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What Kind Of Insulin For Dka

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print If your doctor suspects diabetic ketoacidosis, he or she will do a physical exam and various blood tests. In some cases, additional tests may be needed to help determine what triggered the diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood tests Blood tests used in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis will measure: Blood sugar level. If there isn't enough insulin in your body to allow sugar to enter your cells, your blood sugar level will rise (hyperglycemia). As your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, your blood sugar level will continue to rise. Ketone level. When your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, acids known as ketones enter your bloodstream. Blood acidity. If you have excess ketones in your blood, your blood will become acidic (acidosis). This can alter the normal function of organs throughout your body. Additional tests Your doctor may order tests to identify underlying health problems that might have contributed to diabetic ketoacidosis and to check for complications. Tests might include: Blood electrolyte tests Urinalysis Chest X-ray A recording of the electrical activity of the heart (electrocardiogram) Treatment If you're diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, you might be treated in the emergency room or admitted to the hospital. Treatment usually involves: Fluid replacement. You'll receive fluids — either by mouth or through a vein (intravenously) — until you're rehydrated. The fluids will replace those you've lost through excessive urination, as well as help dilute the excess sugar in your blood. Electrolyte replacement. Electrolytes are minerals in your blood that carry an electric charge, such as sodium, potassium and chloride. The absence of insulin can lower the level of several electrolytes in your blood. You'll receive electrolytes throu Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Transitioning Safely From Intravenous To Subcutaneous Insulin

Transitioning Safely From Intravenous To Subcutaneous Insulin

Current Diabetes Reports Authors Kathryn Evans Kreider, Lillian F. Lien Abstract The transition from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous (SQ) insulin in the hospitalized patient with diabetes or hyperglycemia is a key step in patient care. This review article suggests a stepwise approach to the transition in order to promote safety and euglycemia. Important components of the transition include evaluating the patient and clinical situation for appropriateness, recognizing factors that influence a safe transition, calculation of proper SQ insulin doses, and deciding the appropriate type of SQ insulin. This article addresses other clinical situations including the management of patients previously on insulin pumps and recommendations for patients requiring glucocorticoids and enteral tube feedings. The use of institutional and computerized protocols is discussed. Further research is needed regarding the transition management of subgroups of patients such as those with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Introduction Intravenous (IV) insulin is used in the hospitalized patient to control blood sugars for patients with and without diabetes who may exhibit uncontrolled hyperglycemia or for those who need close glycemic attention. Common hospital uses for IV insulin include the perioperative setting, during the use of high-risk medications (such as corticosteroids), or during crises such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) [1,2]. Other conditions such as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and trauma frequently require IV insulin, as well as specific hospital units such as the cardiothoracic intensive care unit [3,4]. The correlation between hyperglycemia and poor inpatient outcomes has been well described in the literature [5,6]. The treatment of hyperglycemia using an IV Continue reading >>

Early Administration Of Long-acting Insulin Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

Early Administration Of Long-acting Insulin Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

The management goals of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1DM) population are fluid and electrolyte repletion, insulin administration, and correction of acidosis in order to stabilize the patient. Traditionally, a rapid-acting insulin IV infusion is begun immediately and continued until the acidosis is corrected and hyperglycemia normalized. Once the acidosis is corrected, patients are able to be transitioned to a subcutaneous insulin regimen. The role that a subcutaneous long-acting insulin such as glargine has in the acute treatment of DKA has not been extensively studied. While giving glargine during the treatment of DKA is becoming more common place, few studies have examined the potential risks and benefits of its use. This study will investigate the effects of early administration of glargine during DKA in patients with newly diagnosed TIDM. The design of this study is a prospective, double-blind study of children ages 2-21 who are admitted to the hospital in DKA with a diagnosis of T1DM. The control group will receive all traditional methods of treatment for DKA, including a placebo subcutaneous injection. The study group will receive the same treatment, but will be supplemented with a subcutaneous glargine injection. Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 90 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Early Administration of Long-acting Insulin Glargine for the Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Double Blind Trial Study Start Date : November 2015 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2018 Estimated Study Completion Date : De Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical condition that can be life-threatening if not treated properly. The incidence of this condition may be increasing, and a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has stubbornly persisted since the 1970s. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs most often in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus); however, its occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly called non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), particularly obese black patients, is not as rare as was once thought. The management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis includes obtaining a thorough but rapid history and performing a physical examination in an attempt to identify possible precipitating factors. The major treatment of this condition is initial rehydration (using isotonic saline) with subsequent potassium replacement and low-dose insulin therapy. The use of bicarbonate is not recommended in most patients. Cerebral edema, one of the most dire complications of diabetic ketoacidosis, occurs more commonly in children and adolescents than in adults. Continuous follow-up of patients using treatment algorithms and flow sheets can help to minimize adverse outcomes. Preventive measures include patient education and instructions for the patient to contact the physician early during an illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a triad of hyperglycemia, ketonemia and acidemia, each of which may be caused by other conditions (Figure 1).1 Although diabetic ketoacidosis most often occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), more recent studies suggest that it can sometimes be the presenting condition in obese black patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (formerly called non–insulin-depe Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition that can be controlled with lifestyle adjustments and medical treatments. Keeping blood sugar levels under control can prevent or minimize complications. Insulin treatment is one component of a diabetes treatment plan for people with type 1 diabetes. Insulin treatment replaces or supplements the body's own insulin with the goal of preventing ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis and achieving normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Many different types of insulin treatment can successfully control blood sugar levels; the best option depends upon a variety of individual factors. With a little extra planning, people with diabetes who take insulin can lead a full life and keep their blood sugar under control. Other topics that discuss type 1 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Type 1 diabetes mellitus and diet (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Care during pregnancy for women with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) STARTING INSULIN The pancreas produces very little or no insulin at all in people with type 1 diabetes. All patients with type 1 diabetes will eventually require insulin. Insulin is given under the skin, either as a shot or continuously with an insulin pump. Dosing — When you are first starting insulin, it will take some time to find the right dose. A doctor or nurse will help to adjust your dose over time. You will be instructed to check your blood sugar level several times per day. Insulin Continue reading >>

Ketones & Insulin Pumps

Ketones & Insulin Pumps

Check for ketones if you have the following: There is a higher risk for developing ketones on pump therapy. This is because long-acting insulins are not used, and rapid-acting insulin is delivered in extremely small amounts. If this basal insulin delivery is interrupted for more than an hour, check your blood sugar and ketones. If you continue to not get insulin, blood glucose and ketone levels may increase into a dangerous range. See also Acute: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Insulin pump-related ketone buildup may be caused by: Site problem Air in tubing (resulting in missed insulin) Extended pump suspension or disconnection (for more than one to two hours) Pump malfunction Insulin leakage (at insertion site or infusion set connection site) Illness or infection Vomiting or dehydration Severe emotional stress “Spoiled” insulin Ketones checklist The presence of ketones while using an insulin pump can indicate a serious medical emergency. Check for ketones if you have: An unexplained elevation in your blood sugar Persistently elevated blood sugars Symptoms of nausea or vomiting This is because you want to be sure you are not developing diabetic ketoacidosis. Remember that ketoacidosis occurs more commonly in pump users. Here’s what you should do. Use the mnemonic KISS. K – Check for Ketones I – Give Insulin by Injection (using an insulin pen or syringe – not through the pump) S – Change the infusion Set S – Check blood Sugar If ketones are positive, you need to obtain emergency medical care. Treating ketones If you have elevated ketones, insulin replacement must be delivered via an injection with an insulin pen or insulin syringe instead of the pump because the pump or infusion set may be malfunctioning and causing ketones to develop. Remember! Ketoacidosis Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Medication

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Medication

Medication Summary Regular and analog human insulins [2] are used for correction of hyperglycemia, unless bovine or pork insulin is the only available insulin. Clinical considerations in treating diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) include the following: The blood glucose level should not be allowed to fall lower than 200 mg/dL during the first 4-5 hours of treatment. Avoid induction of hypoglycemia because it may develop rapidly during correction of ketoacidosis and may not provide sufficient warning time. Treatment of ketoacidosis should aim to correct dehydration, reverse the acidosis and ketosis, reduce plasma glucose concentration to normal, replenish electrolyte and volume losses, and identify the underlying cause. According to the 2011 JBDS DKA guideline, patients who are already taking long-acting insulin analogues such as glargine or detemir should be maintained at their usual doses. [19, 20] Continue reading >>

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially fatal metabolic disorder presenting most weeks in most accident and emergency (A&E) departments.1 The disorder can have significant mortality if misdiagnosed or mistreated. Numerous management strategies have been described. Our aim is to describe a regimen that is based, as far as possible, on available evidence but also on our experience in managing patients with DKA in the A&E department and on inpatient wards. A literature search was carried out on Medline and the Cochrane Databases using “diabetic ketoacidosis” as a MeSH heading and as textword. High yield journals were hand searched. Papers identified were appraised in the ways described in the Users’ guide series published in JAMA. We will not be discussing the derangements in intermediary metabolism involved, nor would we suggest extrapolating the proposed regimen to children. Although some of the issues discussed may be considered by some to be outwith the remit of A&E medicine it would seem prudent to ensure that A&E staff were aware of the probable management of such patients in the hours after they leave the A&E department. AETIOLOGY AND DEFINITION DKA may be the first presentation of diabetes. Insulin error (with or without intercurrent illness) is the most common precipitating factor, accounting for nearly two thirds of cases (excluding those where DKA was the first presentation of diabetes mellitus).2 The main features of DKA are hyperglycaemia, metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap and heavy ketonuria (box 1). This contrasts with the other hyperglycaemic diabetic emergency of hyperosmolar non-ketotic hyperglycaemia where there is no acidosis, absent or minimal ketonuria but often very high glucose levels (>33 mM) and very high serum sodium levels (>15 Continue reading >>

How To Treat Ketoacidosis

How To Treat Ketoacidosis

Immediately drink a large amount of non-caloric or low caloric fluid. Continue to drink 8 to 12 oz. every 30 minutes. Diluted Gatorade, water with Nu-Salt™ and similar fluids are good because they help restore potassium lost because of high blood sugars. Take larger-than-normal correction boluses every 3 hours until the blood sugar is below 200 mg/dl (11 mmol) and ketones are negative. It will take much more rapid insulin than normal to bring blood sugars down when ketones are present in the urine or blood. Often, one and a half to two times the normal insulin dose for a high blood sugar will be necessary. Higher insulin doses than these will be needed if there is an infection or other major stress. If nausea becomes severe or last 4 hours or more, call your physician. If vomiting starts or you can no longer drink fluids, have a friend or family member call your physician immediately, then go directly to an emergency room for treatment. Never omit your insulin, even if you cannot eat. A reduced insulin dose might be needed, but only if your blood sugar is currently low. When high blood sugars or ketoacidosis happen, it is critical that you drink lots of fluid to prevent dehydration. Take extra amounts of Humalog, Novolog or Regular insulin to bring the blood sugars down. Children with severe ketoacidosis lose 10-15 % of their previous body weight (i.e., a 60 lb. child can lose 6 to 9 lbs. of weight) due to severe dehydration. Replacement of fluids should be monitored carefully. The dehydration is caused by excess urination due to high blood sugars and is quickly worsened when vomiting starts due to the ketoacidosis. The start of vomiting requires immediate attention at an ER or hospital where IV fluid replacement can begin. If only nausea is present and it is possible Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Should Current Management Include Subcutaneous Insulin Injections?

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Should Current Management Include Subcutaneous Insulin Injections?

Rocio Gavidia Quezada MD, Hawa Edriss MD Corresponding author: Rocio Gavidia Contact Information: [email protected] DOI: 10.12746/swrccc.v5i19.389 ABSTRACT Diabetic ketoacidosis is a well-known acute complication in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although mortality has decreased considerably, it remains an important cause for admission to intensive care units. Medical management includes intravenous fluid therapy, insulin, correction of electrolyte abnormalities, and addressing the precipitating factor which in most cases is infection or non-compliance with insulin therapy. Usually patients with diabetic ketoacidosis are admitted to the intensive care unit for continuous infusion of insulin; however, the development of rapid acting insulin analogues has made it possible to treat mild to moderate diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous insulin. Although studies using subcutaneous insulin include only a small number of patients, this approach seems as effective as intravenous insulin infusions in patients with mild to moderate diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic education and close follow-up for patients admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis remain essential to avoid recurrence and readmissions. Keywords: Diabetic ketoacidosis, acute complication in diabetes, rapid acting insulin analogues, subcutaneous insulin in diabetic ketoacidosis INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a well-known acute complication in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This condition results from a relative or absolute insulin deficiency combined with counter-regulatory hormone excess: glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone.1 Diabetic ketoacidosis can be life threatening, but mortality rates have fallen since 1980, according to the National Continue reading >>

Subcutaneous Rapid-acting Insulin Analogues For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Subcutaneous Rapid-acting Insulin Analogues For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, life-threatening complication of uncontrolled diabetes that mainly occurs in individuals with autoimmune type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some people with type 2 diabetes. The treatment of DKA is traditionally accomplished by the administration of intravenous infusion of regular insulin that is initiated in the emergency department and continued in an intensive care unit or a high-dependency unit environment. It is unclear whether people with DKA should be treated with other treatment modalities such as subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues. Objectives To assess the effects of subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. We identified eligible trials by searching MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. We searched the trials registers WHO ICTRP Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. The date of last search for all databases was 27 October 2015. We also examined reference lists of included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews, and contacted trial authors. Selection criteria We included trials if they were RCTs comparing subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues versus standard intravenous infusion in participants with DKA of any age or sex with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and in pregnant women. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias, and evaluated overall study quality utilising the GRADE instrument. We assessed the statistical heterogeneity of included studies by visually inspecting forest plots and quantifying the diversity using the I² statistic. We synthesised data using random-effects model meta-analysis or descriptive analysis Continue reading >>

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with an average length of stay of 3.4 days.1 The direct and indirect annual cost of DKA hospitalizations is 2.4 billion US dollars. Omission of insulin is the most common precipitant of DKA.2,3 Infections, acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of the endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), and stress of recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hor Continue reading >>

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