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What Is The Role Of Insulin In The Human Body?

What Is The Main Function Of Insulin In Our Body?

What Is The Main Function Of Insulin In Our Body?

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that has a number of important functions in the human body, particularly in the control of blood glucose levels and preventing hyperglycemia. It also has an effect on several other areas of the body, including the synthesis of lipids and regulation of enzymatic activity. Insulin and Metabolic Processes The most important role of insulin in the human body is its interaction with glucose to allow the cells of the body to use glucose as energy. The pancreas usually produces more insulin in response to a spike in blood sugar level, for example after eating a meal high in energy. This is because the insulin acts as a “key” to open up the cells in the body and allows the glucose to be used as an energy source. Additionally, when there is excess glucose in the bloodstream, known as hyperglycemia, insulin encourages the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver, muscle and fat cells. These stores can then be used at a later date when energy requirements are higher. As a result of this, there is less insulin in the bloodstream, and normal blood glucose levels are restored. Insulin stimulates the synthesis of glycogen in the liver, but when the liver is saturated with glycogen, an alternative pathway takes over. This involves the uptake of additional glucose into adipose tissue, leading to the synthesis of lipoproteins. Results Without Insulin In the absence of insulin, the body is not able to utilize the glucose as energy in the cells. As a result, the glucose remains in the bloodstream and can lead to high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is characteristic of diabetes mellitus and, if untreated, is associated with severe complications, such as damage to the nervous system, eyes, kidneys and extremitie Continue reading >>

Insulin's Role In The Human Body

Insulin's Role In The Human Body

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that has a number of important functions in the human body, particularly in the control of blood glucose levels and preventing hyperglycemia. It also has an effect on several other areas of the body, including the synthesis of lipids and regulation of enzymatic activity. Insulin and Metabolic Processes The most important role of insulin in the human body is its interaction with glucose to allow the cells of the body to use glucose as energy. The pancreas usually produces more insulin in response to a spike in blood sugar level, for example after eating a meal high in energy. This is because the insulin acts as a “key” to open up the cells in the body and allows the glucose to be used as an energy source. Additionally, when there is excess glucose in the bloodstream, known as hyperglycemia, insulin encourages the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver, muscle and fat cells. These stores can then be used at a later date when energy requirements are higher. As a result of this, there is less insulin in the bloodstream, and normal blood glucose levels are restored. Insulin stimulates the synthesis of glycogen in the liver, but when the liver is saturated with glycogen, an alternative pathway takes over. This involves the uptake of additional glucose into adipose tissue, leading to the synthesis of lipoproteins. Results Without Insulin In the absence of insulin, the body is not able to utilize the glucose as energy in the cells. As a result, the glucose remains in the bloodstream and can lead to high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is characteristic of diabetes mellitus and, if untreated, is associated with severe complications, such as damage to the nervous system, eyes, kidneys and extremitie Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Essential for life, the hormone insulin regulates many metabolic processes that provide cells with needed energy. Understanding insulin, what insulin does, and how it affects the body, is important to your overall health. Tucked away behind the stomach is an organ called the pancreas, which produces insulin. Insulin production is regulated based on blood sugar levels and other hormones in the body. In a healthy individual, insulin production and release is a tightly regulated process, allowing the body to balance its metabolic needs. What does insulin do? Insulin allows the cells in the muscles, fat and liver to absorb glucose that is in the blood. The glucose serves as energy to these cells, or it can be converted into fat when needed. Insulin also affects other metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of fat or protein. Problems with insulin production or use The most common problem associated with insulin is diabetes. Diabetes occurs when the body either does not secrete enough insulin or when the body no longer uses the insulin it secretes effectively. Diabetes falls into two categories: Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot produce insulin sufficiently to meet its own needs. This commonly occurs in children, and while an exact cause has not been found, many consider it to be an autoimmune disease. Some symptoms of type 1 diabetes include tiredness, increased urination and thirst, and problems with vision. Type 2 diabetes is more commonly associated with adults and lifestyle choices. People with type 2 diabetes will produce insulin but often not enough for their body's needs. They may also struggle to use the insulin they produce effectively. Patients may not know they have type 2 diabetes until they have an annual checkup, as symptoms tend to be mild un Continue reading >>

Insulin Function In The Human Body

Insulin Function In The Human Body

Insulin is a hormone present in our body to control the blood glucose level by converting extra sugar into proteins, lipids, and glycogen. In this way, the glucose level in our blood remains at a normal level and our body performs well. This is the main insulin function in the human body. Lets discuss all this step by step in detail. What is the Function of Insulin? Insulin Function The pancreas is the source of this hormone. It contains a large number of cells which produce insulin. The pancreas secretes this hormone when we eat foods which containglucose (Carbohydrates). This hormone helps in the metabolism of the body. Without this hormone, we cannot live. Insulin depresses blood glucose level in different ways including glycogen synthesis and increasing the cell consumption of glucose. It also stimulates conversion of glucose into proteins and lipids, which reduces the level of glucose. Insulin also inhibits the hydrolysis of glycogen (breakdown of glycogen into glucose using water) in the liver and muscles. When we eat something it goesstraight into the stomach and then goes through various digestion processes. The food is converted into small particles and absorbed by the blood. If the food contains carbohydrates then pancreas secretes the insulin to make use of them for the cellular metabolism. The excess glucose is stored in different parts of the body like muscles, liver and is used by the body when needed. In this way when we eat, insulin keeps our glucose level in a normal range. Our circulatory system makes sure that everything in the body goes well. When there isnt enough insulin in the blood then glucose get back into the bloodstream from the storage cells. This increases the glucose level in the body which could cause diabetes and nervous disorders if th Continue reading >>

Endocrinology > The Role Of Insulin In The Human Body

Endocrinology > The Role Of Insulin In The Human Body

Audience: Patients Animation Description: This patient-friendly animation describes the main role of insulin in the human body. When food is ingested, it travels along the digestive tract where it is broken down into its component nutrients in order to be absorbed into the bloodstream. One such nutrient is glucose, a simple sugar. Glucose gets absorbed by the stomach and intestines and then enters the bloodstream. It travels through the circulation to all body cells. Once absorbed into the bloodstream, glucose circulates causing the blood sugar level to rise. An increased level of blood sugar sends a signal to the pancreatic beta cells, which respond by secreting the hormone insulin into the circulation. Insulin is necessary for glucose to reach and be used by several important target tissues throughout the body. These include the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Insulin is necessary to keep blood glucose levels stable in the body. Circulating insulin binds to specific insulin receptors located on the cell membrane of tissue cells throughout the body. Upon binding, a signal is sent to the nucleus of the cell, instructing it to transport glucose channels to the cell surface. These channels allow glucose to enter the cell. Glucose enters the cell through a process called facilitated diffusion. Continue reading >>

What Does Insulin Do In My Body?

What Does Insulin Do In My Body?

Diabetes mellitus (MEL-ih-tus), often referred to as diabetes, is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels that result from the body’s inability to produce enough insulin and/or effectively utilize the insulin. Diabetes is a serious, life-long condition and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism (the body's way of digesting food and converting it into energy). There are three forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that accounts for five- to 10-percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for 90- to 95-percent of all diagnosed cases. The third type of diabetes occurs in pregnancy and is referred to as gestational diabetes. Left untreated, gestational diabetes can cause health issues for pregnant women and their babies. People with diabetes can take preventive steps to control this disease and decrease the risk of further complications. Continue reading >>

How Insulin Works

How Insulin Works

Insulin is a hormone made by one of the body's organs called the pancreas. Insulin helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy. It also helps your body store it in your muscles, fat cells, and liver to use later, when your body needs it. After you eat, your blood sugar (glucose) rises. This rise in glucose triggers your pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin travels through the blood to your body's cells. It tells the cells to open up and let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy or store it to use later. Without insulin, your body can't use or store glucose for energy. Instead, the glucose stays in your blood. Continue reading >>

Functions Of Insulin

Functions Of Insulin

Insulin is a protein-based hormone that is made by the beta cells of the pancreas. Most people know that insulin is the hormone that helps the body’s cells put glucose into the cells for use as cellular fuel. In the absence of insulin, the cells do not have enough biochemical energy so they must use other nutrients in order to function. Without insulin, life-threatening complications can occur due to high blood sugar levels. Insulin and Metabolism When a person eats a meal containing glucose (or any other carbohydrate), the pancreas secretes insulin so that the glucose absorbed by the cells can be used for cellular metabolism. Insulin essential for cell metabolism and, without it, the individual would die. In type 1 diabetics, the pancreas cannot secrete insulin so the blood sugars go higher. The cells do not get enough glucose for cellular metabolism. In type 2 diabetes, there is usually enough insulin secreted; however, the cells are resistant to insulin and glucose cannot get into the cells for cellular metabolism. If diabetes is left unchecked, glucose builds up in the bloodstream and doesn’t get passed along to the cells nor is it stored as glycogen in the liver. This can damage many bodily organs and tissues, including the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, and kidneys. Insulin replacement is necessary for type 1 diabetes because these types of diabetics don’t get enough insulin from the pancreas to do its job. In some cases, type 2 diabetics need insulin because their pancreas has been overworked and is tired, damaging the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is injected into the fatty tissue, usually in the abdomen; however, other good sites for injection of insulin is the buttocks, thighs, or upper arms. Insulin’s action on the Digestive System When a person e Continue reading >>

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

Tweet Insulin is a hormone which plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose levels. A lack of insulin, or an inability to adequately respond to insulin, can each lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes. In addition to its role in controlling blood sugar levels, insulin is also involved in the storage of fat. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the body’s metabolism. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy. Insulin and blood glucose levels Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. Some cells in the body can take glucose from the blood without insulin, but most cells do require insulin to be present. Insulin and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body produces insufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Without the presence of insulin, many of the body’s cells cannot take glucose from the blood and therefore the body uses other sources of energy. Ketones are produced by the liver as an alternative source of energy, however, high levels of the ketones can lead to a dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin to compensate for their body’s lack of insulin. Insulin and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body not responding effectively to insulin. This is termed insulin resistance. As a result the body is less able to t Continue reading >>

Role Of Insulin In Human Body

Role Of Insulin In Human Body

1. ROLE OF INSULIN MARYAM JAMILAH BINTI ABDUL HAMID 082013100002 IMS BANGALORE 2. Learning outcome • List down the role of insulin 3. Insulin • It is a polypeptide hormone • Made up of 51 amino acids • Contains 2 chains: A and B • A chain with 21 amino acids & B chain with 30 amino acids • Has two types of disulphide bridges – Intrachain disulphide bridge between A6 –A11 – Interchain disulphide bridges between A7 –B7 & A20- B19 4. Insulin receptor Target cell α α   • It has two α & two  subunits, held by disulphide bridges • α subunits bind insulin •  subunits – have tyrosine kinase activity (Kinase-phosphatase system, 2nd messenger) – Contain autophosphorylation sites 5. Target cell Tyr- P Tyr- P Insulin receptor substrate -1 (IRS-1) Insulin receptor substrate -1 (IRS-1) P Cascade of protein phosphorylations & dephosphorylations by kinases & phosphatases Biological effects 6. Insulin bound to Insulin receptor on target cell1 2 3 4 5 + Glucose transported inside by glucose transporters Stimulation for fusion of internal vesicles containing glucose transporters with the target cell membrane Endosome formation Internalization of glucose transporters when insulin levels fall 7. Insulin bound to Insulin receptor on target cell1 2 3 4 5 + Glucose transported inside by glucose transporters Stimulation for fusion of internal vesicles containing glucose transporters with the target cell membrane Endosome formation Internalization of glucose transporters when insulin levels fall 8. Role of insulin 1. Uptake of glucose by tissues 2. Utilization of glucose 3. Hypoglycemic effect 5. Lipogenesis 6. Anti-lipolytic effect 7. Anti-ketogenic effect 8. Other general effect 9. 1) Uptake of glucose by tissues  Facilitates the membrane transp Continue reading >>

Physiologic Effects Of Insulin

Physiologic Effects Of Insulin

Stand on a streetcorner and ask people if they know what insulin is, and many will reply, "Doesn't it have something to do with blood sugar?" Indeed, that is correct, but such a response is a bit like saying "Mozart? Wasn't he some kind of a musician?" Insulin is a key player in the control of intermediary metabolism, and the big picture is that it organizes the use of fuels for either storage or oxidation. Through these activities, insulin has profound effects on both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and significant influences on protein and mineral metabolism. Consequently, derangements in insulin signalling have widespread and devastating effects on many organs and tissues. The Insulin Receptor and Mechanism of Action Like the receptors for other protein hormones, the receptor for insulin is embedded in the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is composed of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits linked by disulfide bonds. The alpha chains are entirely extracellular and house insulin binding domains, while the linked beta chains penetrate through the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase. In other words, it functions as an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to tyrosine residues on intracellular target proteins. Binding of insulin to the alpha subunits causes the beta subunits to phosphorylate themselves (autophosphorylation), thus activating the catalytic activity of the receptor. The activated receptor then phosphorylates a number of intracellular proteins, which in turn alters their activity, thereby generating a biological response. Several intracellular proteins have been identified as phosphorylation substrates for the insulin receptor, the best-studied of which is insulin receptor substrate 1 or IRS-1. When IRS-1 is activa Continue reading >>

The Role Insulin Plays In The Body

The Role Insulin Plays In The Body

Insulin plays a key role in metabolic functions in the body. People with diabetes have an intimate knowledge of insulin, particularly if they do not produce enough naturally. However, the rest of the public may be less knowledgeable about the role of insulin and its impact on overall health. Insulin is produced in the pancreas of the human body. Its most important function is the way it interacts with glucose (blood sugar) to allow the cells of the body to use that glucose as energy. Insulin can be viewed as a type of key that unlocks the cells and enables glucose to enter. The pancreas senses when there is a spike in glucose in the bloodstream and reacts by producing insulin. According to the Hormone Health Network, insulin also works to ensure the liver stores excess glucose so that it is not actively in the blood. Stored glucose is called glycogen. This glycogen can be converted into fat when it is needed. Insulin also affects other metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of protein or fat. If insulin is not being produced in the right amounts, the result is high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes mellitus. Complications of high blood sugar include damage to the nervous system, kidneys, eyes, and the extremities. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. Supplementation with insulin will be necessary to avoid drastic changes in blood glucose levels. When a person has type 2 diabetes, cells fail to respond to insulin properly. This is referred to as insulin resistance. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop. Typically with this type of diabetes, excessive body weight and not enough exercise are the culprits in insulin resistance. Eating a healthier diet and becomin Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

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