, allowing insulin to be provided in more physiologically appropriate ways. These provide more flexibility in dosing, mimic endogenous production of insulin, and lower the incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia. [2, 3, 4] When used as monotherapy, oral hypoglycemic drugs generally lower glycated hemoglobin (HgbA1C) by only 0.5%-1.5%. Most patients with type 2 diabetes eventually require multidrug therapy or insulin. Some guidelines encourage early use of insulin if HgbA1C remains poorly controlled on maximal-dose, single-drug therapy. Insulins have varying pharmacokinetics that allow for specific products from which to choose. Table 1 provides a comparison between insulins for onset of action and duration of action. Table 2 provides a list of combination insulin products. Insulin Category Onset of Action Duration of Action Insulin aspart (NovoLog) Rapid-acting 5-15 minutes 3-5 hours Insulin aspart (Fiasp) Rapid-acting 16-20 minutes 5-7 hours Insulin lispro (Humalog) Rapid-acting 5-15 minutes 4-5 hours Insulin glulisine (Apidra) Rapid-acting 5-15 minutes 3-4 hours insulin regular (Humulin R, Novolin R) Short-acting 30-60 minutes 8-10 hours Insulin NPH (Humulin N, Novolin N) Intermediate-acting 2-4 Continue reading >>

Other Delivery Systems

Other Delivery Systems

The 10-mL vial NovoLog® Mix 70/30 (insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart injectable suspension) 100 U/mL is also available in 10-mL vials. Syringes are sold separately and may need a prescription from your doctor. If you have questions about how to use the vial and syringe, see the Instructions For Use below or ask your health care provider. NovoLog® Mix 70/30 10-mL vial (100 Units/mL, U-100) Instructions For Use Read the following Patient Instructions for Use carefully before you start using your NovoLog® Mix 70/30 10-mL vial. Before starting, gather all of the supplies that you will need to use for preparing and giving your insulin injection. Never reuse syringes and needles. How should I use the NovoLog® Mix 70/30 vial? Check to make sure that you have the correct type of insulin. This is especially important if you use different types of insulin. Look at the vial and the insulin. The insulin should be white and cloudy after mixing. The tamper-resistant cap should be on the vial before the first use. If the cap has already been removed before your first use of the vial, or the insulin looks clear or contains particles, do not use it and return it to your pharmacy. Wash your hands with soap and water. Clean your injection site with an alcohol swab and let the injection site dry before you inject. Talk with your health care provider about how to rotate injection sites and how to give an injection. If you are using a new vial, pull off the tamper-resistant cap. Wipe the rubber stopper with an alcohol swab. Roll the vial gently 10 times in your hands to mix it. This should be done with the vial in a horizontal (flat) position between your palms. Do not shake the vial. Shaking right before the dose is drawn into the syringe may cause bubbles or foam. This can ca Continue reading >>

Health Library

Health Library

Insulin Detemir Solution for injection INSULIN DETEMIR (IN su lin DE te mir) is a human-made form of insulin. This drug lowers the amount of sugar in your blood. It is a long-acting insulin that is usually given once or twice a day. This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions. What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine? They need to know if you have any of these conditions: episodes of hypoglycemia kidney disease liver disease an unusual or allergic reaction to insulin, metacresol, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives pregnant or trying to get pregnant breast-feeding How should I use this medicine? This medicine is for injection under the skin. Take this medicine at the same time(s) each day. Use exactly as directed. This insulin should never be mixed in the same syringe with other insulins before injection. Do not vigorously shake insulin before use. You will be taught how to adjust doses for activities and illness. Do not use more insulin than prescribed. Do not use more or less often than prescribed. Always check the appearance of your insulin before using it. This medicine should be clear and colorless like water. Do not use if it is cloudy, thickened, colored, or has solid particles in it. It is important that you put your used needles and syringes in a special sharps container. Do not put them in a trash can. If you do not have a sharps container, call your pharmacist or healthcare provider to get one. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 2 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply. Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact Continue reading >>

What You Need To Know About Insulin

What You Need To Know About Insulin

Toxicologists, scientists, and pharmaceutical researchers have developed different types of insulin derived from and formulated with other compounds. Doctors and patients have many different types of insulin drugs to choose from including delivery methods and devices. In the past, bovine (cow) and/or porcine (pig) insulin was extracted and used to develop different classifications of insulin. While bovine and porcine (sometimes combined) insulin is similar to human insulin, their composition is a little different. Because of this, some patients’ immune systems produce antibodies making bovine and/or porcine preparations ineffective. This led researchers to investigate human insulin synthesis by developing a chemically identical drug with the help of DNA recombinant (rDNA) technology. Today, almost all insulin prescribed is recombinant DNA human. While only a brief overview of where insulin comes from is presented, it is important for you to know there are many types. Your doctor makes his or her recommendation based on your diabetes, blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, and lifestyle, and from his or her experience with the insulin. Whatever type of insulin your doctor prescribes, keep in mind that it is regulated and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who oversees medication safety and efficacy. Possible Insulin Complications As with any drug or treatment, side effects and complications are possible. Your doctor understands the possible risks (associated with insulin and other medications he or she prescribes. This is another reason to share your complete medical history including allergies, daily medications, and supplements (e.g., vitamins, herbs) with your doctor. Types of Insulin Considering your body’s glucose levels change in response to fo Continue reading >>

Insulin Glargine Solution For Injection

Insulin Glargine Solution For Injection

This article from our Health Library is for educational purposes. Please contact us with questions specific to the services we provide, to find a doctor or to schedule an appointment. What is this medicine? INSULIN GLARGINE (IN su lin GLAR geen) is a human-made form of insulin. This drug lowers the amount of sugar in your blood. It is a long-acting insulin that is usually given once a day. How should I use this medicine? This medicine is for injection under the skin. Use this medicine at the same time each day. Use exactly as directed. This insulin should never be mixed in the same syringe with other insulins before injection. Do not vigorously shake before use. You will be taught how to use this medicine and how to adjust doses for activities and illness. Do not use more insulin than prescribed. Always check the appearance of your insulin before using it. This medicine should be clear and colorless like water. Do not use it if it is cloudy, thickened, colored, or has solid particles in it. It is important that you put your used needles and syringes in a special sharps container. Do not put them in a trash can. If you do not have a sharps container, call your pharmacist or healthcare provider to get one. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed. What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine? Side effects that you should report to your health care professional or doctor as soon as possible: allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue breathing problems signs and symptoms of high blood sugar such as dizziness, dry mouth, dry skin, fruity breath, nausea, stomach pain, increased hunger or thirst, increased urination signs and symptoms of low blood sugar s Continue reading >>

Novorapid 100 Units/ml Solution For Injection In Vial.

Novorapid 100 Units/ml Solution For Injection In Vial.

The Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) is the leaflet included in the pack with a medicine. It is written for patients and gives information about taking or using a medicine. It is possible that the leaflet in your medicine pack may differ from this version because it may have been updated since your medicine was packaged. Below is a text only representation of the Patient Information Leaflet, the original can be viewed in PDF format using the link above. The text only version may be available from RNIB in large print, Braille or audio CD. For further information call RNIB Medicine Leaflet Line on 0800 198 5000. The product code(s) for this leaflet are: EU/1/99/119/021, EU/1/99/119/015, EU/1/99/119/008, EU/1/99/119/022, EU/1/99/119/023, EU/1/99/119/011, EU/1/99/119/019, EU/1/99/119/001, EU/1/99/119/009, EU/1/99/119/017, EU/1/99/119/018, EU/1/99/119/020, EU/1/99/119/010, EU/1/99/119/006. NovoRapid 100 units/ml solution for injection in vial. Package leaflet: Information for the user NovoRapid® 100 units/ml solution for injection in vial Insulin aspart Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start using this medicine because it contains important information for you. Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again. If you have any further questions, ask your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours. If you get any side effects, talk with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4. 1. What NovoRapid® is and what it is used for 2. What you need to know before you use NovoRapid® 3. How to use NovoRapid® 4. Possible side effects 5. How to store NovoRapid® 6. C Continue reading >>

4 Interesting Facts About Your Insulin Pen

4 Interesting Facts About Your Insulin Pen

0 0 For most of us, our insulin pens are a daily part of life. But there are a lot of things that you may not have known about the handy little tool that you use day in and day out. Here are four facts about your insulin pen that may come as a surprise. 1. Leaving the Needle In Can Cause Infection. Keeping needles sterile is incredibly important for insulin pen users, since an unsterile needle can cause injury and can even introduce infection into the body. We always tell Timesulin users that it’s especially important to switch out the needles between injections and always keep the protective covering over the needles. 2. Insulin Pens Don’t Let You Mix Insulins. Occasionally, your doctor might prescribe mixing two types of insulin to help you better manage your blood glucose. While some types of insulin should never be mixed (your doctor will tell you what to mix and how to mix it), insulins that can be mixed together can’t be administered together through an insulin pen. Instead, it requires two injections – an initial dose of one insulin followed immediately by the second type of insulin. 3. It’s Necessary to “Waste” a Small Bit of Insulin. Using an insulin pen requires you to waste a tiny bit of insulin before your dose. This is because it’s important to make sure that insulin is inside the needle, otherwise you risk giving yourself an inaccurate insulin dose or none at all. This is even more more important when you are traveling in an airplane with different pressure. 4. Insulin Pen Needles are Less Painful Than Syringes. While this point might be subjective, the needles in insulin pens do differ from traditional syringes in that the polish and coat on an insulin pen needle stays sharp and isn’t dulled by first being injected into an insulin vial. Continue reading >>

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