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Where Is Type 1 Diabetes Most Common In The World

Type 1 Diabetes Facts And Figures

Type 1 Diabetes Facts And Figures

The incidence of type 1 diabetes is growing at an alarming rate. View the latest figures and links to national public information resources below. Quick facts Approximately 400,000 people are currently living with type 1 diabetes in the UK, with over 29,000 of them children Incidence is increasing by about four per cent each year, particularly in children under five, with a five percent increase each year in this age group over the last 20 years Type 1 diabetes affects 97 per cent of all children with diabetes in England 90 per cent of people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes have no family history of the condition Although it used to be referred to as ‘juvenile diabetes’, around half of newly diagnosed cases are in people over the age of 18 The UK has one of the highest rates of type 1 diabetes in the world, for reasons that are currently unknown A person with type 1 diabetes will have around 65,000 injections and measure their blood glucose over 80,000 times in their lifetime Public information resources National Diabetes Audit – One of the largest annual clinical audits in the world. It measures the effectiveness of diabetes care against National Institute of Clinical Excellence clinical guidelines and quality standards. Quality and Outcomes Framework – This is the annual programme that details GP practice achievement results and rewards practices for the achievement of quality care. The QOF awards practices achievement points for managing some of the most common chronic diseases, diabetes being one. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Incidence And Historical Trends

Diabetes Incidence And Historical Trends

Type 1 Diabetes Incidence There are approximately 500,000 children aged under 15 with type 1 diabetes in the world (Patterson et al. 2014); in 2013 alone, 79,000 more children developed type 1 (IDF Diabetes Atlas 2013). Worldwide, the incidence of type 1 diabetes increased, on average, 3% per year between 1960 to 1996 in children under age 15 (Onkamo et al. 1999). Between 1990 and 1999, incidence increased in most continents, with a rise of 5.3% in North America, 4% in Asia, and 3.2% in Europe. This trend is especially troubling in the youngest children; for every hundred thousand children under age 5, 4% more were diagnosed every year, on average, worldwide (Diamond Project Group 2006). In the U.S., the latest data show that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes increased by 21% in children between 2001 and 2009 (Dabelea et al. 2014), and the incidence of type 1 diabetes in non-Hispanic whites increased by 2.7% per year between 2002 and 2009 (Lawrence et al. 2014). More recent numbers show that overall, type 1 diabetes incidence in children increased by 1.8% per year between 2002 and 2012 (Mayer-Davis et al. 2017). Those numbers are from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, which has study centers in 5 U.S. states. The CDC collects nation-wide data on diabetes, but does not differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A study of a large population of U.S. patients with commercial health insurance found that type 1 (and type 2) prevalence increased between 2002-2013 in children (Li et al. 2015). Another study of U.S. patients-- both children and adults-- with commercial health insurance found that the type 1 diabetes incidence rate increased 1.9% in children between 2001 and 2015, and varied by area. The incidence decreased during that same time period in adults, al Continue reading >>

Geography Of Type 1 Diabetes

Geography Of Type 1 Diabetes

The incidence of type 1 diabetes varies widely in both time and space. There is striking variation in the incidence of type 1 diabetes between one population and the next, and it is still unclear to what extent this is due to differences in genes or environment. Europe has the highest incidence, with peak rates in Finland and Sardinia. Other populations of European descent have high rates of type 1 diabetes, and it has been suggested that higher latitudes (both north and south) carry a higher risk, possibly related to lack of vitamin D from sunlight. There are many exceptions to this rule, however, and the incidence of type 1 diabetes has risen rapidly in populations previously considered immune. These include parts of India, the Middle East, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Asian populations have a low but rising incidence, and will make a major future contribution to the global burden of disease. Migrant studies have been of limited quality, but suggest that children adopt the risk of their host country. There are however important differences between the risk and phenotype of early onset diabetes in different ethnic populations within the same country, for example the USA. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Read on to learn some of the key facts and statistics about the people who have it and how to manage it. Risk factors Many risk factors for type 2 diabetes include lifestyle decisions that can be reduced or even cut out entirely with time and effort. Men are also at slightly higher risk of developing diabetes than women. This may be more associated with lifestyle factors, body weight, and where the weight is located (abdominally versus in the hip area) than with innate gender differences. Significant risk factors include: older age excess weight, particularly around the waist family history certain ethnicities physical inactivity poor diet Prevalence Type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent but also largely preventable. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults. The CDC also gives us the following information: In general Research suggests that 1 out of 3 adults has prediabetes. Of this group, 9 out of 10 don't know they have it. 29.1 million people in the United States have diabetes, but 8.1 million may be undiagnosed and unaware of their condition. About 1.4 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in United States every year. More than one in every 10 adults who are 20 years or older has diabetes. For seniors (65 years and older), that figure rises to more than one in four. Cases of diagnosed diabetes cost the United States an estimated $245 billion in 2012. This cost is expected to rise with the increasing diagnoses. In pregnancy and parentingAccording to the CDC, 4.6 to 9.2 percent of pregnancies may be affected by gestational diabetes. In up to 10 percent of them, the mother is diagnosed w Continue reading >>

Globalization Of Diabetes

Globalization Of Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the “normal-weight metabolically obese” phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority. THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF TYPE Continue reading >>

Global Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes In Young Adults And Adults: A Systematic Review

Global Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes In Young Adults And Adults: A Systematic Review

Go to: Abstract Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) can affect patients of all ages, most epidemiological studies of T1D focus on disease forms with clinical diagnosis during childhood and adolescence. Clinically, adult T1D is difficult to discriminate from certain forms of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and from Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). We searched the information available worldwide on the incidence of T1D among individuals over 15 years of age, and which diagnostic criteria should be used use to qualify T1D in adults. We then studied the variation of T1D incidence with age in adults, and compared it to the incidence in the <15 years-old. A systematic review of the literature was performed to retrieve original papers in English, French and Spanish published up to November 6, 2014, reporting the incidence of T1D among individuals aged over 15 years. The study was carried out according to the PRISMA recommendations. Results We retrieved information reporting incidence of T1D among individuals aged more than 15 years in 35 countries, and published in 70 articles between 1982 and 2014. Specific anti-beta-cell proteins or C-peptide detection were performed in 14 of 70 articles (20%). The most frequent diagnostic criteria used were clinical symptoms and immediate insulin therapy. Country-to-country variations of incidence in those aged >15 years paralleled those of children in all age groups. T1D incidence was larger in males than in females in 44 of the 54 (81%) studies reporting incidence by sex in people >15 years of age. The overall mean male-to-female ratio in the review was 1.47 (95% CI = 1.33-1.60, SD = 0.49, n = 54, p = <0.0001). Overall, T1D incidence decreased in adulthood, after the age of 14 years. Few studies on epidemiology of T1D in adults are available Continue reading >>

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes increased worldwide in the closing decades of the 20th century, but the origins of this increase are poorly documented. A search through the early literature revealed a number of useful but neglected sources, particularly in Scandinavia. While these do not meet the exacting standards of more recent surveys, tentative conclusions can be drawn concerning long-term changes in the demography of the disease. Childhood type 1 diabetes was rare but well recognized before the introduction of insulin. Low incidence and prevalence rates were recorded in several countries over the period 1920–1950, and one carefully performed study showed no change in childhood incidence over the period 1925–1955. An almost simultaneous upturn was documented in several countries around the mid-century. The overall pattern since then is one of linear increase, with evidence of a plateau in some high-incidence populations and of a catch-up phenomenon in some low-incidence areas. Steep rises in the age-group under 5 years have been recorded recently. The disease process underlying type 1 diabetes has changed over time and continues to evolve. Understanding why and how this produced the pandemic of childhood diabetes would be an important step toward reversing it. At the start of the 20th century, childhood diabetes was rare and rapidly fatal. By its end, some 3–4 children per 1,000 in Western countries would require insulin treatment by the age of 20 years, and a steady rise in incidence had been reported from many other parts of the world. This increase has been extensively documented over the past two decades, over which time standard means of data collection have been agreed, central registries have been established, and numerous epidemiological stu Continue reading >>

Key Facts On Children And Type 1 Diabetes Worldwide In 2017

Key Facts On Children And Type 1 Diabetes Worldwide In 2017

Premium Records: 13 Key figures on children and type 1 diabetes - - - - - - Showing entries 1 to 3 (3 entries in total) About this statistic Show source Statistics on "Children's health in the U.S." Related Studies: Available to Download in PDF or PPTX Format Everything On "Children's health in the U.S." in One Document: Edited and Divided into Handy Chapters. Including Detailed References. Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes may present at any age, but most typically presents in early life with a peak around the time of puberty. Its incidence varies 50–100-fold around the world, with the highest rates in northern Europe and in individuals of European extraction. Both sexes are equally affected in childhood, but men are more commonly affected in early adult life. The distinction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes becomes blurred in later life, and the true lifetime incidence of the condition is therefore unknown. A variant form known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) has been described. The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes is rising rapidly in all populations, especially in the under 5-year-old age group, with a doubling time of less than 20 years in Europe. The increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes suggests a major environmental contribution, but the role of specific factors such as viruses remains controversial. Incidence rates Type 1 diabetes has historically been most prevalent in populations of European origin, but is becoming more frequent in other ethnic groups. Within Europe the highest rates of childhood diabetes are found in Scandinavia and north-west Europe, with an incidence range from 57.4 cases/100,000 per year in Finland to 3.9/100,000 in Macedonia for children aged 0–14 years.[1] Genetically related populations may differ in incidence: for example, type 1 diabetes is more common in Norwegians than in Icelanders of largely Norwegian descent, while Finnish children have a threefold risk compared with Estonians.[2] The incidence of type 1 diabetes remains relatively low in populations of non-European descent around the world, but many of these now report a rising incidence of the disease. Kuwait, for example, now has an incidence of 22.3/ Continue reading >>

Global Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes In Young Adults And Adults: A Systematic Review

Global Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes In Young Adults And Adults: A Systematic Review

Abstract Background Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) can affect patients of all ages, most epidemiological studies of T1D focus on disease forms with clinical diagnosis during childhood and adolescence. Clinically, adult T1D is difficult to discriminate from certain forms of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and from Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). We searched the information available worldwide on the incidence of T1D among individuals over 15 years of age, and which diagnostic criteria should be used use to qualify T1D in adults. We then studied the variation of T1D incidence with age in adults, and compared it to the incidence in the <15 years-old. A systematic review of the literature was performed to retrieve original papers in English, French and Spanish published up to November 6, 2014, reporting the incidence of T1D among individuals aged over 15 years. The study was carried out according to the PRISMA recommendations. We retrieved information reporting incidence of T1D among individuals aged more than 15 years in 35 countries, and published in 70 articles between 1982 and 2014. Specific anti-beta-cell proteins or C-peptide detection were performed in 14 of 70 articles (20%). The most frequent diagnostic criteria used were clinical symptoms and immediate insulin therapy. Country-to-country variations of incidence in those aged >15 years paralleled those of children in all age groups. T1D incidence was larger in males than in females in 44 of the 54 (81%) studies reporting incidence by sex in people >15 years of age. The overall mean male-to-female ratio in the review was 1.47 (95% CI = 1.33-1.60, SD = 0.49, n = 54, p = <0.0001). Overall, T1D incidence decreased in adulthood, after the age of 14 years. Few studies on epidemiology of T1D in adults are available wor Continue reading >>

Rates Of New Diagnosed Cases Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise Among Children, Teens

Rates Of New Diagnosed Cases Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise Among Children, Teens

Press Release Contact: Rates of new diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing among youth in the United States, according to a report published today in the New England Journal of Medicine, entitled “Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.” In the United States, 29.1 million people are living with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, and about 208,000 people younger than 20 years are living with diagnosed diabetes. This study is the first ever to estimate trends in new diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in youth (those under the age of 20), from the five major racial/ethnic groups in the U.S.: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), found that from 2002 to 2012, incidence, or the rate of new diagnosed cases of type 1 diabetes in youth increased by about 1.8 percent each year. During the same period, the rate of new diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes increased even more quickly, at 4.8 percent. The study included 11,244 youth ages 0-19 with type 1 diabetes and 2,846 youth ages 10-19 with type 2. “Because of the early age of onset and longer diabetes duration, youth are at risk for developing diabetes related complications at a younger age. This profoundly lessens their quality of life, shortens their life expectancy, and increases health care costs,” said Giuseppina Imperatore, M.D., Ph.D., epidemiologist in CDC’s Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Results of this study reflect the nation’s first and only ongoing assess Continue reading >>

List Of Countries By Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes Ages 0 To 14

List Of Countries By Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes Ages 0 To 14

Save for later Position Country Incidence (per 100,000) 1 Finland 57.6 2 Sweden 43.1 3 Saudi Arabia 31.4 4 Norway 27.9 5 United Kingdom 24.5 6 USA 23.7 7 Australia 22.5 8 Kuwait 22.3 9 Denmark 22.2 10 Canada 21.7 11 Netherlands 18.6 12 Germany 18 12 New Zealand 18 14 Poland 17.3 15 Czech Republic 17.2 16 Estonia 17.1 17 Puerto Rico 16.8 18 Ireland 16.3 18 Montenegro 16.3 20 Malta 15.6 21 Luxembourg 15.5 22 Belgium 15.4 23 Cyprus 14.9 24 Iceland 14.7 25 Slovakia 13.6 26 Austria 13.3 27 Portugal 13.2 28 Spain 13 29 Serbia 12.9 30 United States Virgin Islands 12.8 31 France 12.2 32 Italy 12.1 32 Russian Federation 12.1 34 Qatar 11.4 35 Hungary 11.3 36 Slovenia 11.1 37 Israel 10.4 37 Greece 10.4 39 Bahamas 10.1 39 Sudan 10.1 41 Bulgaria 9.4 42 Switzerland 9.2 43 Croatia 9.1 44 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 9 45 Algeria 8.6 46 Uruguay 8.3 47 Ukraine 8.1 48 Egypt 8 49 Lithuania 7.8 50 Brazil 7.7 51 Latvia 7.5 52 Tunisia 7.3 53 Argentina 6.8 54 Chile 6.6 55 Dominica 5.7 56 Belarus 5.6 57 Romania 5.4 58 Georgia 4.6 59 India 4.2 60 Macedonia 3.9 61 Taiwan 3.8 62 Iran 3.7 63 Antigua and Barbuda 3.5 63 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.5 65 Jordan 3.2 66 Nigeria 2.9 67 Oman 2.5 67 Singapore 2.5 69 Japan 2.4 70 Cuba 2.3 71 Barbados 2 71 China, Hong Kong SAR 2 73 Mexico 1.5 74 Mauritius 1.4 75 Colombia 1.3 76 Uzbekistan 1.2 76 Tajikistan 1.2 78 Republic of Korea 1.1 79 United Republic of Tanzania 0.9 79 Paraguay 0.9 81 Zambia 0.8 82 China 0.6 83 Dominican Republic 0.5 83 Pakistan 0.5 83 Peru 0.5 86 Ethiopia 0.3 86 Thailand 0.3 88 Papua New Guinea 0.1 88 Venezuala 0.1 Source: The International Diabetes Federation. The data on estimates for incidence of Type 1 diabetes in children aged 0 to 14 comes from theInternational Diabetes Federation’s Diabetes Atlas, with the estimates being for 2011. The l Continue reading >>

Is There Connection Between Type 1 Diabetes And Cleanliness? Finland Serves As A Model.

Is There Connection Between Type 1 Diabetes And Cleanliness? Finland Serves As A Model.

It may come as a surprise that Finland — one of the least polluted, wealthiest countries, where average life expectancy is among the world’s highest — has the highest rate of Type 1 diabetes. Each year, there are about 58 cases diagnosed per 100,000 children; in the United States there are 24 cases per 100,000, according to the International Diabetes Federation. Some researchers suspect there may be a connection between Finland’s cleanliness and the incidence of the disease there. They are investigating whether the lack of exposure to a specific group of bacteria found in the intestine may be causing weaker immune systems in Finnish children, making them more susceptible to Type 1 diabetes. This so-called hygiene hypothesis — that cleaner living can result in a weaker immune system — has also been linked to ailments such as asthma, allergies and other autoimmune diseases. “We are working along the idea that we have a trigger which most likely is an infectious agent,” said Mikael Knip, a professor of pediatrics at the University of Helsinki who has been studying diabetes for 30 years. “There is an association between such infections and appearance of antibodies.” Just as there are microbes that trigger the disease, Knip says there are also some bacterial or viral infections that, if they occur at an early age, can protect a young child from developing Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which affects approximately 37 million people worldwide, is an autoimmune disease in which the body does not produce sufficient insulin, a hormone needed to break down sugars. Typically diagnosed in children, teens and young adults, the disease can eventually damage the eyes and organs such as the kidneys, and it increases the likelihood of stroke and heart failure. Type Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

When public health officials fret about the soaring incidence of diabetes in the U.S. and worldwide, they are generally referring to type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of the nearly 350 million people around the world who have diabetes suffer from the type 2 form of the illness, which mostly starts causing problems in the 40s and 50s and is tied to the stress that extra pounds place on the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose. About 25 million people in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and another million have type 1 diabetes, which typically strikes in childhood and can be controlled only with daily doses of insulin. For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives. No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue. “Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giuseppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.” A Challenge of Counting Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the same underlying defect—an inability to deploy insulin in a manner that keeps blood sugar from rising too high—but they arise out of almos Continue reading >>

Diabetes Continues To Spread Around The World

Diabetes Continues To Spread Around The World

On World Diabetes Day, news about the disease's global impact is dire. An estimated 382 million people worldwide have diabetes, according to a new report from the International Diabetes Federation. The IDF expects that number to rise to 592 million by 2035, when one in every 10 people will have the disease. "Diabetes in all its forms imposes unacceptably high human, social and economic costs on countries at all income levels," the report authors begin in the executive summary. They go on to say that this latest edition of the Diabetes Atlas "carries a bitter but unavoidable message: despite the array of tools at our disposal to tackle the disease... the battle to protect people from diabetes and its disabling, life-threatening complications is being lost." Epidemiologist Leonor Guariguata, project coordinator for IDF's Diabetes Atlas, wasn't surprised by the report's findings. In fact, she says the estimates are conservative, and that diabetes may be a much bigger problem than we think. "The thing that strikes me is that we keep saying the same thing again," she said. "Every time we produce new estimates, they are above and beyond what we had projected from past estimates." There are three types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes. People who have Type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin, a hormone the body needs to convert sugar and starches into energy. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile onset diabetes because it is usually diagnosed in adolescence. Around 5% of the diabetic population in the United States has Type 1 diabetes. People with Type 2 diabetes have developed a resistance to the insulin their body produces. Most people who develop Type 2 diabetes are adults, although experts worry about the increasing number of young people being diagn Continue reading >>

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