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When Was Insulin Developed

Discovery Of Insulin

Discovery Of Insulin

The discovery of insulin was one of the most dramatic and important milestones in medicine - a Nobel Prize-winning moment in science. Witnesses to the first people ever to be treated with insulin saw "one of the genuine miracles of modern medicine," says the author of a book charting its discovery.1 Starved and sometimes comatose patients with diabetes would return to life after receiving insulin. But how and when was the discovery made, and who made it? How and when was insulin discovered? The discovery of insulin did not come out of the blue; it was made on the back of a growing understanding of diabetes mellitus during the nineteenth century. Diabetes itself had been understood by its symptoms as far back as the 1600s - when it was described as the "pissing evile" - and the urination and thirst associated with it had been recognized thousands of years before. A feared and usually deadly disease, doctors in the nineteenth century knew that sugar worsened diabetes and that limited help could be given by dietary restriction of sugar. But if that helped, it also caused death from starvation. Scientists observed the damaged pancreases of people who died with diabetes. In 1869, a German medical student found clusters of cells in the pancreas that would go on to be named after him. Paul Langerhans had discovered the beta cells that produce insulin. Other work in animals then showed that carbohydrate metabolism was impossible once the pancreas was removed - the amount of sugar in the blood and urine rose sharply, and death from diabetes soon followed. In 1889, Oscar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering removed a dog's pancreas to study its effects on digestion. They found sugar in the dog's urine after flies were noticed feeding off it. In humans, doctors would once have diagnose Continue reading >>

A Short History Of Insulin

A Short History Of Insulin

The history of insulin starts in 1889. At a congres in Heidelberg, the then 31-year old Oskar Minkowski reported on the results of experiments he and von Mering performed with dogs. They did pancreatectomies in dogs in order to study their digestion. However, one of their lab-assistants noted an unexpected side-effect: the dogs started to suffer from polyuria. Well-aware that this was a symptom of diabetes in humans, Minkowski tested their urine for glucose and demonstrated that the dogs had indeed become diabetic. In subsequent experiments he ligated the ductus pancreaticus, performed subtotal pancreatectomies, and performed pancreas transplants, all of which led to the conclusion that the pancreas had to produce a hormone that was released in the blood and that influenced glucose levels. In the years after Minkowski's initial report, researchers across the world tried to isolate this elusive pancreatic hormone. However, suppletion of patients with all kinds of pancreatic extracts failed to produce the wanted results. Banting and Best It was only in 1921 that Frederick Banting and Charles Best, who worked under Collip and John Macleod in Toronto, succeeded in extracting the pancreatic hormone. The hormone was given the name insulin (at the suggestion of Sir Edward Sharpey-Schafer) to mark the fact that it was produced in the pancreatic islets. The first patient treated was a 14-year old boy named Leonard Thompson who was in diabetic coma and made a remarkable recovery. In 1923 Banting and MacLeod received the Nobel Prize for their discovery[a], and Banting was named Time's 'Man of the year'. Hagedorn The discovery of insulin revolutionized both the treatment of, and research into, diabetes. Initially, pancreatic extracts from slaughtered animals were the main source of Continue reading >>

Insulin Discovery

Insulin Discovery

Diabetes mellitus has been known to physicians since ancient times. Early Indian literature in the 6th century BCE and in ancient Egyptian papyrus references to this condition of high blood sugar has been found. Greek physician Areteus of the Imperial Roman province of Cappadocia, in now Turkey, first described the classic case of diabetes mellitus. It was Persian physician known to the West as Avicenna who noted that diabetics were two distinct groups of individuals - thin, younger, or more obese, older persons. Role of the pancreas It was in 1869 Paul Langerhans, a medical student in Berlin found clumps of cells in the pancreas. These were later called ''Islets of Langerhans''. Edouard Laguesse later suggested that they might produce secretions that play a regulatory role in digestion. The term ''insulin'' origins from ''Insel'', the German word for islet or small island. In 1889, German physiologist Oscar Minkowski and his colleague Professor Von Mering at the University of Strassburg investigated the role of the pancreas and to further investigate the role of the pancreas they performed a pancreatectomy on a dog. They found that the dog passed copious amounts of urine. The urine was found to be loaded with sugar and the dog was diabetic. The researchers found that the pancreas delivers digestive enzymes by a duct into the gastrointestinal tract and also contains clumps of cells known as Islets of Langerhans. Their function is to produce insulin and deliver it directly into the blood stream. The next step in the discovery of insulin was by Dr Frederick Allen, an American physician in the early part of the 20th century. Allen performed a 90% pancreatectomy in which case the dog became diabetic but did not die immediately and was a much more realistic model of insulin Continue reading >>

Who Really Discovered Insulin?

Who Really Discovered Insulin?

For people with diabetes mellitus, the year 1921 is a meaningful one. That was the year Canadian physician Frederick Banting and medical student Charles H. Best discovered the hormone insulin in pancreatic extracts of dogs. On July 30, 1921, they injected the hormone into a diabetic dog and found that it effectively lowered the dog’s blood glucose levels to normal. By the end of that year, with the help of Canadian chemist James B. Collip and Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod, Banting and Best purified insulin, and the next year it was used to successfully treat a boy suffering from severe diabetes. The researchers were celebrated and honored for their breakthrough. Banting and MacLeod even shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for their work. Indeed, they were the “discoverers” of insulin. But the story of the discovery of insulin actually begins much earlier than 1921. According to Britannica’s pharmaceutical industry article: In 1869 Paul Langerhans, a medical student in Germany, was studying the histology of the pancreas. He noted that this organ has two distinct types of cells—acinar cells, now known to secrete digestive enzymes, and islet cells (now called islets of Langerhans). The function of islet cells was suggested in 1889 when German physiologist and pathologist Oskar Minkowski and German physician Joseph von Mering showed that removing the pancreas from a dog caused the animal to exhibit a disorder quite similar to human diabetes mellitus (elevated blood glucose and metabolic changes). After this discovery, a number of scientists in various parts of the world attempted to extract the active substance from the pancreas so that it could be used to treat diabetes. One of those scientists was Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paule Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Insulin: Discovery And Controversy

Insulin: Discovery And Controversy

During the first two decades of the 20th century, several investigators prepared extracts of pancreas that were often successful in lowering blood sugar and reducing glycosuria in test animals. However, they were unable to remove impurities, and toxic reactions prevented its use in humans with diabetes. In the spring of 1921, Frederick G. Banting, a young Ontario orthopedic surgeon, was given laboratory space by J.J.R. Macleod, the head of physiology at the University of Toronto, to investigate the function of the pancreatic islets. A student assistant, Charles Best, and an allotment of dogs were provided to test Banting’s hypothesis that ligation of the pancreatic ducts before extraction of the pancreas, destroys the enzyme-secreting parts, whereas the islets of Langerhans, which were believed to produce an internal secretion regulating sugar metabolism, remained intact. He believed that earlier failures were attributable to the destructive action of trypsin. The name “insuline” had been introduced in 1909 for this hypothetic substance. Their experiments produced an extract of pancreas that reduced the hyperglycemia and glycosuria in dogs made diabetic by the removal of their pancreases. They next developed a procedure for extraction from the entire pancreas without the need for duct ligation. This extract, now made from whole beef pancreas, was successful for treating humans with diabetes. Facilitating their success was a development in clinical chemistry that allowed blood sugar to be frequently and accurately determined in small volumes of blood. Success with purification was largely the work of J.B. Collip. Yield and standardization were improved by cooperation with Eli Lilly and Company. When the Nobel Prize was awarded to Banting and Macleod for the discove Continue reading >>

Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication)

"Insulin therapy" redirects here. For the psychiatric treatment, see Insulin shock therapy. Insulin is used as a medication to treat high blood sugar.[3] This includes in diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.[3] It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.[3] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows.[5] Human versions can be made either by modifying pig versions or recombinant technology.[5] It comes in three main types short–acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate–acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine).[5] Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.39 to $10.61 per 1,000 iu of regular insulin and $2.23 to $10.35 per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[8][9] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds.[5] Medical uses[edit] Giving insulin with an insulin pen. Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacid Continue reading >>

The History Of Insulin

The History Of Insulin

Since insulin was discovered in 1921, it has become one of the most thoroughly studied molecules in scientific history. Diabetes has been recognized as a distinct medical condition for at least 3,500 years, but its cause was a mystery until early this century. In the early 1920s, researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland, a small organ that sits on top of the liver. At that time, the only way to "control" diabetes was through a diet low in carbohydrate and sugar, and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live - but only for about a year. Exactly what was wrong, or missing, in the sugar metabolism pathway of people with diabetes was unknown until a group of Canadian researchers purified insulin in 1921 and proved that diabetes is a disease of insulin deficiency. As with most major scientific discoveries, the groundwork for the discovery of insulin, had been laid by several others before the Canadian researchers isolated it. In 1889, two European researchers, Minkowski and von Mering, found that when the pancreas gland was removed from dogs, they developed all the symptoms of diabetes and died soon afterwards. Minkowski and von Mering proposed that the pancreas was crucial for sugar metabolism. Later experimenters narrowed the search to the Islets of Langerhans-clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas. In 1910, Sharpey-Shafer of Edinburgh suggested a single chemical was missing from the pancreas in diabetic people. He proposed calling this chemical "insulin," and later the successful Canadian researchers took him up on the suggestion. Meanwhile, an American scientist E. L. Scott was partially successful in extracting ins Continue reading >>

History Of Insulin

History Of Insulin

Go to: Insulin The discovery of insulin in 1922 marked a major breakthrough in medicine and therapy in patients with diabetes. Long before the discovery of insulin, it was hypothesized that the pancreas secreted a substance that controlled carbohydrate metabolism (5). For years, attempts at preparing pancreatic extracts to lower blood glucose were unsuccessful due to impurities and toxicities (6). Frederick Banting, an orthopedic surgeon, had the idea of isolating pancreatic islet extracts by ligating the pancreatic duct of dogs, keeping them alive until the acini degenerated, leaving the islets for isolation. He approached John Macleod, professor of physiology and department head at the University of Toronto, for laboratory space. Macleod granted him laboratory space, ten dogs for his experiments, a student research assistant (Charles Best), and provided supervision and guidance. The experiments began on May 17, 1921, and by September they showed that the depancreatized dog developed diabetes and that intravenous injection with their pancreatic extract, which they named isletin, lowered the blood glucose. By late 1921, the biochemist J.B. Collip joined the group and helped purify the isletin for human use. The first injection of the pancreatic extract to a 14-year-old boy by Banting and Best on January 11, 1922, caused a sterile abscess, had no effect on ketosis, and resulted in mild blood glucose reduction. Subsequent injections of the purified extract by Collip had promising results that same year. Blood glucose and glucosuria decreased, and ketonuria disappeared. Rosenfeld reported encouraging results in six more patients (6). Several months later, in 1923, Banting, Best, and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Eli Lilly began producing insulin from animal pancrea Continue reading >>

Frederick Banting’s Discovery Of Insulin In The 1920s Saved A Child's Life. It’s Still Saving Lives.

Frederick Banting’s Discovery Of Insulin In The 1920s Saved A Child's Life. It’s Still Saving Lives.

Toban B. / Flickr In the 1800s, the life expectancy for a 10-year-old child with Type 1 diabetes was about one year. Now people with Type 1 diabetes can expect to live around 68 years on average. One big reason why: the discovery of the hormone insulin by a team led by Frederick Banting, an early-20th-century scientist from Canada, which revolutionized treatment for the disease. Today, we celebrate Banting’s 125th birthday with a Google Doodle in his honor and with World Diabetes Day. Banting and his colleagues cracked a mystery that was thousands of years old Diabetes is one of the first human diseases on record. Ancient Egyptian manuscripts from as far back as 1500 BC mention a disease “characterized by the ‘too great emptying of urine.’” Around 500 BC, an Indian physician described patients with urine so sweet and sticky it attracted ants. These ancient reports were likely of Type 1 diabetes, the autoimmune version of the disease where antibodies damage the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin. Insulin is the hormone responsible for taking sugar out of the bloodstream and transferring it into the body’s cells, where it can be used for energy. When the body stops making insulin, blood sugar rises. And unchecked high blood sugar can lead to a range of complications — from deteriorating eyesight to nerve damage to the buildup of chemicals called ketones in the blood. Ketones at high levels can be poisonous, causing the blood to turn acidic. (In Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still produces insulin, but the body has become resistant to its effects. It’s a metabolic disease, rather than an autoimmune disease.) While ancient physicians recognized that the disease was a result of mismanagement of the body’s sugar, they didn’t know what caused it. (D Continue reading >>

History Of Insulin

History Of Insulin

Rosie Cotter explores the history of this important protein and its role in diabetes In 1922, a 14-year-old boy named Leonard Thompson lay in Toronto General Hospital dying from diabetes. He weighed less than 30 kg and was at risk of slipping into a diabetic coma. To avoid this, Leonard’s father allowed him to be injected with a new pancreatic extract, now known as insulin. At the time, people with diabetes tried to control their condition through a strict diet, but they usually died within a year of diagnosis. Remarkably, after the injection, Leonard regained his strength and appetite and went on to live for several more years. News of insulin and Leonard’s recovery spread around the world and brought notoriety to Dr Frederick Banting and student George Best at the University of Toronto. With the support of Professor John Macleod and biochemist Bertram Collip, Banting and Best had successfully extracted insulin from an animal pancreas and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose levels in the blood. When we eat, our glucose levels rise and insulin is released into the bloodstream. Insulin works by regulating glucose transport proteins in cells so they can take up the glucose and use it as an energy source or convert it to glycogen for storage. Type 1 diabetes develops when the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans found in the pancreas have been destroyed and the body is unable to produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes develops when the body can still make some insulin, but it is produced in insufficient amounts or in a form that does not work properly. Discovery and application Between 1920 and 1921, Banting and Best had been removing dogs’ pancreases to make them diabetic. Building on the w Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

For many years scientists believed that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas was the key to preventing diabetes and controlling normal metabolism. No one could find it, until in the summer of 1921 a team at the University of Toronto began trying a new experimental approach suggested by Dr. Frederick Banting. By the spring of 1922, the Toronto researchers — Banting, Charles Best, J.B. Collip and their supervisor, J.J.R. Macleod, were able to announce the discovery of insulin. In 1923, Banting and Macleod received the Nobel Prize for one of the most important, and most controversial, breakthroughs in modern medical history. Early Research For many centuries people knew about diabetes mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes), but it was only dimly understood until the end of the 19th century. Initially, the body’s inability to process carbohydrates and other nutrients, signified most obviously by the presence of sugar in the urine, was thought to be a liver or a stomach disorder. In 1889 German researchers Oskar Minkowski and Josef von Mehring discovered that dogs that had their pancreas removed immediately became severely and fatally diabetic. Something in the pancreas appeared to be essential to prevent diabetes. Researchers immediately began to try to find the mysterious substance. Results were mostly negative; for example, feeding pancreas to diabetic patients did no good. Still, new knowledge about the body’s dependence on chemical messengers — or hormones — added plausibility to the hypothesis that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas maintains normal metabolism. The gland was already known to have an external secretion, digestive juices that flow into the duodenum. Another German researcher, Paul Langerhans, had discovered a separa Continue reading >>

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

The lives of people with diabetes has changed considerably in 50 years. They now have specific tools and easier access to information than ever before. The healthcare professionals who treat them also know more about the complexity of the disease, and which treatments work best. Pending the next medical revolution, Diabetes Québec is demanding the implementation of a national strategy to fight diabetes – a strategy founded on education, prevention, support and treatment. The last 60 years have clearly demonstrated that people with diabetes who are well informed, properly supported and treated appropriately live longer lives in better health. The discovery of insulin and glycemic control Insulin, discovered in 1921 by the legendary Banting, Best and MacLeod collaboration, is nothing short of a miracle. Worldwide, it has saved thousands of patients from certain death. Before the discovery of insulin, diabetics were doomed. Even on a strict diet, they could last no more than three or four years. However, despite the many types of insulin and the first oral hypoglycemic agents that came to market around 1957 in Canada, glycemia control – the control of blood glucose (sugar) levels – still remains an imprecise science. In the 1950s, the method a person used to control his blood glucose levels was to drop a reagent tablet into a small test tube containing a few drops of urine mixed with water. The resulting colour – from dark blue to orange – indicated the amount of sugar in the urine. Even when they monitored their patients closely, doctors realized that blood glucose levels had to be much better controlled in order to delay the major complications significantly affecting their patients’ lives: blindness, kidney disease, gangrene, heart attack and stroke. A disc Continue reading >>

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

Since the dawn of time, we have searched for ways to make life easier for us. The modern age has given us some amazing technological advances—what we would do without the internet, our iPhones or high-speed travel? For many people, surviving life without these things sounds rough. However, if you have diabetes, no doubt you’re also a big fan of one particular 20th-century discovery: insulin. Before insulin was discovered in 1921, people with diabetes didn’t live for long; there wasn’t much doctors could do for them. The most effective treatment was to put patients with diabetes on very strict diets with minimal carbohydrate intake. This could buy patients a few extra years but couldn’t save them. Harsh diets (some prescribed as little as 450 calories a day!) sometimes even caused patients to die of starvation. So how did this wonderful breakthrough blossom? Let’s travel back a little more than 100 years ago.… In 1889, two German researchers, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering, found that when the pancreas gland was removed from dogs, the animals developed symptoms of diabetes and died soon afterward. This led to the idea that the pancreas was the site where “pancreatic substances” (insulin) were produced. Later experimenters narrowed this search to the islets of Langerhans (a fancy name for clusters of specialized cells in the pancreas). In 1910, Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Shafer suggested only one chemical was missing from the pancreas in people with diabetes. He decided to call this chemical insulin, which comes for the Latin word insula, meaning “island.” So what happened next? Something truly miraculous. In 1921, a young surgeon named Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best figured out how to remove insulin from a dog’s pancreas. S Continue reading >>

History Of Insulin

History Of Insulin

Dr Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best perform experiments on the pancreases of dogs in Toronto, Canada. Professor John Macleod provides Banting and Best with a laboratory to carry out the experiments. When the pancreases are removed the dogs showed symptoms of diabetes. The pancreas was then sliced and ground up into an injectable extract. This is injected a few times a day which helped the dogs to regain health. Given the early success, Macleod wants to see more evidence that the procedure worked and provides pancreases from cows to make the extract which is named ‘insulin’. Bertram Collip, a biochemist, joins the research team to provide help with purifying the insulin to be used for testing on humans. Banting and Best clearly had confidence in the insulin as they were the first humans to test the insulin by injecting themselves with it which caused them to experience weakness and dizziness, signs of hypoglycemia. After the group had experimented enough to gain an understanding of the required doses and how best to treat hypoglycemia, their insulin is deemed ready to be tried on patients. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dieta Continue reading >>

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