Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>
How Can We Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Without Taking Medicines And Insulin?
The good news is that type 2 diabetes is a highly preventable disease. Well-conducted scientific studies (Diabetes Prevention Program, Da Qing study) have shown that lifestyle modification leading to weight loss can significantly reduce your risk of developing diabetes, by up to 58%. And if you’re already living with diabetes, don’t fret! Let me share with you my 3 simple secrets to a good healthy life, that doesn’t involve medications or insulin. This is what i’ve distilled from my years of clinical experience dealing with patients with diabetes. If you do this, you’ll significantly reduce your risk of nasty complications. Actually, it isn’t really a secret because all of you know this already ;) Eating right Moving More Monitoring Regularly Eating Right There is no special diet for diabetes! You can still enjoy all of the food you like…BUT (with a big but). Everyone with diabetes is different. Do a blood sugar check before eating and 2 hours after your meals. Over time, you’ll learn which foods work well for you and which ones are more challenging. And you’ll be able to make the right changes that work for you. Moving More Increasing your exercise levels means that you are using your muscles more often and in doing so your sensitivity to insulin will increase. This will make it easier for your body to use insulin and to remove excess glucose from your bloodstream. You will see this reflected in lower blood glucose levels after physical activity. And when I say exercise, I don’t mean you need to do the kind of exercise that makes you pant like a dog - even simple things like brisk walking for 20 - 30 minutes on alternate days, or taking the stairs instead of the lift, help. If you don’t believe me - try it yourself. Find one good day - test your b Continue reading >>
What Does Insulin Do?
The word “insulin” can instill fear in many people who have or who are at risk for diabetes. Some of the beliefs around insulin are that if you have to take it, you’ll go blind or lose a limb. Or that insulin causes you to gain weight. Or that it means your diabetes is worsening. While these beliefs are understandable, the reality is that they’re not true. In fact, insulin is a life-saving medication: without it, people with Type 1 diabetes wouldn’t be alive, and many people with Type 2 diabetes would be struggling. The discovery of insulin is so important that it’s often called one of the greatest medical developments of the 20th century. This week, let’s delve into insulin and learn more about how truly amazing it is! What exactly is insulin? Insulin is a hormone. It’s made in the beta cells of the pancreas, and one of its main roles is to help regulate, or control, your blood sugar. When there’s enough insulin in the body, it helps to keep your blood sugar from going too high. In people who don’t have diabetes, blood sugars are very carefully and tightly controlled, staying within a safe and healthy range. After a person without diabetes eats a meal or a snack, the pancreas releases insulin. The insulin then signals muscle, fat, and liver cells in the body to absorb glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream to be used for energy. In this sense, insulin is like a key that unlocks the doors of the cells to allow glucose to enter. You can also think of insulin as a “storage” hormone, since when there’s more glucose than the body needs, insulin helps the body store that excess glucose in the liver to be used at a later time. Insulin also signals the liver to stop releasing glucose into the bloodstream. Insulin also helps shuttle amino acids (from pro Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Insulin
On this page: Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition where the body loses its ability to produce insulin, or begins to produce or use insulin less efficiently, resulting in blood glucose levels that are too high (hyperglycaemia). Blood glucose levels above the normal range , over time, can damage your eyes, kidneys and nerves, and can also cause heart disease and stroke. An estimated 280 Australians develop diabetes every day. Diabetes is Australia's fastest-growing chronic disease. The main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes develops when the cells of the pancreas stop producing insulin. Without insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells of the muscles for energy. Instead the glucose rises in the blood causing a person to become extremely unwell. Type 1 diabetes is life threatening if insulin is not replaced, and people need to inject insulin for the rest of their lives. Type 1 diabetes often occurs in children and people under 30 years of age, but it can occur at any age. This condition is not caused by lifestyle factors. Its exact cause is not known but research shows that something in the environment such as the rubella virus can trigger it in a person that has a genetic risk. The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells of the pancreas after the person gets a virus because it sees the cells as foreign. Most people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes do not have family members with this condition. For more information about symptoms, visit the Diabetes type 1 fact sheet. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas does not make enough insulin and the insulin that is made does not work as well as it should (also known as insulin resistan Continue reading >>
Why do I need to take insulin? When you digest food, your body changes most of the food you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin allows this glucose to enter all the cells of your body and be used as energy. When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it properly, so the glucose builds up in your blood instead of moving into the cells. Too much glucose in the blood can lead to serious health problems. All people who have type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. The goal of taking insulin is to keep your blood sugar level in a normal range as much as possible so you’ll stay healthy. Insulin can’t be taken by mouth. It is usually taken with injections (shots). It can also be taken with an insulin pen or an insulin pump. How often will I need to take insulin? You and your doctor will develop a schedule that is right for you. Most people who have diabetes and take insulin need at least 2 insulin shots a day for good blood sugar control. Some people need 3 or 4 shots a day. Do I need to monitor my blood sugar level? Yes. Monitoring and controlling your blood sugar is key to preventing the complications of diabetes. If you don’t already monitor your blood sugar level, you will need to learn how. Checking your blood sugar involves pricking your finger to get a small drop of blood that you put on a test strip. You can read the results yourself or insert the strip into a machine called an electronic glucose meter. The results will tell you whether or not your blood sugar is in a healthy range. Your doctor will give you additional information about monitoring your blood sugar. When should I take insulin? You and your doctor should discuss when and how you Continue reading >>
There are several different kinds of diabetes medicines in addition to insulin. These medicines can lower blood sugar levels but they're not the same as insulin. Most of these medicines are available in pill form. Insulin can't be taken as a pill because acids in the stomach destroy it before it can enter the bloodstream. In type 2 diabetes, the body still makes some of its own insulin, but isn't able to make enough to keep up with the body's needs or use its own insulin effectively. Diabetes pills don't replace the body's insulin, but they can help the body make more insulin or help it more effectively use the insulin it does make. Most people who have type 2 diabetes take diabetes pills to help them keep their blood sugar levels closer to normal. People with type 1 diabetes don't use diabetes pills. They need to take insulin shots because their bodies can't make any of their own insulin. Here are some different types of diabetes medicines, grouped by how they help the body keep blood sugar levels closer to normal. Medicine That Helps the Body Make More Insulin Sulfonylureas and meglitinides like repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix) are secretagagogues and all do similar things. These pills cause a person's pancreas to make more of its own insulin. Sulfonylureas have been used since the 1950s to help people lower their blood sugar levels. Over the years, newer and better versions of this drug have become available. One of the best drugs currently available in this class is glimepiride (Amaryl). Here's how these pills work: Sulfonylureas help the pancreas make more insulin. When the insulin gets into the bloodstream, blood sugar levels go down. Like people who take insulin, people who take sulfonylureas need to be careful that their blood sugar levels don't d Continue reading >>
Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, which lies just behind your stomach. It helps our bodies use glucose for energy. Everyone with Type 1 diabetes and some people with Type 2 diabetes need to take insulin – either by injection or a pump – to control their blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels). Injecting insulin Insulin is injected using a syringe and needle, or an insulin pen or needle. The needles used are very small as the insulin only needs to be injected under the skin (subcutaneously) – not into a muscle or vein. Once it's been injected, it soaks into small blood vessels and is taken into the bloodstream. As your confidence grows and you become more relaxed, injections will get easier and soon become second nature. The most frequently used injection sites are the thighs, buttocks and abdomen. You may be able to inject into your upper arms, but check with your diabetes team first as this isn't always suitable. As all these areas cover a wide skin area, you should inject at different sites within each of them. It is important to rotate injection sites, as injecting into the same place can cause a build up of lumps under the skin (also known as lipohypertrophy), which make it harder for your body to absorb and use the insulin properly. The three groups of insulin There are three groups of insulin – animal, human (not from humans but produced synthetically to match human insulin) and analogues (the insulin molecule is like a string of beads; scientists have managed to alter the position of some of these beads to create 'analogues' of insulin). Nowadays, most people use human insulin and insulin analogues, although a small number of people still use animal insulin because they have some evidence that they otherwise lose their awareness of Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Faqs
Common questions about type 2 diabetes: How do you treat type 2 diabetes? When you have type 2 diabetes, you first need to eat a healthy diet, stay physically active and lose any extra weight. If these lifestyle changes cannot control your blood sugar, you also may need to take pills and other injected medication, including insulin. Eating a healthy diet, being physically active, and losing any extra weight is the first line of therapy. “Diet and exercise“ is the foundation of all diabetes management because it makes your body’s cells respond better to insulin (in other words, it decreases insulin resistance) and lowers blood sugar levels. If you cannot normalize or control the blood sugars with diet, weight loss and exercise, the next treatment phase is taking medicine either orally or by injection. Diabetes pills work in different ways – some lower insulin resistance, others slow the digestion of food or increase insulin levels in the blood stream. The non-insulin injected medications for type 2 diabetes have a complicated action but basically lower blood glucose after eating. Insulin therapy simply increases insulin in the circulation. Don’t be surprised if you have to use multiple medications to control the blood sugar. Multiple medications, also known as combination therapy is common in the treatment of diabetes! If one medication is not enough, you medical provider may give you two or three or more different types of pills. Insulin or other injected medications also may be prescribed. Or, depending on your medical condition, you may be treated only with insulin or injected medication therapy. Many people with type 2 diabetes have elevated blood fats (high triglycerides and cholesterol) and blood pressure, so you may be given medications for these problem Continue reading >>
There's no cure for diabetes, so treatment aims to keep your blood glucose levels as normal as possible and to control your symptoms to prevent health problems developing later in life. If you've been diagnosed with diabetes, you'll be referred for specialist treatment from a diabetes care team. They'll be able to help you understand your treatment and closely monitor your condition to identify any health problems that may occur. Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body doesn't produce any insulin. This means you'll need regular insulin treatment to keep your glucose levels normal. Insulin comes in several different preparations, each of which works slightly differently. For example, some last up to a whole day (long-acting), some last up to eight hours (short-acting) and some work quickly but don't last very long (rapid-acting). Your treatment is likely to include a combination of different insulin preparations. Insulin Insulin injections If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll probably need insulin injections. Insulin must be injected, because if it were taken as a tablet, it would be broken down in your stomach (like food) and would be unable to enter your bloodstream. When you're first diagnosed, your diabetes care team will help you with your insulin injections, before showing you how and when to do it yourself. They'll also show you how to store your insulin and dispose of your needles properly. Insulin injections are usually given by an injection pen, which is also known as an insulin pen or auto-injector. Sometimes, injections are given using a syringe. Most people need two to four injections a day. Your GP or diabetes nurse may also teach one of your close friends or relatives how to inject the insulin properly. Insulin pump therapy Insulin pump therapy is an alter Continue reading >>
Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes: What You Should Know
Insulin and Type 2 Diabetes If your health care provider offered you a medication to help you feel better and get your blood sugar under control, would you try it? If so, you might be ready to start taking insulin. Does insulin immediately make you think of type 1 diabetes? Think again. Between 30 and 40 percent of people with type 2 diabetes take insulin. In fact, there are more people with type 2 diabetes who take insulin than type 1 because of the much larger number of people with type 2. Experts believe even more people with type 2 should be taking insulin to control blood sugar -- and the earlier, the better. With an increase in people developing type 2 at a younger age and living longer, more and more people with type 2 will likely be taking insulin. "If you live long enough with type 2 diabetes, odds are good you'll eventually need insulin," says William Polonsky, Ph.D., CDE, associate clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego; founder and president of the Behavioral Diabetes Institute; and author of Diabetes Burnout: What to Do When You Can't Take It Anymore (American Diabetes Association, 1999). Producing Less Insulin Naturally Over Time Research has shown that type 2 diabetes progresses as the ability of the body’s pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin dwindles over time. Your beta cells -- the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin -- slowly lose function. Experts believe that by the time you're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you've already lost 50-80 percent of your beta cell function and perhaps the number of beta cells you had. And the loss continues over the years. "About six years after being diagnosed, most people have about a quarter of their beta cell function left," says Anthony McCall, M.D., Ph.D., endocri Continue reading >>
The Facts About Insulin For Diabetes
Insulin is a hormone that your pancreas makes to allow cells to use glucose. When your body isn't making or using insulin correctly, you can take man-made insulin to help control your blood sugar. Many types can be used to treat diabetes. They're usually described by how they affect your body. Rapid-acting insulin starts to work within a few minutes and lasts for a couple of hours. Regular- or short-acting insulin takes about 30 minutes to work fully and lasts for 3 to 6 hours. Intermediate-acting insulin takes 2 to 4 hours to work fully. Its effects can last for up to 18 hours. Long-acting insulin can work for an entire day. Your doctor may prescribe more than one type. You might need to take insulin more than once daily, to space your doses throughout the day, and possibly to also take other medicines. How Do I Take It? Many people get insulin into their blood using a needle and syringe, a cartridge system, or pre-filled pen systems. The place on the body where you give yourself the shot may matter. You'll absorb insulin the most consistently when you inject it into your belly. The next best places to inject it are your arms, thighs, and buttocks. Make it a habit to inject insulin at the same general area of your body, but change up the exact injection spot. This helps lessen scarring under the skin. Inhaled insulin, insulin pumps, and a quick-acting insulin device are also available. When Do I Take It? It will depend on the type of insulin you use. You want to time your shot so that the glucose from your food gets into your system at about the same time that the insulin starts to work. This will help your body use the glucose and avoid low blood sugar reactions. For example, if you use a rapid-acting insulin, you'd likely take it 10 minutes before or even with your m Continue reading >>
What Could Happen To A Type 1 Diabetes If He Takes Slow Acting Insulin Injections And Starves For 2 Days?
I am going to interpret slow acting insulin as basal insulin. Basal insulin is sold under the brand names Lantus, Basugine, etc. Essentially, this is insulin you take once a day everyday. How does one know that the dosage of the basal insulin is correct? Is 15 units correct? or should it be 10 units? or 20? Lets understand how the basal+bolus insulin regime is supposed to work. basal insulin is supposed to mimic insulin release throughout the day by the normal body. bolus insulin compensates for the food intake - it mimics the extra insulin produced by the body when we consume food. This regime should work even when one is fasting. This means that the dosage of basal insulin is just right when the following are true: The blood glucose level does not increase - assuming no stress due to illness; and The blood glucose level does not decrease - again assuming no exercise If the above 2 conditions are true, the bolus’s job is to compensate for the food intake. This makes it easy to know how much bolus to take without having to worry about basal also increasing/decreasing the blood sugar levels. The book suggests the following experiment to figure out the correct basal dosage for you: Take your regular basal shot the night before Check your blood glucose levels every hour for about 5–6 hours in the morning while fasting If your blood glucose levels remain the same during this 5–6 hours, the basal insulin is doing its job perfectly If your blood glucose levels are increasing, your basal dosage is low If your blood glucose levels are falling, your basal dosage is high After you have figured out your basal dosage this way, you can fast all you want because you are sure that your blood glucose levels will not increase. I love this technique because it gives me the tools to Continue reading >>
Insulin For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Examples The different types of insulin are categorized according to how fast they start to work (onset) and how long they continue to work (duration). The types now available include rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulin. Rapid-acting Generic Name Brand Name insulin aspart NovoLog insulin glulisine Apidra insulin human (inhalation powder) Afrezza insulin lispro Humalog Short-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Generic Name Brand Name insulin detemir Levemir insulin glargine Lantus Mixtures Generic Name Brand Name 70% NPH and 30% regular Humulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30 50% lispro protamine and 50% lispro Humalog Mix 50/50 75% lispro protamine and 25% lispro Humalog Mix 75/25 70% aspart protamine and 30% aspart NovoLog Mix 70/30 50% NPH and 50% regular Humulin 50/50 Packaging Injectable insulin is packaged in small glass vials (bottles) and cartridges that hold more than one dose and are sealed with rubber lids. The cartridges are used in pen-shaped devices called insulin pens. Inhaled insulin is a powder that is packaged in a cartridge. Cartridges hold certain dosages of insulin, and more than one cartridge might be needed to take enough insulin. How insulin is taken Insulin usually is given as an injection into the tissues under the skin (subcutaneous). It can also be given through an insulin pump, an insulin pen, or jet injector, a device that sprays the medicine into the skin. Some insulins can be given through a vein (only in a hospital). Powdered insulin is packaged in a cartridge, which fits into an inhaler. Using the inhaler, a person breathes in to take the insulin. How It Works Insulin lets sugar (glucose) in the blood enter cells, where it is used for energy. Without insulin, the blood sugar level rises above what is safe for the body. If the Continue reading >>
Diabetes Treatment: Using Insulin To Manage Blood Sugar
Understanding how insulin affects your blood sugar can help you better manage your condition. Insulin therapy is often an important part of diabetes treatment. Understand the key role insulin plays in managing your blood sugar, and the goals of insulin therapy. What you learn can help you prevent diabetes complications. The role of insulin in the body It may be easier to understand the importance of insulin therapy if you understand how insulin normally works in the body and what happens when you have diabetes. Regulate sugar in your bloodstream. The main job of insulin is to keep the level of glucose in the bloodstream within a normal range. After you eat, carbohydrates break down into glucose, a sugar that serves as a primary source of energy, and enters the bloodstream. Normally, the pancreas responds by producing insulin, which allows glucose to enter the tissues. Storage of excess glucose for energy. After you eat — when insulin levels are high — excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen. Between meals — when insulin levels are low — the liver releases glycogen into the bloodstream in the form of glucose. This keeps blood sugar levels within a narrow range. If your pancreas secretes little or no insulin (type 1 diabetes), or your body doesn't produce enough insulin or has become resistant to insulin's action (type 2 diabetes), the level of glucose in your bloodstream increases because it's unable to enter cells. Left untreated, high blood glucose can lead to complications such as blindness, nerve damage (neuropathy) and kidney damage. The goals of insulin therapy If you have type 1 diabetes, insulin therapy replaces the insulin your body is unable to produce. Insulin therapy is sometimes needed for type 2 diabetes and gestational diabete Continue reading >>
What Are Some Of The Most Useful Ways People With Diabetes Can Prevent Themselves From Accidentally Missing Or Taking A Double Insulin Injection?
I echo what Brian Carey said about an insulin pump: it takes much of the onus of record-keeping off your plate. I've been type 1 for 50+ years now, steadily more and more well-controlled as I learned how to manage the disease, but since I went on the pump about 11 years ago, my control has gotten better than ever. If at all possible, given insurance and doctor's OK, I would urge you to consider this over an insulin pen. Some context: Lou Davis commented below that well-managed diabetics tend to be diligent about recording things such as blood sugar and insulin dosage and time given. I am an exception to that general rule. I never record anything. At one point in my life—decades after living with diabetes, say, maybe after 35 years, I decided that I got to choose how much time I spend charting these things. At the time when I gave up scribbling in all those ratty, blood-stained notebooks—none of which gave me sufficient space to enter meaningful context regarding activity or illness or food and hence were an endless source of frustration—I was taking extremely frequent blood sugar tests, was injecting via pen up to 7 or 8 times a day, and was very well controlled. My doctors don't like this, but they gave up arguing years ago. They deal by getting a read-out of my blood sugars from my meter. It's hard to argue with a stubborn diabetic who's got an A1C of 6.2 ( I've had it lower, but they talked me out of it, for fear of hypoglycemia) and who's survived for all these years. Now, about that pump. Here's how it saves you from multiple, redundant injections: As you might already know, an insulin pump delivers a steady trickle of fast-acting insulin throughout the day, as set in accordance with your body's fluctuating needs at various times of day. That's called your ba Continue reading >>