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What Is Humulin Insulin Made From?

Humulin Vials

Humulin Vials

NOTICE: This Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is intended for persons living in Australia. What is in this leaflet It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking with your doctor or pharmacist. The information in this leaflet was last updated on the date shown on the final page. More recent information on this medicine may be available. Make sure you speak to your pharmacist, nurse or doctor to obtain the most up to date information on this medicine. You can also download the most up to date leaflet from www.lilly.com.au. The updated leaflet may contain important information about HUMULIN and its use that you should be aware of. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking HUMULIN against the benefits they expect it will have for you. If you have any concerns about using this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist. What HUMULIN is used for HUMULIN is used to reduce high blood sugar (glucose) levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which your pancreas does not produce enough insulin to control your blood sugar level. Extra insulin is therefore needed. Patients with type 1 diabetes always require insulin to control their blood sugar levels. Some patients with type 2 diabetes may also require insulin after initial treatment with diet, exercise and tablets. Your doctor will tell you the type of HUMULIN that is best suited to you. The duration of action of the insulin you inject will vary according to the type being used, the dose, injection site, blood flow, temperature and level of physical activity. Your doctor may tell you to use a short acting human insulin such as HUMULIN R in combination with a longer acting human insulin such as HUMULIN NPH. Continue reading >>

Humulin

Humulin

How does this medication work? What will it do for me? Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone made by the pancreas that helps the body use or store the glucose (sugar) it gets from food. For people with diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin to meet the body's requirements, or the body cannot properly use the insulin that is made. As a result, glucose cannot be used or stored properly and accumulates in the bloodstream. Insulin injected under the skin helps to lower blood glucose levels. There are many different types of insulin and they are absorbed at different rates and work for varying periods of time. Regular insulin is a fast-acting insulin. It takes 30 to 60 minutes to begin working after injection, and has its maximum effect between 2 and 4 hours after injection. It stops working after 6 to 8 hours. Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are being given this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop using this medication without consulting your doctor. Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to use this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it. What form(s) does this medication come in? Humulin® R cartridge Each mL contains 100 units of human biosynthetic insulin (regular insulin). Nonmedicinal ingredients: glycerol and m-cresol; may also contain dimethicone, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide. Humulin® R vial Each mL contains 100 units of human biosynthetic insulin (regular insulin). Nonmedicina Continue reading >>

What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Concentrated Insulin (humulin R (concentrated))?

What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Concentrated Insulin (humulin R (concentrated))?

A A A Medications and Drugs Brand Names: Humulin R (Concentrated) Generic Name: insulin regular, concentrated (U-500) (Pronunciation: IN soo lin) What is the most important information I should know about concentrated insulin (Humulin R (Concentrated))? What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using concentrated insulin (Humulin R (Concentrated))? What is concentrated insulin (Humulin R (Concentrated))? Concentrated insulin is a man-made form of a hormone that is produced in the body. It works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Concentrated insulin (U-500) is a long-acting form of insulin that is different from other forms that are made from animal insulin. Concentrated insulin is used to treat type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes in people with significant daily insulin needs (more than 200 units per day). Concentrated insulin may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Tell your doctor if you have any pain, redness, swelling, or skin changes where the insulin was injected. Low blood sugar is the most common side effect of concentrated insulin. Symptoms of low blood sugar may include headache, nausea, hunger, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, trouble concentrating, confusion, seizure (convulsions), or death. Watch for signs of low blood sugar. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. What is the most important information I should know about concen Continue reading >>

Humulin N

Humulin N

HUMULIN® N (human insulin [rDNA origin]) isophane) Suspension DESCRIPTION HUMULIN N (human insulin [rDNA origin] isophane) suspension is a human insulin suspension. Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. HUMULIN N is a suspension of crystals produced from combining human insulin and protamine sulfate under appropriate conditions for crystal formation. The amino acid sequence of HUMULIN N is identical to human insulin and has the empirical formula C257H383N65O77S6 with a molecular weight of 5808. HUMULIN N is a sterile white suspension. Each milliliter of HUMULIN N contains 100 units of insulin human, 0.35 mg of protamine sulfate, 16 mg of glycerin, 3.78 mg of dibasic sodium phosphate, 1.6 mg of metacresol, 0.65 mg of phenol, zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.025 mg zinc ion, and Water for Injection. The pH is 7.0 to 7.5. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may be added during manufacture to adjust the pH. Continue reading >>

Walmart, Lilly Team Up To Provide Human Insulin To People With Diabetes

Walmart, Lilly Team Up To Provide Human Insulin To People With Diabetes

Lilly's Humulin brand of insulin to be dual-branded as Humulin ReliOn INDIANAPOLIS and BENTONVILLE, Ark., June 22, 2010 /PRNewswire via COMTEX News Network/ -- Walmart (NYSE: WMT) and Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) announced today they're teaming up to provide an affordable insulin option for people with diabetes. Beginning in mid-September, Lilly's Humulin(R) brand of insulin will be available in Walmart pharmacies across the U.S. under the dual-branded name Humulin(R) ReliOn(R), including 10 mL vials of Humulin(R) R U-100, Humulin(R) N, and Humulin(R) 70/30 formulations. Nearly 24 million Americans have diabetes, up from 21 million in 2005, according to the American Diabetes Association. Of those, about a quarter (27 percent) use insulin to manage blood sugar levels.(1) "With diabetes reaching epidemic proportions in America, it's more important than ever for participants in the healthcare system to work together to provide solutions to help people successfully manage this condition," said Keith Johns, Lilly's senior director for insulins in the U.S. "At Lilly, we strive to provide innovative, cost-effective therapies that help patients manage their diabetes. And as the nation's largest retailer, Walmart touches more consumers than any other retail organization in the country. This collaboration offers a unique opportunity to provide a low-cost therapy to large numbers of people affected by diabetes." Walmart has been a leader in providing quality, low-cost healthcare products to patients, pioneering and expanding access to affordable medications. Along with Humulin(R) ReliOn(R) insulin, Walmart also offers $9 diabetes management products, including the ReliOn Ultima Blood Glucose Meter, the ReliOn Ultima Blood Glucose Test Strips (20 ct) and the ReliOn A1c test (g Continue reading >>

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin The nature and purpose of synthesising human insulin. Since Banting and Best discovered the hormone, insulin in 1921.(1) diabetic patients, whose elevated sugar levels (see fig. 1) are due to impaired insulin production, have been treated with insulin derived from the pancreas glands of abattoir animals. The hormone, produced and secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas' islets of Langerhans,(2) regulates the use and storage of food, particularly carbohydrates. Fig. 1 Fluctuations in diabetic person's blood glucose levels, compared with healthy individuals. Source: Hillson,R. - Diabetes: A beyond basics guide, pg.16. Although bovine and porcine insulin are similar to human insulin, their composition is slightly different. Consequently, a number of patients' immune systems produce antibodies against it, neutralising its actions and resulting in inflammatory responses at injection sites. Added to these adverse effects of bovine and porcine insulin, were fears of long term complications ensuing from the regular injection of a foreign substance,(3) as well as a projected decline in the production of animal derived insulin.(4) These factors led researchers to consider synthesising Humulin by inserting the insulin gene into a suitable vector, the E. coli bacterial cell, to produce an insulin that is chemically identical to its naturally produced counterpart. This has been achieved using Recombinant DNA technology. This method (see fig. 2) is a more reliable and sustainable(5) method than extracting and purifying the abattoir by-product. Fig. 2 An overview of the recombination process. Source: Novo - Nordisk promotional brochure,pg 6. Understanding the genetics involved. The structure of insulin. Chemically, insuli Continue reading >>

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

Background Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is required for the body to function normally. Insulin is produced by cells in the pancreas, called the islets of Langerhans. These cells continuously release a small amount of insulin into the body, but they release surges of the hormone in response to a rise in the blood glucose level. Certain cells in the body change the food ingested into energy, or blood glucose, that cells can use. Every time a person eats, the blood glucose rises. Raised blood glucose triggers the cells in the islets of Langerhans to release the necessary amount of insulin. Insulin allows the blood glucose to be transported from the blood into the cells. Cells have an outer wall, called a membrane, that controls what enters and exits the cell. Researchers do not yet know exactly how insulin works, but they do know insulin binds to receptors on the cell's membrane. This activates a set of transport molecules so that glucose and proteins can enter the cell. The cells can then use the glucose as energy to carry out its functions. Once transported into the cell, the blood glucose level is returned to normal within hours. Without insulin, the blood glucose builds up in the blood and the cells are starved of their energy source. Some of the symptoms that may occur include fatigue, constant infections, blurred eye sight, numbness, tingling in the hands or legs, increased thirst, and slowed healing of bruises or cuts. The cells will begin to use fat, the energy source stored for emergencies. When this happens for too long a time the body produces ketones, chemicals produced by the liver. Ketones can poison and kill cells if they build up in the body over an extended period of time. This can lead to serious illne Continue reading >>

Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Tweet Human insulin is the name which describes synthetic insulin which is laboratory grown to mimic the insulin in humans. Human insulin was developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982. Before human insulin was developed animal insulin, usually a purified form of porcine (pork) insulin, was used. How is human insulin produced? Human insulin is laboratory created by growing insulin proteins within E-coli bacteria (Escherichia coli). What types of human insulin are available? Human insulin is available in two forms, a short acting (regular) form and an intermediate acting (NPH) form. NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is a suspension meaning that the insulin vial should be rolled or repeatedly turned upside down to ensure the solution is uniformly cloudy. Some examples of human insulin: Regular (short acting): Humulin S, Actrapid, Insuman Rapid NPH (intermediate acting): Humulin I, Insuman basal, Insulatard Premixed human insulins: Humulin M2, M3 and M5, Insuman Comb 15, 25 and 50 What are premixed human insulins? Premixed insulins consist of a mix of regular and NPH insulin. The premixed insulins are available in a number of different ratios of mixing. For example Humulin M3 is a mix of 30% short acting to 70% intermediate whereas Humulin M5 is made up of 50% of both short and intermediate acting. In recent years there has been a trend to replace human insulins with newer premixed analogue insulins. How quickly do human insulins act? Short acting (regular) insulin starts to act from about 30 minutes after injecting, with their peak action occurring between 2 and 3 hours after injecting. The duration is up to 10 hours. Intermediate acting (NPH) insulin takes about 2 to 4 hours to start acting, h Continue reading >>

History Of Insulin

History Of Insulin

Go to: Insulin The discovery of insulin in 1922 marked a major breakthrough in medicine and therapy in patients with diabetes. Long before the discovery of insulin, it was hypothesized that the pancreas secreted a substance that controlled carbohydrate metabolism (5). For years, attempts at preparing pancreatic extracts to lower blood glucose were unsuccessful due to impurities and toxicities (6). Frederick Banting, an orthopedic surgeon, had the idea of isolating pancreatic islet extracts by ligating the pancreatic duct of dogs, keeping them alive until the acini degenerated, leaving the islets for isolation. He approached John Macleod, professor of physiology and department head at the University of Toronto, for laboratory space. Macleod granted him laboratory space, ten dogs for his experiments, a student research assistant (Charles Best), and provided supervision and guidance. The experiments began on May 17, 1921, and by September they showed that the depancreatized dog developed diabetes and that intravenous injection with their pancreatic extract, which they named isletin, lowered the blood glucose. By late 1921, the biochemist J.B. Collip joined the group and helped purify the isletin for human use. The first injection of the pancreatic extract to a 14-year-old boy by Banting and Best on January 11, 1922, caused a sterile abscess, had no effect on ketosis, and resulted in mild blood glucose reduction. Subsequent injections of the purified extract by Collip had promising results that same year. Blood glucose and glucosuria decreased, and ketonuria disappeared. Rosenfeld reported encouraging results in six more patients (6). Several months later, in 1923, Banting, Best, and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Eli Lilly began producing insulin from animal pancrea Continue reading >>

Insulin Nph (otc)

Insulin Nph (otc)

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Suggested guidelines for beginning dose: 0.2 unit/kg/day Dosing Considerations Dosage of human insulin, which is always expressed in USP units, must be based on the results of blood and urine glucose tests and must be carefully individualized to optimal effect Dose adjustments should be based on regular blood glucose testing Adjust to achieve appropriate glucose control Blood sugar patterns (>3 days) Look for consistent pattern in blood sugars for >3 days For the same time each day: Compare blood glucose level For each time of day: Calculate blood glucose range Calculate median blood glucose Consider eating and activity patterns during day Blood glucose adjustments Adjust only 1 insulin dose at a time Correct hypoglycemia first Correct highest blood sugars next If all blood sugars are high (within 2.75 mmol/L [50 mg/dL]): Correct morning fasting blood glucose first Change insulin doses in small increments: Type 1 diabetes (1-2 unit change); type 2 diabetes (2-3 unit change) Many sliding scales exist to determine exact insulin dose based on frequent blood glucose monitoring Commonly written for q4hr blood glucose test Sliding scale coverage usually begins after blood glucose >11 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) If coverage is needed q4hr x 24 hr, then base insulin dose is adjusted first; sliding scale doses may be adjusted upwards as well Continue reading >>

First Recombinant Dna Product Approved By The Food And Drug Administration

First Recombinant Dna Product Approved By The Food And Drug Administration

South San Francisco, Calif. -- October 29, 1982 -- Robert A. Swanson, president of Genentech, Inc. said today that approval by the Food and Drug Administration of human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology, "is a tribute to the collaboration of two great scientific teams-- those at Eli Lilly and Genentech." Humulin, the tradename of the new insulin, is being manufactured and marketed by Lilly under a license from Genentech. It is the first human health care product from recombinant DNA technology to reach the market. U.S. government approval followed by only one month the recent approval by British regulatory authorities for introduction of the human insulin in the United Kingdom. Swanson pointed out that approval by the Food and Drug Administration came only four years after scientists at Genentech and City of Hope National Medical Center, working together on the Genentech-funded project, successfully produced human insulin using recombinant DNA technology. "The FDA has quickly expanded the range of its expertise in the area of genetic engineering in order to be responsive to the rapid development of new products made possible by this new technology." # # # Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin Resistance?

What Is Insulin Resistance?

Understanding insulin resistance is key to avoiding it. While many people assume insulin only matters to those living with diabetes, it actually plays a crucial role in the health of everyone. Insulin resistance has become more of a mainstream term as of late, but it’s certainly worth going over what it is and how you can use that knowledge to your advantage. So just what is insulin anyway? The hormone insulin, produced in your pancreas, plays a central role in your body. Insulin is responsible for driving glucose (blood sugar), your body’s primary source of fuel, into your cells, where it is burned for energy. Without insulin, you would die. Insulin is also the hormone your body uses to store fat. After insulin carries enough glucose into your cells to meet their needs, it takes whatever glucose is left and carries it off to be stored as fat. For peak health and fitness, the insulin you produce needs to be used efficiently. To use your insulin efficiently, you want to produce just enough of it to meet your metabolic needs—and no more. Most of us can’t use our insulin efficiently, because we produce too much of it. The trouble with insulin resistance When you have too much insulin, your body doesn’t use it as well. In other words, you are insulin resistant. Here’s how it works: As you put on those extra pounds, or even just as you get older, your cells become resistant to the effect of insulin. Your pancreas has to produce more of it just to force enough glucose into your cells. Your blood sugar values are still in the normal range, so it appears that everything is fine, but you’re now making a lot more insulin to keep them there. When your insulin levels are higher than they need to be, the signals that tell you to stop eating, like leptin, are blurred. Y Continue reading >>

Dave Groves [mailto:dggroves@earthlink.net]

Dave Groves [mailto:[email protected]]

From: Dave Groves [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Monday, February 18, 2002 2:15 PM Subject: Insulin Information – How is “Human” insulin made? There are many ways to produce "human" insulin and I will outline my understanding of the various means and who is reported to be using which method(s). 1. Natural human insulin can be extracted, crystallized, and purified from cadaverous human pancreas tissue as it is from beef pancreas and pig pancreas. No one does this, as the few human pancreases available are far to needed for pancreas transplantation, islet cell transplantation, and other research for curing diabetes. Such insulin would likely cost well over $5,000 per vial (it would require well over 3 cadavers per vial) and there would be almost no supply, perhaps enough for 10 diabetics in the world. It would be no better than any other "human" insulin and it would be subject to most, if not all, of the problems that we know exist for many of us with the semi-synthetic, synthetic, and natural animal insulins. 2. Semi-synthetic human insulin can be made, biochemically, from natural pork insulin, by removing the B30 amino acid (Alanine) from pork insulin and substituting a Theronine amino acid in its place. For all vertebrate animals, each insulin molecule consists of precisely 2 peptide chains (A and B) bound together by sulfa bonds at the A7-B7 Cysteine site and at the A20-B19 Cysteine site and there is an additional Cysteine sulfa bond at the A6-A11. All insulin molecules consist of this two chain structure, with an A chain of 21 amino acids and a B chain of 30 amino acids, for a total of 51 amino acid molecules bound by 3 sulfa bonds, any molecule with more or fewer amino acids or different locations for the 3 sulfa bonds cannot be insulin, though it may b Continue reading >>

Eli Lilly And Company Limited

Eli Lilly And Company Limited

HUMULIN* S (Soluble) 100IU/ml solution for injection in vial HUMULIN S (Soluble) 100IU/ml solution for injection in cartridge HUMULIN I (Isophane) 100IU/ml suspension for injection in vial HUMULIN I (Isophane) 100IU/ml suspension for injection in cartridge HUMULIN I KwikPen (Isophane) 100IU/ml suspension for injection HUMULIN M3 (Mixture 3) 100IU/ml suspension for injection in vial HUMULIN M3 (Mixture 3) 100IU/ml suspension for injection in cartridge HUMULIN M3 KwikPen (Mixture 3) 100IU/ml suspension for injection 1ml contains 100IU insulin human (produced in E. coli by recombinant DNA technology). HUMULIN S: One vial contains 10ml equivalent to 1000IU of soluble insulin. One cartridge contains 3ml equivalent to 300IU of soluble insulin. HUMULIN I: One vial contains 10ml equivalent to 1000IU of isophane insulin. One cartridge contains 3ml equivalent to 300IU of isophane insulin. HUMULIN I KwikPen: One pre-filled pen contains 3ml equivalent to 300IU of isophane insulin. HUMULIN M3: One vial contains 10ml equivalent to 1000IU of biphasic isophane insulin - 30% soluble insulin/70% isophane insulin. One cartridge contains 3ml equivalent to 300IU of biphasic isophane insulin - 30% soluble insulin/70% isophane insulin. HUMULIN M3 KwikPen: One pre-filled pen contains 3ml equivalent to 300IU of biphasic isophane insulin - 30% soluble insulin/70% isophane insulin. For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1. HUMULIN S: A solution for injection in a cartridge or vial. HUMULIN S is a sterile, clear, colourless, aqueous solution of human insulin. HUMULIN I: A suspension for injection in a cartridge, vial or pre-filled pen. HUMULIN I is a sterile suspension of a white, crystalline precipitate of isophane human insulin in an isotonic phosphate buffer. HUMULIN M3: A suspension for Continue reading >>

Diabetes Is A Life-threatening Disease.

Diabetes Is A Life-threatening Disease.

Whatis Biology Good For? Controlling Diabetes: Recombinant Human Insulin (This assignment is optional and is due Friday, February 7, 2003 by noon. Read this essay and answer the questions at the bottom for 3 extra credit points. It is not necessary to visit the links in the text unless you are interested in more information.) What is Diabetes?Diabetes is a disease where the body is either unable to make the protein insulin, or is able to make insulin, but is unable to use insulin. This results in an inability to metabolize (break down) blood glucose and an inability to store glycogen (the storage form of glucose) in the liver. If left untreated, high glucose levels may damage a person's eyes, kidneys, nerves, or heart. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to diabetic acidosis, in which toxic chemicals called ketones build up in the blood. Patients have sweet-smelling breath, and may suffer confusion, unconsciousness, and death. Diabetes is common. At least one in every 16 people has diabetes; and more than 10 million individuals with diabetes around the world rely on insulin to control their diabetes. What normally happens when a person (without diabetes) eats food? 1. Some of the food breaks down into sugars; one of these sugars is glucose, the body's main fuel. 2. Sugar enters the bloodstream, and the level of blood sugar begins to rise. 3. When the body senses an increase in blood sugar, it sends a signal to the pancreas. 4. The pancreas makes insulin and sends it into the bloodstream. 5. Insulin lowers the level of blood sugar by allowing sugar to pass from the bloodstream into the cells. 6. The level of sugar in the bloodstream falls as the sugar passes into the cells. 7. The body's cells use the sugar for fuel (ATP production). You feel energetic. When a person has diab Continue reading >>

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