A New Insulin Given Approval For Use In U.s.
The Food and Drug Administration yesterday approved the marketing of human insulin made artificially from gene-splicing techniques. It is the first such product of genetic engineering to be granted Governmental approval for human use. The new insulin, called Humulin, is manufactured by a technique known as recombinant DNA, which involves inserting human genetic instructions into a bacterium that then produces the drug. The approval by the Food and Drug Administration came five months after application was made by Eli Lilly and Company of Indianapolis, Ind. Normally, such approval takes 20 to 30 months. To Be Available in 1983 The efforts to produce the artificial human hormone commercially began four years ago, after scientists at the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte, Calif., and Genentech Inc. in South San Francisco first succeeded in producing it in the laboratory. The new insulin is expected by its manufacturer to be available in drug stores without a prescription sometime in 1983. A spokesman for Lilly said Humulin was expected to cost about twice as much initially as the animal insulins now used by an estimated two million of the 10 million diabetics in the United States. Called a Major Step Forward Dr. Henry Miller, the medical officer in charge of Humulin at the F.D.A., said the development was a major step forward in the ''scientific and commercial viability of'' recombinant DNA techniques. ''We have now come of age,'' Dr. Miller said. Dr. Irving L. Spratt, president of the American Diabetes Association, said: ''The announcement is an exciting event in medicine. It demonstrates the melding of intensive research in genetic engineering with complex pharmaceutical production.'' The new insulin is being manufactured by Lilly under license from Genentec Continue reading >>
Would You Eat Food That Was Genetically Modified?
Not only do I eat GMOs, I willingly inject myself with GMOs 5–8 times a day! It is my secret to a long life. “What?” I can hear your gasping disbelief from here. “Why would you do something so harmful to yourself? Don't you realize how BAD GMOS are?” I have Type 1 diabetes. For those of you who don't know, it is an autoimmune disease that causes the islet cells of the pancreas (they are responsible for producing insulin) to die off. When your body cannot produce its own insulin, you must inject man made insulin several times a day. If you don't, your blood glucose levels will rise to dangerous levels and your blood chemistry goes wonky (scientific medical term). Without insulin, your blood begins burning fat and muscle for fuel instead of carbs. The acidic byproduct is called ketones. You may have heard of low-carb diets that suggest you check your urine for ketones and applaud you if you manage to get a pink square on the ketone strip. However, with Type 1, that pink square is terrifying. It means you are going into ketoacidosis, which is a life threatening emergency. Without treatment, you will die. Quickly. If you have Type 1 diabetes (only loosely related to Type 2 diabetes, which is what most people recognize as diabetes) you must be on insulin. No matter how healthy your diet. No matter how few carbs you eat. No matter how thin and fit you are. You must be on insulin. Commercially produced insulin used to be made from cows and pigs. Now it is created in a lab, by genetically modifying yeast spores. Lab created insulin is the perfect example of a genetically modified organism. Without GMOS, I would be dead within a week or two. Yes, I allow GMOS into my body. Gladly. Continue reading >>
How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?
Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Continue reading >>
Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment
Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. In people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin as the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by an autoimmune reaction in the body. Insulin replacement by daily injections is required. In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. To compensate the body makes more but eventually cannot make enough to keep the balance right. Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. When insulin is required, it is important to understand that this is just the natural progression of the condition. RMIT University have produced a short overview of insulin, a drug that keeps in excess of one million Australians alive. Watch the video to understand why insulin is important and why so many Australians rely on it to stay alive. Copyright © 2015 RMIT University, Prepared by the School of Applied Sciences (Discipline of Chemistry). At this stage, insulin can only be injected. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as it would be destroyed in the stomach, meaning it would not be available to convert glucose into energy. Insulin is injected through the skin into the fatty tissue known as the subcutaneous layer. You do not inject it into muscle or directly into the blood. Absorption of insulin varies depending on the part of the body into which you inject. The tummy (abdomen) absorbs insulin the fastest and is the site used by most people. The buttocks and thighs are also used by some people. While i Continue reading >>
What are Insulin Insulin is a hormone that occurs naturally in the body and can also be given by injection as a treatment for diabetes. Naturally-occurring insulin is made by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans located in the pancreas. It helps the cells of the body to uptake glucose (sugar) found in the carbohydrates we eat so that it can be used as energy or stored for later use. Insulin also controls glucose release from the liver. One of the main roles of insulin is to keep blood glucose levels from going too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). People with type 1 diabetes do not make enough insulin to satisfy their body's needs or make none at all. Insulin given by injection acts similarly to naturally occurring insulin. There are more than 20 different types of insulin available for diabetes treatment in the United States. The various types of insulin differ in several ways: such as source (animal, human or genetically engineered), the time for insulin to take effect and the length of time the insulin remains working (ie, rapid acting, short acting, intermediate acting, long acting or very long acting). Insulin is used to treat Type 1 diabetes and it may be used together with oral medications in the later stages of Type 2 diabetes. List of Insulin: Filter by: -- all conditions -- Drug Name View by: Brand | Generic Reviews Avg. Ratings Humulin R (Pro, More...) generic name: insulin regular 0 reviews 10 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 FlexPen (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 0 reviews 10 Humalog Mix 75 / 25 (More...) generic name: insulin lispro/insulin lispro protamine 2 reviews 9.5 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 3 reviews 9.5 ReliOn / Novolin 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: i Continue reading >>
Is It Possible To Treat Insulin Resistance?
Yes. The reason you are insulin resistant because you are drowning your body in blood sugar for most of the day forcing insulin to be pumped out all the time in high doses and sometimes in very large spikes (like for addressing refined carbs). I reduced my fasting insulin to the very low end of the normal range using these 5 techniques: Diet. Your food choice as the #1 most important thing. Ditch the refined carbs, added fructose. Lower your carb %, increase fat %. Ditch the fruit juices, added sugars, etc. Eat real foods (not man-made processed foods which add sugar and remove fiber) as much as possible → these won’t spike your blood sugar so less insulin needed, and no more insulin peaks. Intermittent fasting (8 hour eating window; 16 hour fast) → 10 hours per day where insulin is at the lowest giving body recovery time. Workout intensely while fasted (weightlifting or HIIT). This will make muscles more insulin sensitive, requiring less insulin. Lower your body fat %. Eat at a 20% caloric deficit consistently to lower your body fat %. Much more than that, will sacrifice a proportionately more lean mass. Also, losing belly fat is particularly helpful as fat around the liver appears to cause insulin resistance. See Steve Kirsch's answer to Why is belly fat so hard to lose in adults? Check your testosterone levels. Low testosterone levels may predispose to visceral obesity, leading to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism, which in turn promotes insulin resistance. Low T may be caused by too much belly fat (it’s a vicious cycle). These techniques are not the only things that impact insulin resistance, but are probably going to be very helpful for most people. Basically, you keep your blood sugar low (or lower) at all times, which does 3 key things: lowers the to Continue reading >>
Insulin is a hormone made naturally in the body by the pancreas. This hormone controls the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. People who have type 1 diabetes need to have regular insulin injections. In type 1 diabetes, the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar level goes very high. Some people who have type 2 diabetes may also need to have insulin injections to help control blood sugar levels. Insulin is usually injected under the skin between 2-4 times a day. There are different types of insulin available which are classified according to how quickly and for how long they work. Your doctor or diabetes nurse will discuss the various preparations and devices available and help you choose a regimen that is right for you. Treatment with insulin is usually lifelong. What is insulin and how does it work? What does insulin do? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Insulin is a hormone that is Continue reading >>
The History Of Insulin
Since insulin was discovered in 1921, it has become one of the most thoroughly studied molecules in scientific history. Diabetes has been recognized as a distinct medical condition for at least 3,500 years, but its cause was a mystery until early this century. In the early 1920s, researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland, a small organ that sits on top of the liver. At that time, the only way to "control" diabetes was through a diet low in carbohydrate and sugar, and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live - but only for about a year. Exactly what was wrong, or missing, in the sugar metabolism pathway of people with diabetes was unknown until a group of Canadian researchers purified insulin in 1921 and proved that diabetes is a disease of insulin deficiency. As with most major scientific discoveries, the groundwork for the discovery of insulin, had been laid by several others before the Canadian researchers isolated it. In 1889, two European researchers, Minkowski and von Mering, found that when the pancreas gland was removed from dogs, they developed all the symptoms of diabetes and died soon afterwards. Minkowski and von Mering proposed that the pancreas was crucial for sugar metabolism. Later experimenters narrowed the search to the Islets of Langerhans-clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas. In 1910, Sharpey-Shafer of Edinburgh suggested a single chemical was missing from the pancreas in diabetic people. He proposed calling this chemical "insulin," and later the successful Canadian researchers took him up on the suggestion. Meanwhile, an American scientist E. L. Scott was partially successful in extracting ins Continue reading >>
All About Insulin
Insulin is a hormone, a "chemical messenger" in the body. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. It is needed to allow sugars (glucose) from food to enter cells. There, sugar is used to produce the energy needed for the cells to work properly. Where does injectable insulin come from? At first, pancreases from cows and pigs were used produce insulin. In some parts of the world, pork insulin is still on the market. However, since 1983, a product called biosynthetic human insulin has been available. This insulin does not come from human pancreases; it is produced in a laboratory by introducing a synthetic (man-made) human gene into bacteria or yeast. This process produces insulin that is exactly the same as that created in the human pancreas. Through further changes, people can now prepare different insulins (called insulin analogs) with different action times. Today, all children and nearly all adults with diabetes now receive human insulin products and insulin analogs. How does insulin act in the body? Insulins are generally described as: rapid-acting (also referred to as fast-acting) short-acting intermediate-acting long-acting Insulins are also described according to their course of action: Onset is the time it takes for the insulin to start working. Peak describes the period when the insulin is working at its strongest. Duration describes the length of time before the effect of the dose wears off. Insulin’s effect: how soon, how long Type of insulin Appearance Onset Peak Duration Rapid-acting (lispro/Humalog, aspart/NovoRapid/Novolog) Clear 5 to 10 min. ½ to 2 hours 3 to 4 hours Short-acting (regular/Humulin R, Iletin II Regular, Novolin-Toronto Buffered) Clear ½ to 1 hour 2 to 5 hours 6 to 8 hours Intermediate-acting (NPH/Humulin N, Novolin N) Cloudy 1 to 2½ hours Continue reading >>
This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited. Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high. Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin. The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>
How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product
Background Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is required for the body to function normally. Insulin is produced by cells in the pancreas, called the islets of Langerhans. These cells continuously release a small amount of insulin into the body, but they release surges of the hormone in response to a rise in the blood glucose level. Certain cells in the body change the food ingested into energy, or blood glucose, that cells can use. Every time a person eats, the blood glucose rises. Raised blood glucose triggers the cells in the islets of Langerhans to release the necessary amount of insulin. Insulin allows the blood glucose to be transported from the blood into the cells. Cells have an outer wall, called a membrane, that controls what enters and exits the cell. Researchers do not yet know exactly how insulin works, but they do know insulin binds to receptors on the cell's membrane. This activates a set of transport molecules so that glucose and proteins can enter the cell. The cells can then use the glucose as energy to carry out its functions. Once transported into the cell, the blood glucose level is returned to normal within hours. Without insulin, the blood glucose builds up in the blood and the cells are starved of their energy source. Some of the symptoms that may occur include fatigue, constant infections, blurred eye sight, numbness, tingling in the hands or legs, increased thirst, and slowed healing of bruises or cuts. The cells will begin to use fat, the energy source stored for emergencies. When this happens for too long a time the body produces ketones, chemicals produced by the liver. Ketones can poison and kill cells if they build up in the body over an extended period of time. This can lead to serious illne Continue reading >>
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How Is Insulin Made?
The pancreas is a gland that carries out both endocrine and exocrine functions. Within the endocrine gland is a region called the islets of Langerhans, where hormone producing cells are located. There are 4 hormone producing cells in the endocrine gland, but the type which is specific to insulin production are called the beta cells. IMAGE 1: This photo shows a cross section of a pancreas. Note the islets of Langerhans within the endocrine aspect of the pancreas. Within the islets (there are millions) is where the insulin producing cells, or beta cells, are located. Now, we are focusing in on a beta cell inside one of the islets. Inside the nucleus (or center) of that beta cell is where genetic material (DNA) is located. The DNA is organized into long threadlike structures called chromosomes (there are 46 in total). The human insulin gene can be found on chromosome 11, and its exact placement is 11p15.4 IMAGE 2: Chromosome 11p15.4, location of insulin producing gene In order for beta cells to make the protein, insulin, the genetic code in the cell nucleus is copied, or transcribed, and made into messenger RNA. The ribosomes (protein builders) translate the messenger RNA into the appropriate amino acid (protein building blocks) sequence needed for insulin. After this process, there are 4 chains of amino acids (AA's) synthesized consisting of a total of 110 AA's. Preproinsulin has been made! Preproinsulin chain components: 1.) A chain: 21 AA's 2.) B chain 30 AA's 3.) Terminal signal peptide chain: 26 AA's 4.) Connecting peptide (C-Peptide) chain: 35 AA's IMAGE 3: Here is a photo which shows the preproinsulin structure, and the 4 chains. Although we have 110 AA's in preproinsulun, the mature and active form of insulin consists of only 51 AA's. So, in the next step, the sign Continue reading >>
The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness
Eli Lilly and Company News of this miracle drug spread like wildfire, and diabetics rushed to be treated, clinging to hopes of relief. Insulin continued to become purified, and long lasting types were created to reduce the number of daily injections. Biosynthetic Insulin, introduced in 1983, eliminates the need for animal pancreases (Yuwiler 69-70). Synthesized insulin eliminates potential allergic reactions. Most insulins today are chemically identical to natural human insulin (Davidson). Though insulin is the most common option, new treatments include drugs that stimulate beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin, decrease glucose production in the liver, or make muscles more responsive to insulin (Davidson). However, none of these advancements would be possible without insulin. Continue reading >>
A Cheaper Version Of The Lifesaving Diabetes Medication Just Launched In The Us
A Type 1 diabetes patient holds up bottles of insulin.Reuters/Lucy Nicholson A new form of insulin just hit American markets. It's called Basaglar, and it is 15% less than the list price of Lantus and Toujeo, two long-acting insulins made by Sanofi Aventis, 21% less than the list price of Levemir, and 28% less than Tresiba, two long-acting insulins made by Novo Nordisk. Basaglar was approved in December 2015, but had to wait a year before launching on Thursday. A spokeswoman for Eli Lilly, the company that makes Basaglar and other insulins, told Business Insider that the list price for a pack of 5 pens is $316.85 — that's before any discounts, or factoring in what insurance might cover. It is part of a group of medications called "follow-on biologics" and together, they are expected to save the US billions of dollars over the next decade. Why there's no generic form of insulin For people living with Type 1 diabetes and some who live with Type 2, injections of insulin — a hormone that helps people absorb and process the sugar in food — are a necessary part of daily life. And insulin, in one form or another, has been around since the 1920s. But because it's made of living cells, it’s what doctors call a biologic product, and it's more complicated and difficult to manufacture than the medicines most often produced generically. That's why Basaglar isn't considered a generic, it's called a "follow-on biologic." Others taking this approach have gotten approved as biosimilars, and like Basaglar have come in at a slight discount — roughly 15% — off the list price of the original drug. To become a follow-on biologic, Basaglar had to show that its version of the drug was "sufficiently similar to Lantus to scientifically justify reliance," and the drug had to be tested Continue reading >>
Types Of Insulin
Diabetes has been around for a long time. In fact, documentation of symptoms of this condition date back to 1552 BC, when it was mentioned by a physician in ancient Egypt. Described in the 1600s as the “pissing evile,” urination and thirst were the hallmarks of a disease for which there was no treatment. Fast-forward a few hundred years to 1921, when researchers Frederick Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin in the pancreatic extracts of dogs. With help from other scientists, insulin was developed into a form suitable for human treatment. How is insulin made? Insulin is required for all forms of life (except for certain insects), including worms, fish, and mammals. In fact, the early forms of insulin available for human injection were derived from animal sources, including cows, pigs, horses, and even fish! Some of you might have even injected pork or beef insulin (these are no longer available in the U.S.). However, because the amino acid sequence of animal insulins differs from that of humans, these animal insulins were known to cause allergic reactions. Back in the 1980s, a new way to produce insulin was enacted, using a technique called recombinant DNA technology. Scientists were able to genetically alter bacteria or yeast cells to produce pure human insulin in large amounts. As a result of this technology, insulin in the U.S. is much less likely to produce allergic reactions (although some people do have an allergy to insulin). In 1982, pharmaceutical company Lilly introduced the first engineered insulin to the market under the brand name Humulin — this, by the way, was the first recombinant DNA drug in the world. What are insulin analogs? Biotechnology didn’t stop with Humulin, however. With the newfound ability to tweak insulin’s DNA, scientis Continue reading >>