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What Is The Insulin Made Of?

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

Since the dawn of time, we have searched for ways to make life easier for us. The modern age has given us some amazing technological advances—what we would do without the internet, our iPhones or high-speed travel? For many people, surviving life without these things sounds rough. However, if you have diabetes, no doubt you’re also a big fan of one particular 20th-century discovery: insulin. Before insulin was discovered in 1921, people with diabetes didn’t live for long; there wasn’t much doctors could do for them. The most effective treatment was to put patients with diabetes on very strict diets with minimal carbohydrate intake. This could buy patients a few extra years but couldn’t save them. Harsh diets (some prescribed as little as 450 calories a day!) sometimes even caused patients to die of starvation. So how did this wonderful breakthrough blossom? Let’s travel back a little more than 100 years ago.… In 1889, two German researchers, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering, found that when the pancreas gland was removed from dogs, the animals developed symptoms of diabetes and died soon afterward. This led to the idea that the pancreas was the site where “pancreatic substances” (insulin) were produced. Later experimenters narrowed this search to the islets of Langerhans (a fancy name for clusters of specialized cells in the pancreas). In 1910, Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Shafer suggested only one chemical was missing from the pancreas in people with diabetes. He decided to call this chemical insulin, which comes for the Latin word insula, meaning “island.” So what happened next? Something truly miraculous. In 1921, a young surgeon named Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best figured out how to remove insulin from a dog’s pancreas. S Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone that is important for metabolism and utilization of energy from the ingested nutrients - especially glucose. Insulin chemistry and etymology Insulin is a protein chain or peptide hormone. There are 51 amino acids in an insulin molecule. It has a molecular weight of 5808 Da. Insulin is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The name insulin comes from the Latin ''insula'' for "island" from the cells that produce the hormone in the pancreas. Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animal. Both porcine (from pigs) and bovine (from cows) insulin are similar to human insulin but porcine insulin resembles human insulin more closely. What does insulin do? Insulin has several broad actions including: It causes the cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be stored in the liver and muscles Insulin also prevents the utilization of fat as an energy source. In absence of insulin or in conditions where insulin is low glucose is not taken up by body cells, and the body begins to use fat as an energy source Insulin also controls other body systems and regulates the amino acid uptake by body cells It has several other anabolic effects throughout the body as well Secretion of insulin Insulin is synthesized in significant quantities only in beta cells in the pancreas. It is secreted primarily in response to elevated blood concentrations of glucose. Insulin thus can regulate blood glucose and the body senses and responds to rise in blood glucose by secreting insulin. Other stimuli like sight and taste of food, nerve stimulation and increased blood concentrations of other fuel molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids, also promote insulin secretion. What happens wh Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

With a speed no longer seen in drug discovery and development, insulin was isolated for the first time in 1921 from animal sources and commercialized within 12 months. Decades later, it took just four years for developers to move from expressing recombinant insulin in bacteria to launching the world's first biotechnology drug product. Scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best, working in a lab provided by John J. R. MacLeod at the University of Toronto, isolated the polypeptide hormone and began testing it in dogs. By 1922, with the help of James B. Collip and pharmaceutical company partners, the researchers could purify and produce animal-based insulin in larger quantities. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas and is the most important hormone in the body to regulate blood glucose levels. A partial or complete lack of insulin causes diabetes, which, untreated, is often fatal by the teenage years. The World Health Organization reports that an estimated 177 million people worldwide have diabetes. Although not a cure, insulin injections have been the standard treatment since 1924. Before insulin was discovered, diabetes was managed through diet, which allowed patients to survive, but generally for just a few years after diagnosis. Remarkable medical results were achieved with the first insulin injections. Doctors finally had a means to offer patients a nearly normal quality of life, and it quickly became necessary to increase insulin production. The Toronto scientists had trouble, however, with consistently isolating and purifying the drug. Connaught Laboratories in Canada, now part of Sanofi-Aventis, assisted, and Eli Lilly & Co. proposed developing large-scale production methods. The university initially rebuffed offers from Lilly, but an agreemen Continue reading >>

Cat Insulin

Cat Insulin

Cat insulin is a frustrating topic. Cat diabetes has practically become an epidemic in the U.S. for many of the same reasons adult onset diabetes in people has risen dramatically - obesity and, in the case of cats, a diet that is too rich in carbohydrates. However, unlike human diabetes who have many different types of insulin to chose from, the selection of insulin for cats has a history of being mainly unsatisfactory. That's because most insulin is made for people and when insulin is made specifically for animals, it has traditionally been directed at dogs. When it comes to insulin, a cat's own natural insulin is most like beef insulin. Cats have also been successfully treated using beef-pork insulin because it is 10 percent pork and 90 percent beef. Unfortunately, I have seen such types of insulin that are most appropriate for cats come and go over the last 20 years. Just as a patient would get well-regulated on one type of insulin, it would be discontinued and we would have to start a different type. It has been a frustrating situation. That's not to say that you cannot treat your diabetic cat successfully with insulin. Currently, due to a lack of animal-source insulins, most cats are started on human recombinant insulin. Even in the field of human insulin where there have been dozens of different insulins available, so many have been discontinued - it's enough to make your head spin. At the moment, there is an insulin developed just for cats. It's called PROZINC. Will it still be around a year from now? Who knows. Is it the best insulin? No. Does it work well in all cats? No. For that reason, your veterinarian will discuss with you the available types of insulin if your cat is diagnosed with diabetes and he will, no doubt, have his own preference. ProZinc stands fo Continue reading >>

Insulin Can Now Be Made Cheaply From Flowers

Insulin Can Now Be Made Cheaply From Flowers

In 1922, Canadian scientists isolated insulin for the first time. Now, over 80 years later, our neighbors to the north are helping diabetics again by devising the cheapest way yet to produce insulin. This advance could significantly reduce the expense of treating the disease, which currently costs the US $132 billion dollars a year. To create the cheap "prairie insulin," scientists at the University of Calgary genetically engineered the human gene for insulin into the common plant safflower. Once the gene activates, the flower begins producing insulin faster than traditional methods that utilize pigs, cows, yeast, or bacteria. Play Video Play Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Remaining Time -0:00 This is a modal window. Foreground --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Opaque Background --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Window --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Font Size 50% 75% 100% 125% 150% 175% 200% 300% 400% Text Edge Style None Raised Depressed Uniform Dropshadow Font Family Default Monospace Serif Proportional Serif Monospace Sans-Serif Proportional Sans-Serif Casual Script Small Caps Defaults Done This is the first instance of a plant producing the insulin, and it does so prolifically, to the tune of 2.2 pounds of insulin per acre of flowers. At that rate, 25 square miles of safflower could produce enough insulin for the world's entire diabetic population. Continue reading >>

How Insulin Is Made Using Bacteria

How Insulin Is Made Using Bacteria

Website Search Description: Synthetic human insulin was the first golden molecule of the biotech industry and the direct result of recombinant DNA technology. Currently, millions of diabetics worldwide use synthetic insulin to regulate their blood sugar levels. Synthetic insulin is made in both bacteria and yeast. Keywords: recombinant dna technology,blood sugar levels,human insulin,biotech industry,diabetics,molecule,bacteria,yeast Synthetic human insulin was the first golden molecule of the biotech industry and the direct result of recombinant DNA technology. Currently, millions of diabetics worldwide use synthetic insulin to regulate their blood sugar levels. Synthetic insulin i Continue reading >>

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Glucose is a type of sugar from food that the body uses for energy. The level of glucose in the bloodstream usually rises after a meal. To be efficiently utilized by the body, glucose in the bloodstream needs to enter the body’s cells. If glucose is unable to enter the cells, blood glucose levels rise leading to hyperglycemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages nerves, blood vessels and vital organs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. The beta cells release more insulin whenever there is a rise in blood glucose levels. Insulin enables glucose to enter the cells, thereby restoring normal blood glucose levels and allowing efficient glucose metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin because the disease has destroyed the beta cells of their pancreas. People with type 2 diabetes can produce insulin but their body does not respond well to it, a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in pregnant women with gestational diabetes because the placenta (organ that connects the fetus to the mother’s blood supply) produces insulin-blocking hormones. Insulin therapy replaces or supplements the body’s own insulin, thereby restoring normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. It is one of the cornerstones of diabetes management, providing intensive blood glucose control crucial in preventing diabetes-related complications. Why is insulin injected into the fat under the skin rather than taken as a pill? Because insulin taken in pill form would be broken down by digestive enzymes and rendered ineffective. The first generation of man-made insulin is called “human insulin.” Developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982, human insulin is the name given to synthet Continue reading >>

Ask The Diabetes Team

Ask The Diabetes Team

Question: From the United Kingdom: How is artificial insulin made? Answer: What a great question! I'm not sure how much detail you're interested in, but here is the short answer. Insulin is created in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of E. coli bacteria (not the same type that causes diarrhea and kidney problems that you may be familiar with) that has been genetically altered by the addition of the gene for human insulin production. The bacteria produces the insulin which is then chemically harvested from the medium in which the bacteria is grown, purified and prepared for human use. Here is the long answer if you are interested: [Note: the following is adapted from Overview of Biotechnology at the End of the 20th Century. Please see that reference for even more details.] Modern biotechnology began when recombinant human insulin was first marketed in the United States in 1982. The effort leading up to this landmark event began in the early 1970's when research scientists developed protocols to construct vectors, by cutting out and pasting pieces of DNA together to create a new piece of DNA (recombinant DNA), that could be inserted into the bacterium, Escherichia coli (transformation). If one of the pieces of the new DNA included a gene which produced a protein enzyme that broke down a particular antibiotic, the bacterium would be resistant to that antibiotic and could grow in a medium containing it. To the piece of DNA that conferred resistance of Escherichia coli to a particular antibiotic was added the human gene for the making of insulin. If this recombinant DNA containing the human insulin gene was used to transform Escherichia coli,and the bacteria were plated on an agar plate containing the antibiotic, the bacteria that grew contained not only the Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Continue reading >>

Ocr Gateway Triple Science Topics

Ocr Gateway Triple Science Topics

Genetic engineering can be used to create organisms that produce large amounts of useful substances - for example, bacteria can be engineered to produce human insulin to treat diabetics. Genetic engineering can also be used to create and store DNA fingerprints, which can be used for identification purposes. Genetic engineering Genetic engineering involves altering the genetic code of an organism by inserting a gene or genes from another organism. Bacteria can be genetically engineered (genetically modified) to produce useful human proteins including human growth hormone and human insulin. One advantage of using bacteria is that they can be grown in large fermenters, producing large amounts of these useful proteins. You should be able to describe the main stages in genetic engineering, and in particular how this works for engineering bacteria to produce human insulin. Main stage Insulin example Desired gene is identified Human insulin gene is identified The gene is removed from the organism’s DNA The gene for making human insulin is cut out of some human DNA The DNA in other organism is cut open A loop of bacterial DNA is cut open The gene is inserted into the cut DNA The human insulin gene is inserted into the cut loop, and this loop is inserted into a bacterial cell The inserted gene works in the transgenic (genetically engineered) organism The bacterial cell produces human insulin The transgenic organism is cloned to produce lots of identical copies The transgenic bacterium is cloned to make lots of copies Large amounts of human insulin is collected The animation shows how this works. You have an old or no version of Flash - you need to upgrade to view this content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide DNA fingerprinting A person’s DNA is unique to them. Their DN Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication)

"Insulin therapy" redirects here. For the psychiatric treatment, see Insulin shock therapy. Insulin is used as a medication to treat high blood sugar.[3] This includes in diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.[3] It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.[3] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows.[5] Human versions can be made either by modifying pig versions or recombinant technology.[5] It comes in three main types short–acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate–acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine).[5] Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.39 to $10.61 per 1,000 iu of regular insulin and $2.23 to $10.35 per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[8][9] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds.[5] Medical uses[edit] Giving insulin with an insulin pen. Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacid Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

Eli Lilly and Company News of this miracle drug spread like wildfire, and diabetics rushed to be treated, clinging to hopes of relief. Insulin continued to become purified, and long lasting types were created to reduce the number of daily injections. Biosynthetic Insulin, introduced in 1983, eliminates the need for animal pancreases (Yuwiler 69-70). Synthesized insulin eliminates potential allergic reactions. Most insulins today are chemically identical to natural human insulin (Davidson). Though insulin is the most common option, new treatments include drugs that stimulate beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin, decrease glucose production in the liver, or make muscles more responsive to insulin (Davidson). However, none of these advancements would be possible without insulin. Continue reading >>

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