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When Insulin Is Injected Cells Begin To

Beta Cells

Beta Cells

Tweet Beta cells are unique cells in the pancreas that produce, store and release the hormone insulin. Located in the area of the pancreas know as the islets of Langerhans (the organ’s endocrine structures), they are one of at least five different types of islet cells that produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. What is the role of beta cells? The main function of a beta cell is to produce and secrete insulin - the hormone responsible for regulating levels of glucose in the blood. When blood glucose levels start to rise (e.g. during digestion), beta cells quickly respond by secreting some of their stored insulin while at the same time increasing production of the hormone. This quick response to a spike in blood glucose usually takes about ten minutes. In people with diabetes, however, these cells are either attacked and destroyed by the immune system (type 1 diabetes), or are unable to produce a sufficient amount of insulin needed for blood sugar control (type 2 diabetes). Amylin and C-peptide In addition to insulin, beta cells also secrete the hormone Amylin and called C-peptide, a byproduct of insulin production. Amylin slows the rate of glucose entering the bloodstream, making it a more short-term regulator of blood glucose levels. C-peptide is a molecule that helps to prevent neuropathy and other vascular complications by assisting in the repair of the muscular layers of the arteries. It is secreted into the bloodstream in equal quantities (or moles) to insulin. Beta cells in type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, beta cells die from a misguided attack by the body’s immune system. How and why that happens is not clear, but the results of a study published in early 2011 suggest that these pancreatic cells become stressed at the earliest stages of Continue reading >>

Innovative Type 1 Diabetes Transplant Frees Patient From Insulin Injections

Innovative Type 1 Diabetes Transplant Frees Patient From Insulin Injections

An innovative new treatment for Type 1 diabetes shows promise, freeing a patient from insulin injections in what the Diabetes Research Institute described as “record time.” Last month, doctors at the institute, which is part of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, used a new technique to transplant insulin-producing islet cells into a woman with Type 1 diabetes. Wendy Peacock, the first patient in the clinical trial, is now living without injections of the blood sugar-regulating hormone. Their ultimate goal, the doctors noted, is a “bioengineered mini-organ” that would essentially replace the pancreas in producing insulin. Peacock, 43, told reporters last week that her life has been dramatically improved. She was a candidate for the experimental procedure because she had severe hypoglycemia unawareness — meaning that she often lost consciousness due to drops in her blood sugar level. As a result, she couldn’t live alone and care for her 5-year-old son. “You never forget that you have diabetes. You can’t. It’s always there,” Peacock said. “I wish it were just as easy as taking a few injections and you’re done with it for the day, but it’s nonstop.” Following the minimally invasive procedure on Aug. 18, Peacock began producing her own insulin for the first time since she was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at the age of 17. Her blood glucose levels have remained within a healthy range since, according to the Miami Herald. A key difference between the new technique and previous efforts is the location of the transplanted islet cells. In earlier experimental surgeries, donated islet cells, which normally produce insulin in the pancreas, were injected into the liver of Type 1 diabetes patients. The cells did not survive long. In the l Continue reading >>

How Dka Happens And What To Do About It

How Dka Happens And What To Do About It

Certified Diabetes Educator Gary Scheiner offers an overview of diabetic ketoacidosis. (excerpted from Think Like A Pancreas: A Practical Guide to Managing Diabetes With Insulin by Gary Scheiner MS, CDE, DaCapo Press, 2011) Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition in which the blood becomes highly acidic as a result of dehydration and excessive ketone (acid) production. When bodily fluids become acidic, some of the body’s systems stop functioning properly. It is a serious condition that will make you violently ill and it can kill you. The primary cause of DKA is a lack of working insulin in the body. Most of the body’s cells burn primarily sugar (glucose) for energy. Many cells also burn fat, but in much smaller amounts. Glucose happens to be a very “clean” form of energy—there are virtually no waste products left over when you burn it up. Fat, on the other hand, is a “dirty” source of energy. When fat is burned, there are waste products produced. These waste products are called “ketones.” Ketones are acid molecules that can pollute the bloodstream and affect the body’s delicate pH balance if produced in large quantities. Luckily, we don’t tend to burn huge amounts of fat at one time, and the ketones that are produced can be broken down during the process of glucose metabolism. Glucose and ketones can “jump into the fire” together. It is important to have an ample supply of glucose in the body’s cells. That requires two things: sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream, and insulin to shuttle the sugar into the cells. A number of things would start to go wrong if you have no insulin in the bloodstream: Without insulin, glucose cannot get into the body’s cells. As a result, the cells begin burning large amounts of fat for energy. This, of course, Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Is There A Cure For Insulin Type 2 Diabetes? Has Anyone Been Cured?

Is There A Cure For Insulin Type 2 Diabetes? Has Anyone Been Cured?

Many people have reversed type 2 diabetes Later in this post is a simple way to prove this to yourself at home. But firstly a brief introduction… Up until relatively recently doctors were on the wrong track with diabetes. Some were still injecting insulin into patients with type 2 diabetes. They now know this is not the best first course of action. Three types of diabetes in layman’s terms Type 1 is where the pancreas can not secrete enough insulin Type 2 where too much insulin is produced because receptors are resistant to insulin. Reversible in the majority of cases through diet alone. Type 3 is Alzheimer’s (due to glycated proteins) Recent discoveries mean that diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 are not as clear as once thought. I’m a specialist practitioner in obesity and diabetes. Yes that’s right, type 2 diabetes can be reversed through diet for some patients. Absolutely. Firstly this is what is a normal insulin reaction looks like: Insulin is manufactured in the pancreas and secreted when your blood sugar levels rise. Blood sugar needs to be not too high and not too low. Insulin’s mechanism to remove sugar from blood is to put it into cells, like your muscles. If there is an excess after blood glucose has gone into cells it is then put in the liver and further excess becomes fat. What happens with type 2 When insulin is secreted the body’s cells have ‘‘receptors’ that accept the insulin’s key that then open the doors to the cell to let the glucose in. Sadly in type 2 the receptors become resistant to the insulin key. Therefore not enough energy gets into the cell. The body has a negative feedback system. Once the cells do not get enough energy a signal is sent back to the pancreas to manufacture even more insulin. This is a vicious cycle. Insuli Continue reading >>

Pig Implants Could Deliver Insulin To People With Diabetes

Pig Implants Could Deliver Insulin To People With Diabetes

Pig cells could be used to deliver insulin to Type 1 diabetes patients via an implant under the skin, potentially freeing sufferers from the need to have regular insulin injections, according to researchers from Glasgow Caledonian University. Because sufferers of Type 1 diabetes are unable to produce the hormone insulin in their pancreas to regulate blood sugar levels they need regular insulin injections. Human cell transplants are already being used to treat some Type 1 patients. The technique - called islet transplantation - takes cells from the pancreas of a dead human donor which are then implanted into the liver of a Type 1 patient where they begin to produce insulin. However, the treatment is expensive (though in the UK it is available for a few on the NHS) and patients also need to take drugs to suppress the immune system to stop the cells being rejected, which can have unpleasant side effects. One New Zealand company is exploring this technique using cells from pigs that are bred in an environment free from common viruses. But while the Glasgow research also employs the idea of xeno-transplantation, where living cells, tissues or organs are transferred from one species to another, rather than implanting cells from the pancreas, they want to deliver it through the skin. The team is building on an earlier study, which suggested that in primates, microcapsules implanted under the skin could correct diabetes for up to six months. Dr Linda Scobie, a Reader in Clinical Virology at Glasgow Caledonian, said: “The implant would have significant advantages over other treatments. We believe there will be little risk of the body rejecting the implant and unlike in other transplants, the patient doesn’t have to undergo immune suppression, a process which can leave patien Continue reading >>

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. In people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin as the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by an autoimmune reaction in the body. Insulin replacement by daily injections is required. In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. To compensate the body makes more but eventually cannot make enough to keep the balance right. Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. When insulin is required, it is important to understand that this is just the natural progression of the condition. RMIT University have produced a short overview of insulin, a drug that keeps in excess of one million Australians alive. Watch the video to understand why insulin is important and why so many Australians rely on it to stay alive. Copyright © 2015 RMIT University, Prepared by the School of Applied Sciences (Discipline of Chemistry). At this stage, insulin can only be injected. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as it would be destroyed in the stomach, meaning it would not be available to convert glucose into energy. Insulin is injected through the skin into the fatty tissue known as the subcutaneous layer. You do not inject it into muscle or directly into the blood. Absorption of insulin varies depending on the part of the body into which you inject. The tummy (abdomen) absorbs insulin the fastest and is the site used by most people. The buttocks and thighs are also used by some people. While i Continue reading >>

Pancreas And Diabetes

Pancreas And Diabetes

Tweet The pancreas is an organ located behind the lower part of the stomach, in front of the spine and plays an important part in diabetes. The pancreas is the organ which produces insulin, one the main hormones that helps to regulate blood glucose levels. The role of the pancreas in the body The pancreas plays a part in two different organ systems, the endocrine system and the exocrine system. The endocrine system includes all the organs which produce hormones, chemicals which are delivered via the blood to help regulate our mood, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Two of the hormones produced by the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. The exocrine system is made up of a number of glands which release substances such as sweat (to the skin), saliva (in the mouth) or, in the case of the pancreas, digestive enzymes. The pancreas and insulin The pancreas is responsible for producing insulin. The cells which produce insulin are beta cells. These cells are distributed in a cluster of cells in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans, named after the anatomist who discovered them. Insulin is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by assisting the transport of glucose from the blood into neighbouring cells. The pancreas and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the body’s immune system. As more beta cells get killed off, the pancreas struggles to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear. Research has shown that whilst many beta cells are killed off, the body can continue to produce very small amounts of insulin even after decades have passed. News from 2012: Insulin production may last for over 30 years in type 1 diabetes The pancreas and type 2 diab Continue reading >>

Insulin Replacement Therapy

Insulin Replacement Therapy

Insulin replacement therapy and type 1 and 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (also called insulin-dependent diabetes) is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks the cells that produce insulin, resulting in no, or a low amount of, insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs at a younger age, with onset often before the age of 30. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes daily injections of insulin. Type 2 diabetes is typically a result of the body's inability to make enough of, or to properly use insulin. Treatment often begins with an exercise program and a healthy diet to help lower the blood sugar levels. However, if this treatment plan is ineffective, medication may be necessary. Medications for diabetes may be given in pill or injectable forms. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps lower the blood sugar by moving sugar from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. Once inside the cells, blood sugar becomes the essential source of energy for the body. What are the different types of insulin? There are four types of insulin, classified according to the following: Onset How quickly the insulin starts to work after it is injected Peak time The period of time when the insulin is most effective in lowering blood sugar levels Duration How long the insulin remains working in the body Insulin may act differently when administered to different individuals, so the times of onset, peak time, and duration may vary. The four types of insulin include: Insulin type Onset (approximation) Peak time (approximation) Duration (approximation) Rapid acting, Lispro, Aspart, Glulisine insulin 15 minutes 30 to 90 minutes 3 to 5 hours Short acting, Regular (R) insulin 30 to 60 minutes 2 to 4 hours 5 to 8 hours Intermediate acting, NPH (N) or Lente (L) insulin Continue reading >>

Scientists Create Painless Patch Of Insulin-producing Beta Cells To Control Diabetes

Scientists Create Painless Patch Of Insulin-producing Beta Cells To Control Diabetes

For decades, researchers have tried to duplicate the function of beta cells, the tiny insulin-producing entities that don’t work properly in patients with diabetes. Insulin injections provide painful and often imperfect substitutes. Transplants of normal beta cells carry the risk of rejection or side effects from immunosuppressive therapies. Now, researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University have devised another option: a synthetic patch filled with natural beta cells that can secrete doses of insulin to control blood sugar levels on demand with no risk of inducing hypoglycemia. The proof-of-concept builds on an innovative technology, the “smart insulin patch,” reported last year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Both patches are thin polymeric squares about the size of a quarter and covered in tiny needles, like a miniature bed of nails. But whereas the former approach filled these needles with manmade bubbles of insulin, this new “smart cell patch” integrates the needles with live beta cells. Tests of this painless patch in small animal models of type-1 diabetes demonstrated that it could quickly respond to skyrocketing blood sugar levels and significantly lower them for 10 hours at a time. The results were published in Advanced Materials. “This study provides a potential solution for the tough problem of rejection, which has long plagued studies on pancreatic cell transplants for diabetes.” “This study provides a potential solution for the tough problem of rejection, which has long plagued studies on pancreatic cell transplants for diabetes,” said senior author Zhen Gu, PhD, assistant professor in the joint UNC/NC State department of biomedical engineering. “Plus it demonst Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Synthetic Beta Cells Could Lead To Skin Patch Treatment

Diabetes: Synthetic Beta Cells Could Lead To Skin Patch Treatment

A team of scientists has created synthetic pancreatic beta cells that automatically release insulin when they sense high blood sugar. In the journal Nature Chemical Biology, researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University in Raleigh describe how they developed and tested the synthetic cells. Senior author Zhen Gu, a professor in biomedical engineering at both universities, and team hope that one day, the cells could be used in a noninvasive skin patch to treat diabetes. They found that just one injection of the synthetic beta cells kept blood sugar in diabetic mice at normal levels for 5 days. Diabetes is a disease that develops when the body has problems with using or producing insulin, a hormone that helps cells to take in and convert blood sugar, or glucose, into energy. The body produces insulin in the pancreas, which is a glandular organ behind the stomach that houses the beta cells that make and release the right amount of the hormone, depending on glucose levels. Need for noninvasive insulin delivery Around 6 million of the 30 million people in the United States with diabetes manage the disease using insulin treatments, either by regular injections or with infusion pumps. Over the years, there have been attempts to develop a pill form of insulin treatment, but they have encountered problems — including the fact that the body's strong digestive system breaks down the large molecules in the pill before they make it to the bloodstream. It is also possible to treat some cases of diabetes with transplanted pancreatic cells. However, these treatments are costly, need drugs that suppress immune reactions to the transplant, and rely on donated tissue, which is scarce. There is also a high risk that the transplanted c Continue reading >>

Understanding Insulin

Understanding Insulin

In any discussion of diabetes, the word insulin is almost certain to come up. That’s because a lack of insulin or trouble responding to insulin (a condition called insulin resistance) or both is what is responsible for the high blood glucose levels that characterize diabetes. Thanks to years of medical research, however, endogenous insulin (that produced by the pancreas) can be replaced or supplemented by exogenous insulin (insulin produced in a laboratory). For people with Type 1 diabetes, injecting insulin (or infusing it with an insulin pump) is necessary for survival: Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, the life expectancy for a person diagnosed with what was then known as juvenile diabetes was less than a year. For some people with Type 2 diabetes, using insulin may be the best — or only — way to keep blood glucose levels in the recommended range, and maintaining blood glucose control is one of the most important things you can do to lower your risk of developing potentially devastating complications. But even if you never have to take insulin to control your diabetes, it is important to understand what insulin is and what it does in the body. That’s because your lifestyle choices affect the health of your insulin-producing beta cells. Making an effort to lose excess weight, eat healthfully, exercise regularly, and take any prescribed drugs as instructed can prolong the life of your beta cells, so they continue to make the insulin you need. The role of insulin Insulin is a hormone that is released by the beta cells of the pancreas, a glandular organ located in the abdomen, in response to a rise in the level of glucose in the blood. Blood glucose levels rise when a person consumes carbohydrate-containing food or drinks, as well as during periods of phys Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

Insulin And Diabetes

Insulin And Diabetes

Insulin injections are required when the body produces little or no insulin, as with type 1 diabetes. They are also required for some people with type 2 diabetes when diabetes tablets, together with healthy eating and regular physical activity, are not enough to control blood glucose levels. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by special cells, called beta cells, in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. Insulin also helps store excess glucose in the liver. Why must it be injected? While ways of taking insulin by mouth or as a nasal spray are being developed, they are yet to become readily available. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as the stomach would digest it, just as it digests food. What if I have to go on to insulin? For people with type 2 diabetes, starting on insulin can be a difficult and frightening decision to make. However, the many injection devices and tiny needles available today make injecting insulin much easier than most people imagine. In fact many say that they can feel the finger prick for monitoring blood glucose more than they can feel the needle used to inject insulin. When starting on insulin, your doctor and diabetes educator will help you adjust to the new routine. You may find that even with their help, it may take a while to find exactly the right dose to reduce your blood glucose to acceptable levels and to suit your particular lifestyle. Are there different types of insulin? There are 5 types of insulin ranging from short to long acting as insulin is classified according to how long it works in the body. Some insulins are clear in appearance, others cloudy. Everyone is different and will respond differentl Continue reading >>

Diabetes And The Somogyi Effect

Diabetes And The Somogyi Effect

I have had some interesting diabetic cases in the last month. Both cases were diagnosed with diabetes at other clinics and found their way to Four Lakes Veterinary Clinic. Generally, the diagnosis of diabetes is pretty straightforward. A dog or cat will be brought to the clinic because it is eating a lot, but losing weight, drinking a lot and possibly having urine accidents in the house, or looks skinny and is having problems walking or jumping. Blood and urine samples are taken to look for possible causes and, if diabetic, the blood glucose will be very high (often above 500, when the normal range is 80-120) and there will be glucose in the urine. If the pet is really sick, there may be ketones in the urine, too. In a diabetic animal, the body isn't producing enough insulin. Insulin is the substance produced by the pancreas (an organ near the stomach) that helps glucose, a simple sugar, get into the cells of the body. Without insulin to "unlock" the door into the cell, the sugar molecules go right by. Now the body thinks it is starving, so it starts breaking down protein and fat to provide the body with glucose. But without insulin, the cells still think they are starving, even though there is now a lot of glucose in the blood stream. Extra glucose is excreted in the urine. So the blood and urine glucose levels from an untreated diabetic animal will be very high. Once we diagnose diabetes, we start the pet on insulin injections. This insulin allows the cells to take in glucose again. Insulin produced by our pancreas is continuous and dependent on how much glucose is circulating in our blood. After a meal, more insulin is released to get the extra glucose into the cells; once the blood glucose level is normal, then no more insulin is released. But with insulin injection Continue reading >>

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