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What Is The Effect Of Insulin On Blood Glucose?

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates And Blood Sugar

When people eat a food containing carbohydrates, the digestive system breaks down the digestible ones into sugar, which enters the blood. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that prompts cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells absorb blood sugar, levels in the bloodstream begin to fall. When this happens, the pancreas start making glucagon, a hormone that signals the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar. Carbohydrate metabolism is important in the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it makes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually over a number of years, beginning when muscle and other cells stop responding to insulin. This condition, known as insulin resistance, causes blood sugar and insulin levels to stay high long after eating. Over time, the heavy demands made on the insulin-making cells wears them out, and insulin production eventually stops. Glycemic index In the past, carbohydrates were commonly classified as being either “simple” or “complex,” and described as follows: Simple carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of sugars (such as fructose and glucose) which have simple chemical structures composed of only one sugar (monosaccharides) or two sugars (disaccharides). Simple carbohydrates are easily and quickly utilized for energy by the body because of their simple chemical structure, often leading to a faster rise in blood sugar and insulin secretion from the pancreas – which can have negative health effects. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates have mo Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

Normal Regulation Of Blood Glucose

The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Note that the pancreas serves as the central player in this scheme. It is the production of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas which ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes, hypoglycemia, or some other sugar problem. In this Article Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion! Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose...it's as simple as that! Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during Continue reading >>

Insulin's Role In The Human Body

Insulin's Role In The Human Body

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that has a number of important functions in the human body, particularly in the control of blood glucose levels and preventing hyperglycemia. It also has an effect on several other areas of the body, including the synthesis of lipids and regulation of enzymatic activity. Insulin and Metabolic Processes The most important role of insulin in the human body is its interaction with glucose to allow the cells of the body to use glucose as energy. The pancreas usually produces more insulin in response to a spike in blood sugar level, for example after eating a meal high in energy. This is because the insulin acts as a “key” to open up the cells in the body and allows the glucose to be used as an energy source. Additionally, when there is excess glucose in the bloodstream, known as hyperglycemia, insulin encourages the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver, muscle and fat cells. These stores can then be used at a later date when energy requirements are higher. As a result of this, there is less insulin in the bloodstream, and normal blood glucose levels are restored. Insulin stimulates the synthesis of glycogen in the liver, but when the liver is saturated with glycogen, an alternative pathway takes over. This involves the uptake of additional glucose into adipose tissue, leading to the synthesis of lipoproteins. Results Without Insulin In the absence of insulin, the body is not able to utilize the glucose as energy in the cells. As a result, the glucose remains in the bloodstream and can lead to high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is characteristic of diabetes mellitus and, if untreated, is associated with severe complications, such as damage to the nervous system, eyes, kidneys and extremitie Continue reading >>

Insulin Regulates Not Just Blood

Insulin Regulates Not Just Blood

Put the Power of MHCP in Your Blood Sugar But Fatty Acids As Well The cinnamon extract MHCP mimics insulin with regard to glucose. Does it do the same with regard to fatty acids? By Aaron W. Jensen, Ph.D. nsulin is one of the most intensively studied proteins in medicine. A wealth of research from laboratories throughout the world over the past 80 years has helped to elucidate the role that this hormone plays in regulating blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. We know that when insulin production is impaired - or, just as importantly, when our cells become resistant to the effects of insulin - our blood glucose levels can become dangerously elevated - a condition called hyperglycemia. The eventual result is the sinister disease diabetes mellitus, or diabetes for short. By far the most common form of this disease is type 2, or age-related, diabetes. All cells in the body require glucose as a source of chemical energy - but to varying degrees. For most tissues, glucose is the primary energy source, and for the brain it is virtually the only source. And although glucose is the preferred energy source for the muscles, they (and many other tissues) are also equipped to use other fuels, notably fatty acids. These organic compounds, which are sometimes loosely referred to as fats, are components of true fats. They are derived from plant and animal fats in our diet and are precursors to the human fats made by our own bodies. As you already know from the title of this article, insulin regulates not just glucose, but fatty acids as well. We'll soon see how it does that - but why is it important? Because fatty acids are among the most basic of all nutrients. Paradoxically, however, some are potentially harmful to our health (particularly our heart health), whereas others are decided Continue reading >>

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

Tweet Insulin is a hormone which plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose levels. A lack of insulin, or an inability to adequately respond to insulin, can each lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes. In addition to its role in controlling blood sugar levels, insulin is also involved in the storage of fat. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the body’s metabolism. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy. Insulin and blood glucose levels Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. Some cells in the body can take glucose from the blood without insulin, but most cells do require insulin to be present. Insulin and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body produces insufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Without the presence of insulin, many of the body’s cells cannot take glucose from the blood and therefore the body uses other sources of energy. Ketones are produced by the liver as an alternative source of energy, however, high levels of the ketones can lead to a dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin to compensate for their body’s lack of insulin. Insulin and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body not responding effectively to insulin. This is termed insulin resistance. As a result the body is less able to t Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

Effects Of Coffee Consumption On Fasting Blood Glucose And Insulin Concentrations

Effects Of Coffee Consumption On Fasting Blood Glucose And Insulin Concentrations

Randomized controlled trials in healthy volunteers Higher habitual coffee consumption was associated with higher insulin sensitivity (1) and a lower risk for type 2 diabetes (2–6) in diverse populations. In contrast, short-term metabolic studies showed that caffeine intake can acutely lower insulin sensitivity (7–9) and increase glucose concentrations (10–15). Randomized intervention studies are needed to examine whether tolerance to these acute effects develops after longer-term consumption (16). We therefore examined the effects of coffee and caffeine on fasting blood concentrations of glucose and insulin over 2–4 weeks in two crossover studies in healthy volunteers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The studies were approved by the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Medical Ethics Committee, and all participants gave informed consent. The trials were originally designed to study the effects of coffee and caffeine on plasma concentrations of homocysteine, and the study designs have been reported in detail previously (17,18). Participants were regular coffee consumers (more than five cups/day) and did not have known diabetes. The first study was a 4-week crossover study that compared the effects of regular paper-filtered coffee consumption with that of coffee abstinence. A total of 40 volunteers used 1 l of coffee (70 g coffee grounds) for 4 weeks and abstained from coffee for 4 weeks in random order. Fourteen participants did not complete the trial because of nausea and restlessness (n = 7), possible susceptibility to adverse effects of caffeine intake (n = 3), or reasons unrelated to treatment (n = 4). Thus, 26 participants were included in the analysis. The second study had a Latin-square design with three treatments given in random order for 2 weeks each: caffeine ( Continue reading >>

Effect Of Insulin On Blood Sugar Level And Glycogen Content In Organs Of Some Cyclostomes And Fish

Effect Of Insulin On Blood Sugar Level And Glycogen Content In Organs Of Some Cyclostomes And Fish

Volume 11, Issue 2 , October 1968, Pages 381-392 Effect of insulin on blood sugar level and glycogen content in organs of some cyclostomes and fish Author links open overlay panel L.Leibson E.M.Plisetskaya Get rights and content Mammalian insulin was injected intraperitoneally (3080 IU/kg) into cyclostomes (Lampetra fiuviatilis, Lampetra planeri), cartilaginous fish (Dasyatis pastinaca), and marine and freshwater bony fish (Scorpaena porcus, Spicara smaris, Trachuras mediterraneus ponticus, Gobiidae sp., and Cyprinus carpio). In all the animals studied the hormone caused a decrease of the sugar content in the blood, but the duration of hypoglycemia varied in different species. In experiments performed with the same insulin dosage and at identical temperatures hypoglycemia, in lampreys lasted 11 days, in skates 7 days, in low-active scorpion fish 4 days, and in highly active sea bass 1 day. The experiments with lampreys kept at a water temperature of 35C coinciding with the water temperature in the river during the winter season, revealed even more prolonged hypoglycemia11 days after the injection the sugar concentration in the blood remained low. The introduction of insulin neither increases the glycogen concentration in muscles of larval lampreys nor affects the glycogen content in adult lamprey muscles. It induces a notable rise of glycogen in muscles of skate and a transient increase, 67 hours after the injection, in scorpion fish. At the height of hypoglycemic convulsion the glycogen content of scorpion fish and sea bass muscles decreases. The glycogen content in the cardiac muscle of lamprey, skate, scorpion fish, and carp during advanced hypoglycemia is found to be reduced. Similar changes induced by insulin are observed in the brain of lamprey and scorpion fish. Continue reading >>

Physiologic Effects Of Insulin

Physiologic Effects Of Insulin

Stand on a streetcorner and ask people if they know what insulin is, and many will reply, "Doesn't it have something to do with blood sugar?" Indeed, that is correct, but such a response is a bit like saying "Mozart? Wasn't he some kind of a musician?" Insulin is a key player in the control of intermediary metabolism, and the big picture is that it organizes the use of fuels for either storage or oxidation. Through these activities, insulin has profound effects on both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and significant influences on protein and mineral metabolism. Consequently, derangements in insulin signalling have widespread and devastating effects on many organs and tissues. The Insulin Receptor and Mechanism of Action Like the receptors for other protein hormones, the receptor for insulin is embedded in the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is composed of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits linked by disulfide bonds. The alpha chains are entirely extracellular and house insulin binding domains, while the linked beta chains penetrate through the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase. In other words, it functions as an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to tyrosine residues on intracellular target proteins. Binding of insulin to the alpha subunits causes the beta subunits to phosphorylate themselves (autophosphorylation), thus activating the catalytic activity of the receptor. The activated receptor then phosphorylates a number of intracellular proteins, which in turn alters their activity, thereby generating a biological response. Several intracellular proteins have been identified as phosphorylation substrates for the insulin receptor, the best-studied of which is insulin receptor substrate 1 or IRS-1. When IRS-1 is activa Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment: Using Insulin To Manage Blood Sugar

Diabetes Treatment: Using Insulin To Manage Blood Sugar

Understanding how insulin affects your blood sugar can help you better manage your condition. Insulin therapy is often an important part of diabetes treatment. Understand the key role insulin plays in managing your blood sugar, and the goals of insulin therapy. What you learn can help you prevent diabetes complications. The role of insulin in the body It may be easier to understand the importance of insulin therapy if you understand how insulin normally works in the body and what happens when you have diabetes. Regulate sugar in your bloodstream. The main job of insulin is to keep the level of glucose in the bloodstream within a normal range. After you eat, carbohydrates break down into glucose, a sugar that serves as a primary source of energy, and enters the bloodstream. Normally, the pancreas responds by producing insulin, which allows glucose to enter the tissues. Storage of excess glucose for energy. After you eat — when insulin levels are high — excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen. Between meals — when insulin levels are low — the liver releases glycogen into the bloodstream in the form of glucose. This keeps blood sugar levels within a narrow range. If your pancreas secretes little or no insulin (type 1 diabetes), or your body doesn't produce enough insulin or has become resistant to insulin's action (type 2 diabetes), the level of glucose in your bloodstream increases because it's unable to enter cells. Left untreated, high blood glucose can lead to complications such as blindness, nerve damage (neuropathy) and kidney damage. The goals of insulin therapy If you have type 1 diabetes, insulin therapy replaces the insulin your body is unable to produce. Insulin therapy is sometimes needed for type 2 diabetes and gestational diabete Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

Insulin And Insulin Resistance

Insulin And Insulin Resistance

Go to: Abstract As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, structure, synthesis, secretion, actions and interactions followed by a discussion of insulin resistance and its associated clinical manifestations. Specific areas of focus include the actions of insulin and manifestations of insulin resistance in specific organs and tissues, physiological, environmental and pharmacological influences on insulin action and insulin resistance as well as clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance. Clinical and functional measures of insulin resistance are also covered. Despite our incomplete understanding of the compl Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Insulin On The Body

The Effects Of Insulin On The Body

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Its function is to allow other cells to transform glucose into energy throughout your body. Without insulin, cells are starved for energy and must seek an alternate source. This can lead to life-threatening complications. The Effects of Insulin on the Body Insulin is a natural hormone produced in the pancreas. When you eat, your pancreas releases insulin to help your body make energy out of sugars (glucose). It also helps you store energy. Insulin is a vital part of metabolism. Without it, your body would cease to function. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas initially produces insulin, but the cells of your body are unable to make good use of the insulin (insulin resistance). Uncontrolled diabetes allows glucose to build up in the blood rather than being distributed to cells or stored. This can wreak havoc with virtually every part of your body. Complications of diabetes include kidney disease, nerve damage, eye problems, and stomach problems. People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin therapy to live. Some people with Type 2 diabetes must also take insulin therapy to control blood sugar levels and avoid complications. Insulin is usually injected into the abdomen, but it can also be injected into the upper arms, thighs, or buttocks. Injection sites should be rotated within the same general location. Frequent injections in the same spot can cause fatty deposits that make delivery of insulin more difficult. Some people use a pump, which delivers insulin through a catheter placed underneath the skin of the abdomen. When you eat, food travels to your stomach and small intestines where it is broken down into nutrients. The nutrients are absorbed and distributed v Continue reading >>

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