diabetestalk.net

What Is Insulin Made Up Of

Insulin

Insulin

A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas to help move glucose from the blood into body cells for energy. People with Type 1 diabetes lose the ability to produce insulin and must inject it. Some people with Type 2 diabetes also need to inject insulin because the insulin that is produced by their pancreas does not adequately lower their blood glucose level. Scientists discovered insulin in the early 1920’s and found that it could be used to successfully treat diabetes. Since then, a variety of insulins have been developed to meet the different needs of people with diabetes. In the past, all commercially available insulin came from the pancreases of cows or pigs. Pork and beef insulins are similar to human insulin, differing only in one or a few amino acids (protein building blocks). However, even a slight difference is enough to elicit an allergic response in some people. To overcome this problem, researchers looked for ways to make insulin that would more closely resemble human insulin. Since the early 1980’s, two methods have been used to make human insulin from nonhuman sources. One method involves the use of enzymes to convert pork insulin into human insulin by altering the one amino acid that is different. The second and more widely used method uses recombinant DNA technology. In this process, bacteria or yeast cells are genetically altered to produce human insulin in large amounts. Human insulin produced by genetic engineering is purer than other forms of insulin because it is not combined with other proteins that can also trigger allergic responses. Pork and beef insulin are no longer being sold in the United States. In addition to originating from different sources, different types of insulin vary in their “action profile.” That’s to say, the Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

History Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas gland, one of the glands in the endocrine system. Insulin, working in harmony with other hormones, regulates the level of blood sugar (glucose). Endocrine glands are ductless glands; that is, they pour their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. The pancreas, a gland in the upper abdomen, has cells within it that secrete insulin directly into the bloodstream. An insufficient level of insulin secretion leads to high blood sugar, a disease called diabetes mellitus or, simply, diabetes. Specifically, diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by the body’s inability to use the hormone insulin to effectively convert carbohydrates into the simple sugar glucose that cells store and use to perform vital functions. Without glucose to fuel their activity, the cells use fat instead, producing ketones as a waste product. Ketones build up in blood and disrupt brain functions. Common signs of diabetes are excessive thirst, urination, and fatigue. The disease can also cause vision loss, decreased blood supply to hands and feet, pain, and skin infections. If left untreated diabetes can induce coma and cause death. Diabetes often runs in families. In the United States about 10% of the Caucasian population suffers from diabetes, and it is even more common among African-American, Mexican-American, and certain Native American groups. The sixth leading cause of death in the United States, diabetes remains a major health problem. According to the American Diabetes Association, about 20.8 million children and adults (about 7% of the U.S. population), as of 2006, suffer from diabetes mellitus. About 14.6 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes. However, about 6.2 million people (about one-third) do not know that they ha Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

With a speed no longer seen in drug discovery and development, insulin was isolated for the first time in 1921 from animal sources and commercialized within 12 months. Decades later, it took just four years for developers to move from expressing recombinant insulin in bacteria to launching the world's first biotechnology drug product. Scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best, working in a lab provided by John J. R. MacLeod at the University of Toronto, isolated the polypeptide hormone and began testing it in dogs. By 1922, with the help of James B. Collip and pharmaceutical company partners, the researchers could purify and produce animal-based insulin in larger quantities. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas and is the most important hormone in the body to regulate blood glucose levels. A partial or complete lack of insulin causes diabetes, which, untreated, is often fatal by the teenage years. The World Health Organization reports that an estimated 177 million people worldwide have diabetes. Although not a cure, insulin injections have been the standard treatment since 1924. Before insulin was discovered, diabetes was managed through diet, which allowed patients to survive, but generally for just a few years after diagnosis. Remarkable medical results were achieved with the first insulin injections. Doctors finally had a means to offer patients a nearly normal quality of life, and it quickly became necessary to increase insulin production. The Toronto scientists had trouble, however, with consistently isolating and purifying the drug. Connaught Laboratories in Canada, now part of Sanofi-Aventis, assisted, and Eli Lilly & Co. proposed developing large-scale production methods. The university initially rebuffed offers from Lilly, but an agreemen Continue reading >>

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin The nature and purpose of synthesising human insulin. Since Banting and Best discovered the hormone, insulin in 1921.(1) diabetic patients, whose elevated sugar levels (see fig. 1) are due to impaired insulin production, have been treated with insulin derived from the pancreas glands of abattoir animals. The hormone, produced and secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas' islets of Langerhans,(2) regulates the use and storage of food, particularly carbohydrates. Fig. 1 Fluctuations in diabetic person's blood glucose levels, compared with healthy individuals. Source: Hillson,R. - Diabetes: A beyond basics guide, pg.16. Although bovine and porcine insulin are similar to human insulin, their composition is slightly different. Consequently, a number of patients' immune systems produce antibodies against it, neutralising its actions and resulting in inflammatory responses at injection sites. Added to these adverse effects of bovine and porcine insulin, were fears of long term complications ensuing from the regular injection of a foreign substance,(3) as well as a projected decline in the production of animal derived insulin.(4) These factors led researchers to consider synthesising Humulin by inserting the insulin gene into a suitable vector, the E. coli bacterial cell, to produce an insulin that is chemically identical to its naturally produced counterpart. This has been achieved using Recombinant DNA technology. This method (see fig. 2) is a more reliable and sustainable(5) method than extracting and purifying the abattoir by-product. Fig. 2 An overview of the recombination process. Source: Novo - Nordisk promotional brochure,pg 6. Understanding the genetics involved. The structure of insulin. Chemically, insuli Continue reading >>

Brewing Insulin Using Genetically Modified Bacteria (#gmomonday)

Brewing Insulin Using Genetically Modified Bacteria (#gmomonday)

Image: Africa Studio via Shutterstock.com The American Juvenile Diabetes Association estimates that about 3 million Americans suffer from type 1 diabetes. So perhaps, you, like me, know somebody who needs insulin in order to survive. Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. I first learned about diabetes in grade school when a friend was diagnosed. His pancreas stopped producing the insulin his body needed, and he began drinking lots of water and feeling very sick. I went to the hospital with his family and learned how to give insulin injections and understand blood sugar measurements. One thing I didn’t learn at the time is the amazing biotechnology story behind the tiny bottles of life-saving insulin that showed up in his refrigerator. Insulin was first produced in the 1920s by scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best. Banting and Best had discovered that insulin was the hormone that diabetics lacked, and they figured out a way to harvest insulin from animal pancreases. In what is commonly described as one of medicine’s “most dramatic moments,” scientists went into a diabetic children’s ward, injecting the comatose and dying children with this insulin. By the time they reached the far end of the ward, children on the near end were already waking up. The refining process for insulin was perfected, and up until the 1980s, people around the world relied on insulin from pigs and cows to lift the death sentence of diabetes. But porcine and bovine insulin, although similar to the human variety, were not exactly the same. Although most people have no problem using insulin from these animals, some reacted poorly to it. The chemical structure of human insulin Continue reading >>

Cell Factories For Insulin Production

Cell Factories For Insulin Production

Go to: Introduction The pioneering work of Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer, who invented the technique of DNA cloning, signaled the birth of genetic engineering, which allowed genes to transfer among different biological species with ease [1]. Their discovery led to the development of several recombinant proteins with therapeutic applications such as insulin and growth hormone. Genes encoding human insulin and growth hormone were cloned and expressed in E. coli in 1978 and 1979 respectively. The first licensed drug produced using recombinant DNA technology was human insulin, which was developed by Genentech and licensed as well as marketed by Eli Lilly in 1982. There are more than 300 biopharmaceutical products including therapeutic proteins and antibodies in the market with sales exceeding USD100 billion [2,3]. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have captured the major market share (>USD18 billion) followed by the hormones (>USD11 billion) and growth factors (>USD10 billion) [4]. Biopharmaceuticals approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) from 2004 to 2013 are largely derived from mammalian cell (56%); E. Coli (24%); S. Cerevisiae (13%); Transgenic animals & plants (3%) and insect cells (4%) as shown in Figure 1 [5-13]. At present, insulin is being produced predominantly in E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for treatment of diabetic patients. Since the early 1920s, diabetic patients were treated with insulin, which was purified from bovine or porcine pancreas. The development in the field of genetic engineering allowed the production of insulin in E. coli and yeast, which have been approved for therapeutic applications in human by FDA [14,15]. Nowadays, recombinant human insulin is mainly produced either in E. coli or Continue reading >>

Ocr Gateway Triple Science Topics

Ocr Gateway Triple Science Topics

Genetic engineering can be used to create organisms that produce large amounts of useful substances - for example, bacteria can be engineered to produce human insulin to treat diabetics. Genetic engineering can also be used to create and store DNA fingerprints, which can be used for identification purposes. Genetic engineering Genetic engineering involves altering the genetic code of an organism by inserting a gene or genes from another organism. Bacteria can be genetically engineered (genetically modified) to produce useful human proteins including human growth hormone and human insulin. One advantage of using bacteria is that they can be grown in large fermenters, producing large amounts of these useful proteins. You should be able to describe the main stages in genetic engineering, and in particular how this works for engineering bacteria to produce human insulin. Main stage Insulin example Desired gene is identified Human insulin gene is identified The gene is removed from the organism’s DNA The gene for making human insulin is cut out of some human DNA The DNA in other organism is cut open A loop of bacterial DNA is cut open The gene is inserted into the cut DNA The human insulin gene is inserted into the cut loop, and this loop is inserted into a bacterial cell The inserted gene works in the transgenic (genetically engineered) organism The bacterial cell produces human insulin The transgenic organism is cloned to produce lots of identical copies The transgenic bacterium is cloned to make lots of copies Large amounts of human insulin is collected The animation shows how this works. You have an old or no version of Flash - you need to upgrade to view this content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide DNA fingerprinting A person’s DNA is unique to them. Their DN Continue reading >>

Bme 181 Section 1

Bme 181 Section 1

INSULIN Produced in the pancreas. A necessary hormone that enables bodily cells to allow blood sugar to enter and be converted into energy. WHAT IS INSULIN? Insulin: A protein hormone Made up of two chains of amino acids. "A" chain which has 21 amino acids "B" chain which has 30 amino acids Linked together by two disulfide bonds. WHY IS INSULIN IMPORTANT? Diabetes affects 25.8 million people of all ages. ( 7 million of which are undiagnosed). 8.3 % of the U.S. population Type 1 diabetes Autoimmune disease where the immune system destroys the beta cells (insulin producing cells of the pancreas) Pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin Requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge. Type 2 diabetes The body ineffectively uses insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity. WHAT WAS USED BEFORE HAND? Pig and cattle pancreas glands were once the only viable method. This was sufficient for most diabetics however there was issues: Animals insulin caused some allergic reactions. Not a true human match to insulin. Not the most efficient way to obtain insulin. INTRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC INSULIN Synthetic insulin was first made in 1978 by scientists at Genetech, Inc. and City of Hope National Medical Center. Made possible by the discovery restriction enzymes & DNA ligase. Found naturally in bacteria. Catalysts to cut and rejoin DNA fragments. HOW IT’S MADE Scientists use restriction enzymes and DNA ligase to make and link together fragments of DNA sequences to form complete genes. These are then stitched into circular DNA strands called plasmids. The plasmids are introduced into benign Continue reading >>

Insulin Can Now Be Made Cheaply From Flowers

Insulin Can Now Be Made Cheaply From Flowers

In 1922, Canadian scientists isolated insulin for the first time. Now, over 80 years later, our neighbors to the north are helping diabetics again by devising the cheapest way yet to produce insulin. This advance could significantly reduce the expense of treating the disease, which currently costs the US $132 billion dollars a year. To create the cheap "prairie insulin," scientists at the University of Calgary genetically engineered the human gene for insulin into the common plant safflower. Once the gene activates, the flower begins producing insulin faster than traditional methods that utilize pigs, cows, yeast, or bacteria. Play Video Play Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Remaining Time -0:00 This is a modal window. Foreground --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Opaque Background --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Window --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Font Size 50% 75% 100% 125% 150% 175% 200% 300% 400% Text Edge Style None Raised Depressed Uniform Dropshadow Font Family Default Monospace Serif Proportional Serif Monospace Sans-Serif Proportional Sans-Serif Casual Script Small Caps Defaults Done This is the first instance of a plant producing the insulin, and it does so prolifically, to the tune of 2.2 pounds of insulin per acre of flowers. At that rate, 25 square miles of safflower could produce enough insulin for the world's entire diabetic population. Continue reading >>

How Insulin Is Made Using Bacteria

How Insulin Is Made Using Bacteria

Website Search Description: Synthetic human insulin was the first golden molecule of the biotech industry and the direct result of recombinant DNA technology. Currently, millions of diabetics worldwide use synthetic insulin to regulate their blood sugar levels. Synthetic insulin is made in both bacteria and yeast. Keywords: recombinant dna technology,blood sugar levels,human insulin,biotech industry,diabetics,molecule,bacteria,yeast Synthetic human insulin was the first golden molecule of the biotech industry and the direct result of recombinant DNA technology. Currently, millions of diabetics worldwide use synthetic insulin to regulate their blood sugar levels. Synthetic insulin i Continue reading >>

The Great Debate: Natural Animal Or Artificial ‘human’ Insulin?

The Great Debate: Natural Animal Or Artificial ‘human’ Insulin?

Home » Diabetic Commonsense » The Great Debate: Natural Animal or Artificial ‘Human’ Insulin? Diabetes commonsense The Great Debate: Natural Animal or Artificial ‘Human’ Insulin? Progress towards becoming a well-balanced diabetic is not helped by the wide range and increasing choice of insulins being put on the market. Is this complication really necessary? Over forty varieties of insulin (3) are advertised and none of them would be on the shelves unless manufacturers could make a profit by selling them. Commonsense tells me to complain loudly about having to find my way and make the right choices through the insulin maze. It does not matter if we select the wrong toothpaste or cat food, but insulin is different. The diabetic community cannot survive without this life-saving drug. We therefore form a captive market and, as any economist will tell you, this creates a perfect opportunity for experts to manipulate and exploit us. Have our gurus the time or inclination to guide us through this jungle of short, medium, long-term and mixed insulins? Do they explain the scientific jargon and help us make a free and informed choice? In this search for the right insulin, newly-diagnosed diabetics, handcuffed by ignorance and fear, are particularly vulnerable. No way can they decide for themselves which insulin to use. They have to be guided by the care team who, in these circumstances, have no option but to take control. Let us hope that sooner rather than later, these fledgling diabetics will be able to fly from the nest and act on their own initiative to make an informed choice of which insulin suits them best. Three clues will help us make up our mind. The first is not to abdicate in favour of the care team or encourage them to steal our melody. The second clue is n Continue reading >>

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

The hormone insulin helps control the level of glucose in the blood A Molecular Messenger Our cells communicate using a molecular postal system: the blood is the postal service and hormones are the letters. Insulin is one of the most important hormones, carrying messages that describe the amount of sugar that is available from moment to moment in the blood. Insulin is made in the pancreas and added to the blood after meals when sugar levels are high. This signal then spreads throughout the body, binding to insulin receptors on the surface of liver, muscle and fat cells. Insulin tells these organs to take glucose out of the blood and store it, in the form of glycogen or fat. Folding Tiny Proteins Insulin is a tiny protein. It moves quickly through the blood and is easily captured by receptors on cell surfaces, delivering its message. Small proteins pose a challenge to cells: it is difficult to make a small protein that will fold into a stable structure. Our cells solve this problem by synthesizing a longer protein chain, which folds into the proper structure. Then, the extra piece is clipped away, leaving two small chains in the mature form. These two chains are shown in the lower diagram in blue and green, for insulin from pigs (PDB entry 4ins ). The structure is further stabilized by three disulfide bridges, one of which is seen in yellow in each illustration. Diabetes Mellitus When insulin function is impaired, either by damage to the pancreas or by the rigors of aging, glucose levels in the blood rise dangerously, leading to diabetes mellitus. For people totally deficient in insulin, such as children that develop diabetes early in life, this can be acutely dangerous. High glucose levels lead to dehydration, as the body attempts to flush out the excess sugar in urine, Continue reading >>

More in insulin