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When Is Insulin Produced

Everything You Need To Know About Insulin

Everything You Need To Know About Insulin

Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach. It allows your body to use glucose for energy. Glucose is a type of sugar found in many carbohydrates. After a meal or snack, the digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates and changes them into glucose. Glucose is then absorbed into your bloodstream through the lining in your small intestine. Once glucose is in your bloodstream, insulin causes cells throughout your body to absorb the sugar and use it for energy. Insulin also helps balance your blood glucose levels. When there’s too much glucose in your bloodstream, insulin signals your body to store the excess in your liver. The stored glucose isn’t released until your blood glucose levels decrease, such as between meals or when your body is stressed or needs an extra boost of energy. Diabetes occurs when your body doesn't use insulin properly or doesn't make enough insulin. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is a type of autoimmune disease. These are diseases in which the body attacks itself. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body can’t make insulin. This is because your immune system has destroyed all of the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. This disease is more commonly diagnosed in young people, although it can develop in adulthood. In type 2 diabetes, your body has become resistant to the effects of insulin. This means your body needs more insulin to get the same effects. Therefore, your body overproduces insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal. However, after many years of overproduction, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas burn out. Type 2 diabetes also affects people of any age, but typically develops later in life. Injections of insulin as a replacement or supplement Continue reading >>

Body Can Regain The Ability To Produce Insulin

Body Can Regain The Ability To Produce Insulin

Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease that affects many children and adolescents. The disease causes the pancreas to stop producing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. When blood sugar levels are too high, the smallest blood vessels in the body eventually become damaged. This can lead to serious health problems further down the line, including heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and foot amputations. Professor Knut Dahl-Jørgensen and doctoral student Lars Krogvold are leading a research project, (DiViD), in which they want to ascertain among other things whether a virus in the pancreas might cause type 1 diabetes. They have previously discovered viruses in hormone-producing cells, the so-called islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas. Now their research has generated some new and surprising results. Recover the ability to produce insulin Lars Krogvold explains: “We found that the insulin-producing cells still have the ability to produce insulin when they are stimulated in the lab. But what’s new is our additional discovery that the cells increased their ability to produce insulin after a few days outside the body. Indeed, some became roughly as good at making insulin as cells from people without diabetes," he says. Some of the hormone-producing cells in the pancreas, the beta cells, produce insulin when they are stimulated by sugar. "Previous work has shown that you do not immediately lose your ability to produce insulin when you are first diagnosed with type 1 diabetes,” he says. Can improve patients’ daily lives “Our findings might mean that insulin production can be partially restored if we can find a way of stopping the disease process. The potential for insulin production is greater than previously thought," says Krogvold. "Th Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body. Insulin and glucagon work together to balance your blood sugar levels, keeping them in the narrow range that your body requires. These hormones are like the yin and yang of blood glucose maintenance. Read on to learn more about how they function and what can happen when they don’t work well. Insulin and glucagon work in what’s called a negative feedback loop. During this process, one event triggers another, which triggers another, and so on, to keep your blood sugar levels balanced. How insulin works During digestion, foods that contain carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Most of this glucose is sent into your bloodstream, causing a rise in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose signals your pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin tells cells throughout your body to take in glucose from your bloodstream. As the glucose moves into your cells, your blood glucose levels go down. Some cells use the glucose as energy. Other cells, such as in your liver and muscles, store any excess glucose as a substance called glycogen. Your body uses glycogen for fuel between meals. Read more: Simple vs. complex carbs » How glucagon works Glucagon works to counterbalance the actions of insulin. About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon. This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose. These cells then release the glucose into your bloodstream so your other cells can use it for energy. This whole feedback loop with insulin and gluca Continue reading >>

Insulin And Diabetes

Insulin And Diabetes

Discovered in 1922 by Frederick Banting and Charles Best, insulin is the hormone in our body that allows glucose (sugar) to get into the cells of our body that need glucose for energy. Produced in the pancreas, insulin is considered the “most powerful” hormone in the body. Every living mammal needs insulin to survive. Humans, cats, dogs, pigs, cows, and even dolphins all need in insulin in order to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Without enough insulin, your blood sugar can rise to dangerously high levels. People with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes do not make enough insulin, or their bodies are unable to make use of the insulin they are producing. Insulin resistance is commonly an aspect of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes in which the body needs more and more insulin to do the job of maintaining healthy blood sugar levels that it used to do with a lesser amount of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes do not make any insulin because a part of the pancreas that is responsible for producing insulin is being continuously attacked by their immune-system, making this form of diabetes an “autoimmune disorder.” People with type 1.5 diabetes, also known as LADA, are essentially type 1 diabetics who are very gradually producing less and less insulin over time, and may also experience some insulin resistance, similar to type 2. An easy way to think of insulin is to remember that it is the “key” necessary to unlock a cell so that sugar can enter it and be used for energy instead of staying in the bloodstream where the excess damages cells. For people who need to take external or supplemental insulin (insulin your body did not produce but that was instead made by a pharmaceutical company), there are several different types and kinds of insulin. The insulin you ta Continue reading >>

Insulin. What Does It Do?

Insulin. What Does It Do?

Glucose comes from the digestion of almost all foods, especially starchy ones. We need insulin to make energy from the glucose in these foods. Insulin is a special chemical (hormone) made by the pancreas gland, and allows the glucose from the blood stream to get in to our body’s cells to give us energy. Without insulin the glucose remains in the bloodstream and cannot give us the energy we need. In someone who does not have diabetes the amount of insulin produced depends on the amount of glucose/starchy foods eaten and the energy used and needed. Blood glucose level stays between 3.5 mmol/L and 7 mmol/L What happens when there is not enough insulin? When the pancreas fails to make enough insulin the glucose remains in the blood stream and the blood glucose level rises. This may come on gradually but eventually the glucose levels in the blood rise so high that they spill out of the blood stream through the kidneys and into the urine. The high blood sugar also pulls water out of the bloodstream, causing you to pass additional urine. This in turn makes you very thirsty. If the glucose in the blood cannot be used for energy the body has to find other alternative fuels. The body begins to use up fat stored around the body, and when fat is used to give the body energy ketones form. High blood glucose levels and ketones can make you feel very unwell. Continue reading >>

Pancreas And Diabetes: Why Does Pancreas Stop Producing Insulin?

Pancreas And Diabetes: Why Does Pancreas Stop Producing Insulin?

Every part of an individual’s body has its own mechanisms. It is the constant production of hormones that leads to bodily as well as mental changes. This task of generating enzymes and hormones which are required for breaking food down lies with Pancreas. Being an important part of the body, its responsibility is also about producing enough insulin in the body so that the sugar level remains intact. In fact, imbalance in the production of insulin can lead to the health problem called Diabetes. Once the problem starts developing, it can be only controlled by taking suitable diet and by avoiding eating sweets. Let us see what the function of Pancreas is and its contribution towards the development of Diabetes. What is Pancreas and What is it’s Role? Pancreas is an important part of the body, which is positioned behind the lower stomach. It has the ability to produce insulin and glucagon that tends to regulate sugar level in the blood. Carrying out the double functionality of stowing hormones into the blood as well as discharging enzymes through ducts, Pancreas have always held a significant position in controlling hormonal secretion and regulation. A slightest of imbalance in the production of insulin can lead to the problem of diabetes that requires immense care in dealing with dietary management. Playing an essential part in the endocrine as well as exocrine systems, pancreas has exceptional functional system. Basically, the endocrine system is aimed at the production of chemicals as well as hormones in the body. On the other hand, exocrine system constitutes of glands in the body that tends to release saliva, sweat and digestive enzymes. As known to all, the role of Pancreas is to produce adequate amount of insulin for regulating the level of sugar in the body. The Continue reading >>

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Continue reading >>

How Much Insulin Is Produced Daily By The Pancreas In A Healthy Human Being?

How Much Insulin Is Produced Daily By The Pancreas In A Healthy Human Being?

A lean healthy individual might secrete about 35 units of insulin per day, yet will have about 10 times this amount stored within his pancreas. By contrast, an obese insulin-resistant person might need to produce >100 units daily to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Here is a graph that shows the insulin secretion over the 24 hours in a healthy individual Download link: Continue reading >>

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

Tweet Insulin is a hormone which plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose levels. A lack of insulin, or an inability to adequately respond to insulin, can each lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes. In addition to its role in controlling blood sugar levels, insulin is also involved in the storage of fat. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the body’s metabolism. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy. Insulin and blood glucose levels Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. Some cells in the body can take glucose from the blood without insulin, but most cells do require insulin to be present. Insulin and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body produces insufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Without the presence of insulin, many of the body’s cells cannot take glucose from the blood and therefore the body uses other sources of energy. Ketones are produced by the liver as an alternative source of energy, however, high levels of the ketones can lead to a dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin to compensate for their body’s lack of insulin. Insulin and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body not responding effectively to insulin. This is termed insulin resistance. As a result the body is less able to t Continue reading >>

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin The nature and purpose of synthesising human insulin. Since Banting and Best discovered the hormone, insulin in 1921.(1) diabetic patients, whose elevated sugar levels (see fig. 1) are due to impaired insulin production, have been treated with insulin derived from the pancreas glands of abattoir animals. The hormone, produced and secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas' islets of Langerhans,(2) regulates the use and storage of food, particularly carbohydrates. Fig. 1 Fluctuations in diabetic person's blood glucose levels, compared with healthy individuals. Source: Hillson,R. - Diabetes: A beyond basics guide, pg.16. Although bovine and porcine insulin are similar to human insulin, their composition is slightly different. Consequently, a number of patients' immune systems produce antibodies against it, neutralising its actions and resulting in inflammatory responses at injection sites. Added to these adverse effects of bovine and porcine insulin, were fears of long term complications ensuing from the regular injection of a foreign substance,(3) as well as a projected decline in the production of animal derived insulin.(4) These factors led researchers to consider synthesising Humulin by inserting the insulin gene into a suitable vector, the E. coli bacterial cell, to produce an insulin that is chemically identical to its naturally produced counterpart. This has been achieved using Recombinant DNA technology. This method (see fig. 2) is a more reliable and sustainable(5) method than extracting and purifying the abattoir by-product. Fig. 2 An overview of the recombination process. Source: Novo - Nordisk promotional brochure,pg 6. Understanding the genetics involved. The structure of insulin. Chemically, insuli Continue reading >>

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

Since the dawn of time, we have searched for ways to make life easier for us. The modern age has given us some amazing technological advances—what we would do without the internet, our iPhones or high-speed travel? For many people, surviving life without these things sounds rough. However, if you have diabetes, no doubt you’re also a big fan of one particular 20th-century discovery: insulin. Before insulin was discovered in 1921, people with diabetes didn’t live for long; there wasn’t much doctors could do for them. The most effective treatment was to put patients with diabetes on very strict diets with minimal carbohydrate intake. This could buy patients a few extra years but couldn’t save them. Harsh diets (some prescribed as little as 450 calories a day!) sometimes even caused patients to die of starvation. So how did this wonderful breakthrough blossom? Let’s travel back a little more than 100 years ago.… In 1889, two German researchers, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering, found that when the pancreas gland was removed from dogs, the animals developed symptoms of diabetes and died soon afterward. This led to the idea that the pancreas was the site where “pancreatic substances” (insulin) were produced. Later experimenters narrowed this search to the islets of Langerhans (a fancy name for clusters of specialized cells in the pancreas). In 1910, Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Shafer suggested only one chemical was missing from the pancreas in people with diabetes. He decided to call this chemical insulin, which comes for the Latin word insula, meaning “island.” So what happened next? Something truly miraculous. In 1921, a young surgeon named Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best figured out how to remove insulin from a dog’s pancreas. S Continue reading >>

A Brand New Type Of Insulin-producing Cell Has Been Discovered Hiding In The Pancreas

A Brand New Type Of Insulin-producing Cell Has Been Discovered Hiding In The Pancreas

Researchers have found a brand new type of insulin-producing cell hiding in plain sight within the pancreas, and they offer new hope for better understanding - and one day even treating - type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when a person's own immune system kills off most of their insulin-producing beta cells. And seeing as insulin is the hormone that regulates our blood sugar, type 1 diabetics are left reliant on injecting themselves with insulin regularly. While the condition can usually be managed effectively, in order to properly treat it, researchers would need to find a way to regenerate a patient's beta cells and prevent them from being attacked in future - something we're getting better at, but ultimately has eluded scientists so far. The discovery of these previously unnoticed cells in the pancreas - which the team are calling 'virgin beta cells' - could offer a new route for regrowing healthy, mature beta cells - and also provides insight into the basic mechanisms behind the disease. "We've seen phenomenal advances in the management of diabetes, but we cannot cure it," said lead researcher Mark Huising from the University of California, Davis. "If you want to cure the disease, you have to understand how it works in the normal situation." To get a better insight into exactly what happens in type 1 diabetes, the researchers studied both mice and human tissue. Huising and his team were looking at regions inside the pancreas known as the islets of Langerhans, which in healthy humans and mice are the regions that contain the beta cells that detect blood sugar levels around the body and produce insulin in response. Researchers also know that the islets contain cells called alpha cells, which produce glucagon, a hormone that raises blood sugar. These alpha cells, Continue reading >>

Body Can Regain The Ability To Produce Insulin

Body Can Regain The Ability To Produce Insulin

Norwegian Researchers have discovered that patients with type 1 diabetes can regain the ability to produce insulin. They showed that insulin-producing cells can recover outside the body. Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease that affects many children and adolescents. The disease causes the pancreas to stop producing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. When blood sugar levels are too high, the smallest blood vessels in the body eventually become damaged. This can lead to serious health problems further down the line, including heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and foot amputations. Professor Knut Dahl-Jørgensen and doctoral student Lars Krogvold are leading a research project, (DiViD), in which they want to ascertain among other things whether a virus in the pancreas might cause type 1 diabetes. They have previously discovered viruses in hormone-producing cells, the so-called islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas. Now their research has generated some new and surprising results. Recover the ability to produce insulin Lars Krogvold explains: “We found that the insulin-producing cells still have the ability to produce insulin when they are stimulated in the lab. But what’s new is our additional discovery that the cells increased their ability to produce insulin after a few days outside the body. Indeed, some became roughly as good at making insulin as cells from people without diabetes. Some of the hormone-producing cells in the pancreas, the beta cells, produce insulin when they are stimulated by sugar. Previous work has shown that you do not immediately lose your ability to produce insulin when you are first diagnosed with type 1 diabetes”. Can improve patients’ daily lives “Our findings might mean that insulin production can b Continue reading >>

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

Background Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is required for the body to function normally. Insulin is produced by cells in the pancreas, called the islets of Langerhans. These cells continuously release a small amount of insulin into the body, but they release surges of the hormone in response to a rise in the blood glucose level. Certain cells in the body change the food ingested into energy, or blood glucose, that cells can use. Every time a person eats, the blood glucose rises. Raised blood glucose triggers the cells in the islets of Langerhans to release the necessary amount of insulin. Insulin allows the blood glucose to be transported from the blood into the cells. Cells have an outer wall, called a membrane, that controls what enters and exits the cell. Researchers do not yet know exactly how insulin works, but they do know insulin binds to receptors on the cell's membrane. This activates a set of transport molecules so that glucose and proteins can enter the cell. The cells can then use the glucose as energy to carry out its functions. Once transported into the cell, the blood glucose level is returned to normal within hours. Without insulin, the blood glucose builds up in the blood and the cells are starved of their energy source. Some of the symptoms that may occur include fatigue, constant infections, blurred eye sight, numbness, tingling in the hands or legs, increased thirst, and slowed healing of bruises or cuts. The cells will begin to use fat, the energy source stored for emergencies. When this happens for too long a time the body produces ketones, chemicals produced by the liver. Ketones can poison and kill cells if they build up in the body over an extended period of time. This can lead to serious illne Continue reading >>

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

Tweet Insulin is a hormone which plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose levels. A lack of insulin, or an inability to adequately respond to insulin, can each lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes. In addition to its role in controlling blood sugar levels, insulin is also involved in the storage of fat. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the body’s metabolism. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy. Insulin and blood glucose levels Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. Some cells in the body can take glucose from the blood without insulin, but most cells do require insulin to be present. Insulin and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body produces insufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Without the presence of insulin, many of the body’s cells cannot take glucose from the blood and therefore the body uses other sources of energy. Ketones are produced by the liver as an alternative source of energy, however, high levels of the ketones can lead to a dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin to compensate for their body’s lack of insulin. Insulin and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body not responding effectively to insulin. This is termed insulin resistance. As a result the body is less able to t Continue reading >>

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