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Which Insulins Are Cloudy In Appearance

Types Of Insulin - Topic Overview

Types Of Insulin - Topic Overview

Insulin is used to treat people who have diabetes. Each type of insulin acts over a specific amount of time. The amount of time can be affected by exercise, diet, illness, some medicines, stress, the dose, how you take it, or where you inject it. Insulin strength is usually U-100 (or 100 units of insulin in one milliliter of fluid). Short-acting (regular) insulin is also available in U-500. This is five times more concentrated than U-100 regular insulin. Long-acting insulin (glargine) is also available in U-300. This is three times more concentrated than U-100 long-acting insulin. Be sure to check the concentration of your insulin so you take the right amount. Insulin is made by different companies. Make sure you use the same type of insulin consistently. Types of insulin Type Examples Appearance When it starts to work (onset) The time of greatest effect (peak) How long it lasts (duration) Rapid-acting Apidra (insulin glulisine) Clear 5-15 minutes 30-60 minutes 3-5 hours Humalog (insulin lispro) Clear 5-15 minutes 30-90 minutes 3-5 hours NovoLog (insulin aspart) Clear 5-15 minutes 40-50 minutes 3-5 hours Afrezza (insulin human, inhaled) Contained in a cartridge 10-15 minutes 30-90 minutes 2½-3 hours Short-acting Humulin R, Novolin R (insulin regular) Clear 30 minutes 1½-2 hours 6-8 hours Intermediate-acting Humulin N, Novolin N (insulin NPH) Cloudy 1-4 hours 4-12 hours 14-24 hours Long-acting Lantus (insulin glargine) Clear 1-2 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours Levemir (insulin detemir) Clear 2 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours Rapid-acting insulins work over a narrow, more predictable range of time. Because they work quickly, they are used most often at the start of a meal. Rapid-acting insulin acts most like insulin that is produced by the human pancreas. It quickly Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes And Insulin

On this page: Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition where the body loses its ability to produce insulin, or begins to produce or use insulin less efficiently, resulting in blood glucose levels that are too high (hyperglycaemia). Blood glucose levels above the normal range , over time, can damage your eyes, kidneys and nerves, and can also cause heart disease and stroke. An estimated 280 Australians develop diabetes every day. Diabetes is Australia's fastest-growing chronic disease. The main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes develops when the cells of the pancreas stop producing insulin. Without insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells of the muscles for energy. Instead the glucose rises in the blood causing a person to become extremely unwell. Type 1 diabetes is life threatening if insulin is not replaced, and people need to inject insulin for the rest of their lives. Type 1 diabetes often occurs in children and people under 30 years of age, but it can occur at any age. This condition is not caused by lifestyle factors. Its exact cause is not known but research shows that something in the environment such as the rubella virus can trigger it in a person that has a genetic risk. The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells of the pancreas after the person gets a virus because it sees the cells as foreign. Most people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes do not have family members with this condition. For more information about symptoms, visit the Diabetes type 1 fact sheet. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas does not make enough insulin and the insulin that is made does not work as well as it should (also known as insulin resistan Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Topic Overview Insulin is used to treat people who have diabetes. Each type of insulin acts over a specific amount of time. The amount of time can be affected by exercise, diet, illness, some medicines, stress, the dose, and where the insulin has been injected. Insulin strength is usually U-100, or 100 units of insulin in one milliliter of fluid. Short-acting (regular) insulin is also available in U-500, or 500 units of insulin in one milliliter of fluid. This is five times more concentrated than U-100 regular insulin. Insulin is made by different companies. Make sure you use the same type of insulin consistently. Types of insulin Type Examples Appearance When it starts to work (onset) The time of greatest effect (peak) How long it lasts (duration) Rapid-acting Apidra (insulin glulisine) Clear 5–15 minutes 30–60 minutes 3–5 hours Humalog (insulin lispro) Clear 5–15 minutes 30–90 minutes 3–5 hours NovoLog (insulin aspart) Clear 5–15 minutes 40–50 minutes 3–5 hours Short-acting Humulin R, Novolin R (insulin regular) Clear 30 minutes 1½–2 hours 6–8 hours Intermediate-acting Humulin N, Novolin N (insulin NPH) Cloudy 1–4 hours 4–12 hours 14–24 hours Long-acting Lantus (insulin glargine) Clear 1–2 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours Levemir (insulin detemir) Clear 2 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours Rapid-acting insulins work over a narrow, more predictable range of time. The insulin Humalog is a quick-acting insulin with a short length (duration) of action. Rapid- and short-acting types of insulin take effect and wear off more quickly than long-acting insulins. The liquid insulins are clear and do not settle out when the bottle (vial) sits for a while. Rapid-acting insulin acts most like insulin produced by the human pancreas. It quickly drops th Continue reading >>

Nph Iletin Ii (lilly) Isophane Insulin Suspension, Usp Purified Pork

Nph Iletin Ii (lilly) Isophane Insulin Suspension, Usp Purified Pork

INFORMATION FOR THE PATIENT WARNINGS ANY CHANGE OF INSULIN SHOULD BE MADE CAUTIOUSLY AND ONLY UNDER MEDICAL SUPERVISION. CHANGES IN PURITY, STRENGTH, BRAND (MANUFACTURER), TYPE (REGULAR, NPH, LENTE), SPECIES (BEEF, PORK, BEEF-PORK, HUMAN), AND/OR METHOD OF MANUFACTURE (RECOMBINANT DNA VERSUS ANIMAL-SOURCE INSULIN) MAY RESULT IN THE NEED FOR A CHANGE IN DOSAGE. IF AN ADJUSTMENT IS NEEDED, IT MAY OCCUR WITH THE FIRST DOSE OR DURING THE FIRST SEVERAL WEEKS OR MONTHS. DIABETES Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland that lies near the stomach. This hormone is necessary for the body's correct use of food, especially sugar. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin to meet your body's needs. To control your diabetes, your doctor has prescribed injections of insulin to keep your blood glucose at a nearly normal level. Proper control of your diabetes requires close and constant cooperation with your doctor. In spite of diabetes, you can lead an active, healthy, and useful life if you eat a balanced diet daily, exercise regularly, and take your insulin injections as prescribed. You have been instructed to test your blood and/or your urine regularly for glucose. If your blood tests consistently show above- or below-normal glucose levels or your urine tests consistently show the presence of glucose, your diabetes is not properly controlled and you must let your doctor know. Always keep an extra supply of insulin as well as a spare syringe and needle on hand. Always wear diabetic identification so that appropriate treatment can be given if complications occur away from home. NPH PORK INSULIN Description NPH pork insulin is obtained from pork pancreas. NPH Iletin II (purified insulin, Lilly) is a crystalline suspension of insulin with protam Continue reading >>

Glargine And Lispro

Glargine And Lispro

Two cases of mistaken identity Insulin glargine (Lantus; Aventis, Parsippany, NJ) is a recently available basal insulin analog that appears to have a more consistent activity profile than comparable long-acting insulin products (1). It is typically administered as a single injection before bedtime. Due to minor modification of the amino acid sequence in both the A- and B-chains of the insulin molecule, glargine is soluble only in an acidic pH (2). When injected, glargine precipitates in the neutral pH of subcutaneous tissues, prolonging its systemic absorption (2). Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with NPH insulin, glargine improves fasting glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes (3) and results in less nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with both type 1 (4) and type 2 (5) diabetes. It may be particularly useful in individuals who demonstrate labile blood glucose control with conventional insulin formulations. One immediately obvious difference between glargine and other long- (or intermediate-) acting insulins is that the product is a clear solution, similar to short-acting products, not a semi-opaque suspension. To avoid confusion with such insulins, Lantus is marketed in a vial of unique shape, taller and thinner than all other insulin vials, and the label contains purple print. We herein report, however, our recent experience with two patients who mistakenly administered a rapid-acting insulin analog in lieu of their usual glargine dose. The first patient is a 25-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes duration of 6 years. She had generally been under good control, with a recent HbA1c of 7.0% (normal range 4.3–6.4%). There was no history of diabetes-related complications, including retinopathy or other medical conditions, and her compliance had always Continue reading >>

Difference Between Nph And Regular Insulin

Difference Between Nph And Regular Insulin

NPH vs Regular Insulin Diabetes mellitus is a long-term condition linked with irregularly high levels of glucose or sugar within the blood. It is a cluster of metabolic disorders exemplified by abnormal blood sugar levels due to deficient secretion of insulin and action or both. This disease is typically called diabetes and was first discovered as a disorder linked with sugary urine and an extreme loss of muscle tone way back in the past decades. Increased blood glucose levels, or hyperglycemia, can result in the seeping out of glucose within the urine, thus the expression “sweet urine.” Regularly, blood sugar levels are strictly managed by insulin. Insulin is the hormone secreted by the pancreas which is responsible for lowering the levels of blood glucose. The increase of blood sugar levels are commonly noted as the patient eats. Insulin is then liberated from the pancreas to put the blood sugar levels on a normal level. The patients with diabetes mellitus, with insufficient or absent manufacture of insulin, may have hyperglycemia. The two types of diabetes mellitus are the insulin-dependent type and the non-insulin-dependent type. The characteristic of these two types is described by the terms used to identify them. The non-insulin-dependent types are the patients with minimal insulin production that are augmented by taking oral hyperglycemic agents. On the other hand, the insulin-dependent types are the patients that have the inability to produce insulin with more than 100 mg/dl blood sugar level. The development of such circumstances entails an enduring medical intervention such as insulin administration. Insulin concentrations have different characteristics which gives the patient choices on what to use. Two of these concentrations are the regular and NPH insu Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Topic Overview Insulin is used to treat people who have diabetes. Each type of insulin acts over a specific amount of time. The amount of time can be affected by exercise, diet, illness, some medicines, stress, the dose, how you take it, or where you inject it. The table below is a general guide. Your results may be different. Insulin strength is usually U-100 (or 100 units of insulin in one milliliter of fluid). Short-acting (regular) insulin is also available in U-500. This is five times more concentrated than U-100 regular insulin. Long-acting insulin (glargine) is also available in U-300. This is three times more concentrated than U-100 long-acting insulin. Be sure to check the concentration of your insulin so you take the right amount. Insulin is made by different companies. Make sure you use the same type of insulin consistently. Types of insulin Type Examples Appearance When it starts to work (onset) The time of greatest effect (peak) How long it lasts (duration) Rapid-acting insulins work over a narrow, more predictable range of time. Because they work quickly, they are used most often at the start of a meal. Rapid-acting insulin acts most like insulin that is produced by the human pancreas. It quickly drops the blood sugar level and works for a short time. If a rapid-acting insulin is used instead of a short-acting insulin at the start of dinner, it may prevent severe drops in blood sugar level in the middle of the night. Apidra (glulisine), Humalog (lispro), Novolog (aspart) Clear 5–30 minutes 30 minutes–3 hours 3–5 hours Rapid-acting insulin also comes in a form that can be inhaled through the mouth. Afrezza (insulin human, inhaled) Contained in a cartridge 10–15 minutes 30–90 minutes 2½–3 hours Short-acting insulins take effect and wear off more Continue reading >>

Humalog Kwikpens

Humalog Kwikpens

NOTICE: This Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is intended for persons living in Australia. What is in this leaflet This leaflet is designed to provide you with answers to some common questions about these medicines. It does not contain all the available information and does not take the place of talking with your doctor. The information in this leaflet was last updated on the date shown on the final page. More recent information on this medicine may be available. Make sure you speak to your pharmacist, nurse or doctor to obtain the most up to date information on this medicine. You can also download the most up to date leaflet from www.lilly.com.au. The updated leaflet may contain important information about HUMALOG and its use that you should be aware of. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has more information about these medicines than is contained in this leaflet. Also, your doctor has had the benefit of taking a full and detailed history from you and is in the best position to make an expert judgement to meet your individual needs. If you have any concerns about using these medicines, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. What the HUMALOG insulins are used for HUMALOG insulins are used to reduce high blood sugar (glucose) levels in insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes is a condition in which your pancreas does not produce enough insulin to control your blood sugar level. Extra insulin is therefore needed. Type 1 diabetes - also called Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). Patients with type 1 diabetes always need insulin to control their blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes - also called Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Some patients with type 2 diabetes may also need insulin after initial treatment with diet, exercise an Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Under The Skin Of Diabetes

Diabetes: Under The Skin Of Diabetes

Rita Forde gives an overview of the developments in insulin administration Diabetes mellitus is a complex, multi-system disease, which results in an alteration in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.1 People with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin and are therefore dependent on an exogenous supply to sustain life. Those with type 2 produce some insulin and are not dependent on an exogenous insulin supply but may, over time, require insulin to maintain adequate blood glucose levels. Whenever insulin therapy is used, it is essential that the dosage is individualised to the particular needs of the person and is balanced with their diet and exercise. Insulin Insulin is obtained from beef or pork pancreas, or is produced chemically by recombinant DNA technology.2 In recent years, insulin analogues have been developed by modifying the amINO acid sequence of the insulin molecule. The duration of action of the various insulin types is used to differentiate them. In Ireland, rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting and long-acting insulins are available. Bi-phasic insulin, a combination of either rapid- or short-acting insulin and intermediate-acting insulin, is also available. While the insulins from the various companies are not identical, there are similarities between them. The following is an overview of the insulin types and not the specific brands of insulin available. Insulin analogues: These are rapid-acting insulins. Once injected, the insulin onset is almost immediate. The action peaks between one and three hours and the duration of action is between four and five hours.3,4 Short-acting insulin: This is also referred to as soluble insulin. Following subcutaneous injection, these types of insulin take 30 minutes for the onset of action. The pe Continue reading >>

Insulin Types

Insulin Types

What Are the Different Insulin Types? Insulin Types are hormones normally made in the pancreas that stimulates the flow of sugar – glucose – from the blood into the cells of the body. Glucose provides the cells with the energy they need to function. There are two main groups of insulins used in the treatment of diabetes: human insulins and analog insulins, made by recombinant DNA technology. The concentration of most insulins available in the United States is 100 units per milliliter. A milliliter is equal to a cubic centimeter. All insulin syringes are graduated to match this insulin concentration. There are four categories of insulins depending on how quickly they start to work in the body after injection: Very rapid acting insulin, Regular, or Rapid acting insulins, Intermediate acting insulins, Long acting insulin. In addition, some insulins are marketed mixed together in different proportions to provide both rapid and long acting effects. Certain insulins can also be mixed together in the same syringe immediately prior to injection. Rapid Acting Insulins A very rapid acting form of insulin called Lispro insulin is marketed under the trade name of Humalog. A second form of very rapid acting insulin is called Aspart and is marketed under the trade name Novolog. Humalog and Novolog are clear liquids that begin to work 10 minutes after injection and peak at 1 hour after injection, lasting for 3-4 hours in the body. However, most patients also need a longer-acting insulin to maintain good control of their blood sugar. Humalog and Novolog can be mixed with NPH insulin and are used as “bolus” insulins to be given 15 minutes before a meal. Note: Check blood sugar level before giving Humalog or Novalog. Your doctor or diabetes educator will instruct you in determini Continue reading >>

Insulins - Brand Names

Insulins - Brand Names

Sort Which types of insulin are clear? Which types are cloudy? Three CLEAR (1) rapid-acting (2) short-acting (3) long-acting Three CLOUDY (1) intermediate-acting (2) human mixture (3) analog mixture Which insulin mixtures include insulin analogs? Are they cloudy or clear? (1) insulin lispro protamine 75% / insulin lispro (Humalog Mix 75/25) (2) insulin lispro protamine 50% / insulin lispro 50% (Humalog 50/50) (3) insulin aspart protamine 70% / insulin aspart 30% (NovoLog Mix 70/30) CLOUDY Continue reading >>

Background Insulins

Background Insulins

QUICK ACTING INSULIN Once injected it is absorbed into the bloodstream and starts to work within 30 minutes, peaking between 2-4 hours after and lasts for up to 8 hours. Usually injected 20-30 minutes before main meals. Used instead of soluble insulin, QA Analogue insulin should be injected immediately before or immediately after main meals. It works within 15 minutes of injecting, peaks between 50-90 minutes and can continue to have an effect on blood sugar for 2-5 hours, depending on the insulin dose. The higher the dose the longer the duration of action. BACKGROUND INSULINS Isophane Insulins are cloudy in appearance, requiring mixing prior to injection. More often these insulins are taken twice daily in the morning and again at bed time. However may also be once daily. They begin to work 2 hours after injection, peaking at 4-6 hours and last for 8-14 hours. Long acting analogues are clear in colour, can be used instead of Isophane and last longer, beginning to work 2 hours after injection and last for 18-24 hours. MIXED INSULINS A mixture of quick acting and longer acting insulin, pre mixed in various strengths. Mixed human insulin Humulin M3 Insuman Comb 15 Insuman Comb 25 Insuman Comb 50 Mixed Analogue Novomix 30 Humalog mix 50 (sometimes injected 3 x daily, with an additional lunchtime dose.) Humalog mix 25 Analogue mixes have a quicker action; they are usually administered twice daily and can be given immediately before or immediately after breakfast and evening meal. Insulin Resource Table Insulin Names Onset Peak Duration Novorapid, Humalog Apidra 5 - 15 mins 50 - 90 mins 2 - 5 hours Actrapid, HumulinS, Hypurin Neutral 30 mins 2 - 4 hours Up to 8 hours Insulatard, Humulin I, Hypurin Isophane 2 hours 4 - 6 hours 8 - 14 hours Levemir 2 hours No distinct peak Up t Continue reading >>

Insulin Treatment For Diabetes

Insulin Treatment For Diabetes

People with type 1 diabetes are unable to produce enough insulin to regulate the glucose (sugar) levels within their blood, so they need to take insulin to manage their diabetes. Some people with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (diabetes that develops during pregnancy) may also need insulin to control their blood sugar levels. There are a variety of types of insulin and ways to give it, including injections, pens and pumps. Your doctor and diabetes educator can recommend the most suitable type of insulin and delivery device for you. Types of insulin There are different types of insulin available to manage diabetes. These days, most types of insulin are synthetic (created in a laboratory), but there are some that are extracted from the pancreas of animals. Types of insulin vary, according to: how quickly they take effect; how long their effect lasts; and when they reach their peak, in terms of ability to lower blood-glucose levels. Ultra-short-acting insulin Ultra-short-acting (also called very-short-acting or rapid-acting) insulin starts to work about 15 minutes after being injected, peaks after about 1-2 hours, and lasts for about 4-5 hours. This type of insulin is injected immediately before meal times and is also used in insulin pumps. Types of ultra-short-acting insulin include: insulin glulisine (brand name Apidra); insulin lispro (Humalog); and insulin aspart (NovoRapid). These are all synthetic copies (analogues) of human insulin and are clear in appearance. Short-acting insulin Short-acting insulin (insulin neutral) starts to work about half an hour after being injected, peaks from between 3 and 5 hours, and lasts for about 6-8 hours. Short-acting insulin is given 20-30 minutes before a meal. It is clear in appearance. Types of short-acting neutral insu Continue reading >>

Nph Insulin

Nph Insulin

NPH insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is an intermediate–acting insulin given to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.[3] It is used by injection under the skin once to twice a day.[1] Onset of effects is typically in 90 minutes and they last for 24 hours.[3] Versions are available that come premixed with a short–acting insulin, such as regular insulin.[2] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] NPH insulin is made by mixing regular insulin and protamine in exact proportions with zinc and phenol such that a neutral-pH is maintained and crystals form.[1] There are human and pig insulin based versions.[1] Protamine insulin was first created in 1936 and NPH insulin in 1946.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 2.23 to 10.35 USD per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[5] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds while in the United States this amount costs about 134.00 USD.[2][6] Chemistry[edit] NPH insulin is cloudy and has an onset of 1–4 hours. Its peak is 6–10 hours and its duration is about 10–16 hours. History[edit] Hans Christian Hagedorn (1888–1971) and August Krogh (1874–1949) obtained the rights for insulin from Banting and Best in Toronto, Canada. In 1923 they formed Nordisk Insulin laboratorium, and in 1926 with August Kongsted he obtained a Danish Royal Charter as a non-profit foundation. In 1936, Hagedorn and B. Norman Jensen discovered that the effects of injecte Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

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