Insulinoma In Dogs
Canine insulinoma is a rare disease, yet it is the most common tumor of the endocrine pancreas. Insulinomas receive this name because they affect the endocrine functions of the pancreas, which handle hormone control—including insulin. Most regularly, insulinomas put an excess of insulin into the body. Insulinoma occurs most often in middle-aged and older dogs, averaging nine years in age. They affect both sexes and are more likely in larger breeds. The most commonly afflicted breeds are German Shepherds, Irish Setters, Boxers, Golden Retrievers and Terriers. There are two distinct types of pancreatic cancer — exocrine and endocrine. Insulinoma falls into the latter category, affecting the hormone secretion by the pancreas, causing an excess of insulin to enter the body. This excess of insulin induces hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in the body, and can result in a number of symptoms, including confusion, weakness, seizures, and collapse, up to and including death. Treatment almost always requires surgery, which can be risky and not always effective. Average life expectancy ranges from 6 to 24 months after diagnosis. Canine insulinoma affects the endocrine function in a way that an excess of insulin is put out into the body. This excess of insulin induces hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in the body. This decrease in blood sugar can result in the following symptoms: Lack of coordination Confusion Lack of alertness Changes in behavior Weakness Disturbance of vision Muscle degeneration Decrease in reflex of appendages Seizures Collapse Coma Death Types There are two distinct kinds of pancreatic cancer, both of which have separate symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Exocrine carcinomas are cancerous tumors that impact the exocrine functions of the pancreas. An exocrine ca Continue reading >>
What Is Insulinoma?
Pancreatic beta cell tumor or insulinoma, is a common disorder in ferrets over 3 years of age. The small clusters of cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin become abnormal (cancerous) and begin to produce excessive amounts of insulin. The normal job of insulin is to drive blood sugar (glucose) into the cells following a meal. Too much insulin will result in too much sugar leaving the bloodstream. This results in hypoglycemia that can ultimately become life-threatening in the affected ferret.
What Are Possible Reasons Of Hypoglycemia That Occurs A Few Times In A Day (that Are Not Reactive Hypoglycemia, Diabetes Or Insulinoma)?
Insulinoma is a rare form of tumour of the beta cells of pancreas resulting in an excessive secretion of insulin, leading to hypoglycaemia. Most insulinomas are benign, however a few metastasize. The symptoms of insulinoma are hypoglycaemia and associated symptoms such as blurred vision, lethargy, diplopia, light headedness, and convulsions, unconsciousness, which can also be life-threatening. Severe hypoglycemia may result in seizures, coma, and permanent neurological damage. Symptoms such as palpitations, tachycardia, sweating, hunger, anxiety etc. are caused by catecholaminergic response to hypoglycaemia triggered by insulinomas. Insulinomas occur in people between the ages of 40 and 60 and grow slowly. The exact causes of insulinoma are unknown, however, patients with multiple endocrine neplasia type 1 syndrome or von Hippel-Landau syndrome are more at risk. According to a cancer research, 10% of insulinomas are cancerous and approximately 10% of patients diagnosed with insulinoma have more than one tumour. Insulinomas affect between up to five people out of one million each year. Continue reading >>
Pancreatic Cancer (insulinoma) In Dogs
Insulinoma in Dogs Insulinomas are malignant neoplasms -- fast growing cancer cells -- of the beta cells in the pancreas. The beta cells primarily secrete insulin, among other hormones. Insulin produces a variety of effects in the body -- the primary one being to regulate glucose levels throughout the body's cells. Because insulinomas secrete excessive insulin, the blood stream becomes low in glucose (a condition referred to as hypoglycemia), which causes weakness or neurological problems. Symptoms and Types The most common symptom of an insulinoma is physical collapse, or loss of consciousness (syncope). Seizures, extreme weakness, and other neurological abnormalities are also common. Because the insulin is released periodically, symptoms are not consistent and frequency is not necessarily predictable. Diagnosis If your dog should collapse and a blood sample indicates low glucose, insulinoma will be highly suspected and your veterinarian will need to follow through with further tests to confirm it. However, multiple blood samples may need to be taken over a period of time to determine if there is a persistent low glucose concentration. Your doctor will need to determine the insulin concentration at the lowest glucose concentration. Withold food from your dog before tests are performed is essential for determining true glucose levels - your veterinarian will advise you on the appropriate way to conduct these short term fasts for your dog. An amended insulin:glucose ratio (AIGR) may be useful when your dog's insulin level is low, yet still in the normal range. Insulinoma is still suspected in these type of cases. If the insulin level is inappropriately high for the decreased glucose level, insulinoma may still be present. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic Continue reading >>
Do Doctors Know When Their Patient Is Lying?
Perhaps they know if their patient is lying. I think that more often, they assume that since they aren’t seeing anything on a test that the patient is imagining that their symptoms are worse than they are. In my case, I was ill a lot as a child in school. I complained of being very, very tired after being active for a while. Pain in my chest became a problem. My pediatrician found nothing wrong and told my mom that “some people are more sensitive than others and feel pain where other people would just ignore it.” In my 20s, I had unusual results on every EKG that I took prior to any kind of surgery. No one ever mentioned it to me or my family. In my 30s, I began to run a slight fever all the time. I began to feel out of rhythm heartbeats. Again, testing found nothing except that I had a little high white blood count that they said caused the fever (99–100). I was told that everyone has heartbeats that are unusual at times. In my 40s, I was very, very ill with throwing up, heaving, not being able to eat yet I didn’t lose any weight, wheezing, stomach pain, cough, and extreme weakness. I was sent to a gastroenterologist who tested but found nothing very unusual. One day I began peeing pure blood and felt like I was literally going to die. I was admitted to the hospital for kidney issues, but again they found nothing in their tests. I was put on an anxiety medication along with ulcer medications. Shortly after, still having symptoms, I was sent to a general surgeon who found a very enlarged gall bladder. Surgery was delayed, though, becuase the EKG showed irregularities and the doctor was concerned about putting me under general anesthesia. I had to sign a waiver saying that I knew there was a danger but I agreed to the anesthesia anyway. Not once did anyone sugg Continue reading >>
Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Dealing with Hypoglycaemia (Low Blood Sugar) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Hypoglycaemia is defined as blood glucose <3.0 mmol/L; however, blood glucose <2.5 mmol/L is considered pathological and requires investigation. The diagnosis of hypoglycaemia rests on three criteria (Whipple's triad): Plasma hypoglycaemia. Symptoms attributable to a low blood sugar level. Resolution of symptoms with correction of the hypoglycaemia. There are many causes of hypoglycaemia but it is most commonly the result of an excess of either insulin or oral hypoglycaemic medications combined with reduced sugar intake or increased activity. Hypoglycaemia adversely affects quality of life in patients with diabetes. Epidemiology Hypoglycaemia is uncommon in people without diabetes. Alcohol is the most common non-iatrogenic (non-physician) cause of hypoglycaemia in adults. People with diabetes treated with insulin or sulfonylureas: Recurrent hypoglycaemia often responds to changes in diet or treatment but referral for structured education may be required (eg, to a Diabetes Specialist Nurse or a local education programme). Daytime non-severe hypoglycaemic episodes may have a significant adverse effect on day-to-day functioning. People with diabetes with poor glycaemic control may experience hypoglycaemic symptoms with normal glucose concentrations ('false hypoglycaemia'). Ketotic hypoglycaemia (see under 'Presentation', below). Other drugs and toxins including pentamidine, quinine, paracetamol and toadstools. Rare causes (if insulin and Continue reading >>
Insulinoma: Life-threatening Ferret Disease
This is a serious condition that can lead to coma and death if left untreated What is Insulinoma? Insulinomas are growths that occur on the pancreas of the ferret. They can be cancerous or non-cancerous in nature. Insulinoma involves the beta cells in the pancreas of the ferret that develop into tumors, and unfortunately is fairly common in ferrets aged 2-4 and up. It is the tumors that causes the excess production of insulin (a hormone which allows cells in the body to use glucose in the blood), producing a dangerously low blood glucose level (due to the high absorption), also known as hypoglycemia. These tumors can typically range in size from 2mm - 1cm, and may occur singularly or as a group of small nodules, and are a recurring problem. This is a very serious condition that can lead to coma and death if not treated. Ferrets are generally at risk when they reach three or more years of age. If your ferret seems to be sleeping more than usual, lays on the floor and is non-responsive for a brief period of time, has a loss of appetite or has any of the symptoms listed above, you should have blood work performed by your veterinarian as soon as possible. Once your ferret reaches the age of 2, it is a good idea to get a "Fasting" Blood Glucose test to have as a baseline, repeating this every 6 months - 1 year. This testing is precautionary and can help you diagnose the disease before any symptoms even begin to appear. Many veterinarian's feel that as a strict carnivore, the pancreas of ferrets are very sensitive to sugar, believing that giving sugary treats and foods may even cause insulinomas. It is important to NEVER provide any sugary treats or snacks such as raisins, fruit, or honey. Sugars rapidly convert into glucose providing major energy sources for the bodies cells Continue reading >>
Neuroendocrine Tumors, Islet-cell And Carcinoid Tumors
Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (islet cell tumors) are much less common than tumors arising from the exocrine pancreas. Reports often indicate that there are about two to three thousand cases diagnosed in the U.S. each year – although autopsy indicates that there may be a higher incidence of these islet cell tumors than are diagnosed. The general term used tends to be “neuroendocrine” as these tumors may arise IN or ASSOCIATED WITH the hormone producing areas of the very complicated organ which is the pancreas. This hormone producing area is termed endocrine, and the other main area which tends to produce pancreatic “juice” that makes its way to the intestine to aid in digestion is called the exocrine pancreas. These different areas of the pancreas are somewhat jumbled up together anatomically – so rather than being like neighbors, the endocrine and exocrine areas of the pancreas are more like ethnicities all living together in the city known as the pancreas. The term “islet cell tumor” is another word for neuroendocrine tumor. About 75% of neuroendocrine tumors are “functioning.” That is they are found to be producing symptoms related to one or more of the hormone peptides that they secrete. About one quarter of islet cell tumors do not produce symptoms related to hormone secretion and thus are termed non-functioning. The predominant hormone peptide being secreted gives the functioning islet cell tumor its name. There are a surprising number of these hormonal peptides that islet cell tumors have been found to secrete; some are not even related to the pancreas. This array includes insulin, gastrin, glucagon, somatostatin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide (“PP”), vasoactive intestinal peptide (“VIP”), growth hormone releasing factor Continue reading >>
Medications For Insulinoma
Legend This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition. Prescription Only / Over the Counter Rx Prescription Only OTC Over the Counter Rx/OTC Prescription or Over the Counter Pregnancy A Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters). B Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. X Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits. N FDA has not classified the drug. Controlled Substances Act Schedule N Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act. 1 Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. 2 Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dep Continue reading >>
An insulinoma is a rare pancreatic beta-cell tumor that hypersecretes insulin. The main symptom is fasting hypoglycemia. Diagnosis is by a 48- or 72-h fast with measurement of glucose and insulin levels, followed by endoscopic ultrasound. Treatment is surgery when possible. Drugs that block insulin secretion (eg, diazoxide, octreotide, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, phenytoin) are used for patients not responding to surgery. Insulinomas are a type of pancreatic endocrine tumor that arises from islet cells. Of all insulinomas, 80% are single and may be curatively resected if identified. Only 10% of insulinomas are malignant. Insulinoma occurs in 1/250,000 at a median age of 50 yr, except in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 (about 10% of insulinomas), when it occurs in the 20s. Insulinomas associated with MEN 1 are more likely to be multiple. Surreptitious administration of exogenous insulin can cause episodic hypoglycemia mimicking insulinoma. Hypoglycemia secondary to an insulinoma occurs during fasting. Symptoms of hypoglycemia due to insulinoma are insidious and may mimic various psychiatric and neurologic disorders. CNS disturbances include headache, confusion, visual disturbances, motor weakness, palsy, ataxia, marked personality changes, and possible progression to loss of consciousness, seizures, and coma. Symptoms of sympathetic stimulation (faintness, weakness, tremulousness, palpitation, sweating, hunger, and nervousness) are often present. Plasma glucose should be measured during symptoms. If hypoglycemia is present (glucose < 40 mg/dL [2.78 mmol/L]), an insulin level should be measured on a simultaneous sample. Hyperinsulinemia of > 6 μU/mL (42 pmol/L) suggests an insulin-mediated cause, as does a serum insulin to plasma glucose ratio > 0. Continue reading >>
What Happens If Our Blood Insulin Level Is Higher Than Normal?
hey you asked very interesting question, Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes are completely different diseases, but they share some common things like both show high level of sugar in blood, both suffer from severe side effect like neuropathy, nephropathy, blindness, heart failure, kidney diseases etc. etc. but their symptoms are same, As both diseases are different so most doctor don’t know how to treat you correctly. In type 1, we have no insulin production in our body, on the other hand type 2 has enough insulin is already present in the body. type 1 & 2 are 180 degree opposite to each other but the symptom is same, “high level of sugar in blood” And in between there is type 1.5 diabetes, where Pancreas are producing enough insulin to stay well, but that insulin are very small in quantity and unable to maintain normal blood sugar . you will be alive having high insulin in blood. high insulin will make you fatter day by day because liver has only insulin receiver, when ever it saw high insulin it tries to store glucose from blood after some times liver becomes full of glucose when its stock house is full, then it starts converting glucose into fat for fixed deposit in body muscles and tissue. this may leads to weight gain, obesity, and will attract more diseases., if you want to reverse your diabetes and want to live Drug & Diabetes free life, just drop a mail at [email protected] , i challenge to make you free from drug and diabetes. Most of us have less knowledge about Diabetes. we accept the symptom as a cause of Diabetes. whole market is running with conspiracy to sell drug and medication to cure and control. no one think about actual cause, its like putting ice on hot plate to make it cool instead of removing burning flame present below it your drug will bring y Continue reading >>
Surgery For Insulinomas
Benign tumours (with no spread beyond the pancreas) Complete surgical removal of the insulinoma from the pancreas can provide a cure. Most patients have single tumours that can be totally removed (enucleated) without even the need to cut away any part of the healthy pancreas. Often this can be performed via keyhole surgery (laparoscopically). During surgery, the specialist may perform an intraoperative ultrasound to ensure there are no other small tumours close by or any affected lymph nodes. If the tumour has spread (metastasised) it may still be possible to resect (surgically remove) part of the pancreas containing the tumour and also surgically remove any tumour which may have spread to the liver, which tends to be the main secondary site for these tumours. All pancreatic surgery in the UK is done in designated specialist pancreatic cancer centres because the operations are complex and require specialist experience, support and after care. A tablet called Diazoxide can help to elevate and control blood sugar levels whilst you are waiting for your surgery to take place. Malignant tumours There are treatment options, including surgery, if you have a malignant tumour that can lead to an improvedquality of life and good control of symptoms Surgical – surgery may still be considered. It may be possible to resect (surgically remove) part of the pancreas containing the tumour and also surgically remove any tumour which may have spread to the liver, which tends to be the main secondary site for these tumours. Medical management – if surgery is not possible you may be prescribed a tablet called Diazoxide that can help to elevate and control blood sugar levels. Types of surgery Enucleation This is often done as a keyhole (laparoscopic) operation and by open surgery. The tu Continue reading >>
What Is An Insulinoma?
An insulinoma is a rare tumour derived from the beta cells of the pancreas producing large amounts of insulin. As explained in the physiology section, insulin is released from the normal pancreas in response to increased glucose levels in the blood (e.g. after a meal). The insulin allows tissues such as muscle to take up glucose. Excessive insulin production causes a persistently low glucose blood concentration (hypoglycaemia) that results in a diverse array of symptoms What types of Insulinoma are there? 99% of Insulinomas are in the pancreas, with 1% arising outside it but always in near structures (such as the duodenum). They are generally small (1-2 cm in diameter). The majority (90-95%) are benign, the remainder being malignant. Although called insulinomas, such tumours are often capable of secreting a large number of other active hormones in addition to insulin. These include human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), corticotrophin (ACTH), serotonin (5-HT), gastrin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic peptide (PP). They also occur as part of the syndrome Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). Who gets an Insulinoma? The estimated prevalence is around 1 in 1,125,000 people. There appears to be no preponderance in either sex and it occurs in all age groups, but incidence peaks between 40 and 60 years of age. What causes Insulinoma? An insulinoma is essentially a genetic condition. Specific gene abnormalities are being examined at the moment, particularly in its connection with MEN-1 but no consensus has yet been reached. No environmental factors that predispose to the development of insulinomas have been found. Continue reading >>
insulinoma [in″su-lin-o´mah] a tumor of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans; although usually benign, it is one of the chief causes of hypoglycemia. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. in·su·li·no·ma (in'sŭ-li-nō'mă), An islet cell adenoma that secretes insulin. insulinoma /in·su·li·no·ma/ (in″sdbobr-lin-o´mah) an islet cell tumor of the beta cells, usually benign, that secretes insulin and is one of the chief causes of hypoglycemia. insulinoma insulinoma A well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasm associated with Whipple's triad: (1) Symptoms and signs of hypoglycaemia; (2) Concomitant plasma glucose level of 45 mg/dL or less; and (3) Symptoms reverse with the administration of glucose. Amyloid is often found in insulinomas. Prognosis Insulinomas, especially if small, have an excellent prognosis. insulinoma Insuloma Oncology A pancreatic islet cell tumor, which is characterized by overproduction of insulin, resulting in hypoglycemia of sufficient severity to trigger a coma; insulinomas are typical of MEN I. See MEN I. insulinoma A rare tumour of the INSULIN -producing cells of the PANCREAS. Insulinomas can produce large quantities of insulin and lead to the dangerous condition of HYPOGLYCAEMIA. insulinoma a tumor of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans; although usually benign, it is one of the chief causes of hypoglycemia. Continue reading >>
You And Your Hormones
What is an insulinoma? Normally, the beta cells within the pancreas secrete insulin in response to rises in blood sugar after a person eats a meal and absorbs the carbohydrates within the meal. The role of insulin is to help the body use the carbohydrates to release energy and to keep blood sugar at normal levels. An insulinoma is a type of tumour called a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) that arises from the beta cells of the pancreas and causes problems by secreting too much insulin. Usually (>90%) these tumours are benign single lesions in the pancreas (i.e. they do not spread to other parts of the body). Occasionally, insulinomas may spread and develop secondary tumours beyond the pancreas, most often affecting the liver. These insulinomas are known as malignant. What causes insulinomas? It is unclear why insulinomas occur in most cases, although some occur as part of a genetic condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. What are the signs and symptoms of insulinomas? The symptoms of insulinomas can often be vague and non-specific. As insulinomas secrete too much insulin, this means that the blood sugar can drop to levels below normal. This can cause symptoms such as: sweating pallor racing of the heartbeat feelings of anxiety irritability or confusion unusual behaviour blackouts or seizures. These episodes can occur particularly when not eating for long periods (fasting), or first thing in the morning, but may occur at any time. Typically, eating or drinking foods that contain carbohydrate (such as bread, potatoes or pasta) relieves the symptoms. How common are insulinomas? Insulinomas are rare. It is estimated that one case is diagnosed every year per 250,000 people in the population. In the UK, this translates to approximately 250 new cases a year. Are insul Continue reading >>