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What Does It Mean When Insulin Is At Its Peak?

What Is Regular Insulin?: Onset, Peak Time, Duration And Side Effects

What Is Regular Insulin?: Onset, Peak Time, Duration And Side Effects

What is regular insulin? Regular insulin, with alternative names soluble insulin and neutral insulin, refers to a short acting insulin which is used with exercise and diet program to manage high blood sugar in diabetic patients. However, it can be taken in combination with other long acting or intermediate insulin. This medication can be used alone or with other diabetes medication like metformin. Insulin regular is used to treat diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2, in addition to gestational diabetes and other conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis. Insulin regular refers to man made insulin that works the same as the insulin produced by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering the level of blood sugar in the body. If high blood sugar is not properly managed, it can lead to severe health conditions such as heart attack and stroke. For our bodies to properly utilize glucose found in carbohydrate rich foods, insulin is supposed to be present to facilitate the process of glucose absorption. Regular insulin works by helping glucose get into the cells so that our bodies can use to produce energy. This medication should not be used to treat type 2 diabetes in children of any age. Also, you should not use this medication if you are allergic to insulin or experience low levels of blood sugar. Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar usually happens in patients that are diabetic. Symptoms of low blood sugar include: Sweating Shakiness Fatigue or weakness Impaired vision Headache Hunger Loss of consciousness Irritability Difficulty in concentration If you experience these symptoms and you think they are life threatening, you need to inform your doctor immediately. It is advisable you keep sugar sources such as fruit juice, non diet soda or hard candy in case you experi Continue reading >>

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

What you need to know If you have to take insulin to treat diabetes, there’s good news: You have choices. There are five types of insulin. They vary by onset (how soon they start to work), peak (how long they take to kick into full effect) and duration (how long they stay in your body). You may have to take more than one type of insulin, and these needs may change over time (and can vary depending on your type of diabetes). Find out more about the insulin types best for you. Rapid-acting insulin What it’s called: Humalog (lispro), NovoLog (aspart), Apidra (glulisine) Rapid-acting insulin is taken just before or after meals, to control spikes in blood sugar. This type is typically used in addition to a longer-acting insulin. It often works in 15 minutes, peaks between 30 and 90 minutes, and lasts 3 to 5 hours. “You can take it a few minutes before eating or as you sit down to eat, and it starts to work very quickly,” says Manisha Chandalia, MD, director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston. Short-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin R, Novolin R Short-acting insulin covers your insulin needs during meals. It is taken about 30 minutes to an hour before a meal to help control blood sugar levels. This type of insulin takes effect in about 30 minutes to one hour, and peaks after two to four hours. Its effects tend to last about five to eight hours. “The biggest advantage of short-acting insulin is that you don't have to take it at each meal. You can take it at breakfast and supper and still have good control because it lasts a little longer,” Dr. Chandalia says. Intermediate-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin N (NPH), Novolin N (NPH) Intermediate-acting insulin can control blood sugar levels for about Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Many forms of insulin treat diabetes. They're grouped by how fast they start to work and how long their effects last. The types of insulin include: Rapid-acting Short-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Pre-mixed What Type of Insulin Is Best for My Diabetes? Your doctor will work with you to prescribe the type of insulin that's best for you and your diabetes. Making that choice will depend on many things, including: How you respond to insulin. (How long it takes the body to absorb it and how long it remains active varies from person to person.) Lifestyle choices. The type of food you eat, how much alcohol you drink, or how much exercise you get will all affect how your body uses insulin. Your willingness to give yourself multiple injections per day Your age Your goals for managing your blood sugar Afrezza, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin, is FDA-approved for use before meals for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The drug peaks in your blood in about 15-20 minutes and it clears your body in 2-3 hours. It must be used along with long-acting insulin in people with type 1 diabetes. The chart below lists the types of injectable insulin with details about onset (the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream and begins to lower blood sugar), peak (the time period when it best lowers blood sugar) and duration (how long insulin continues to work). These three things may vary. The final column offers some insight into the "coverage" provided by the different insulin types in relation to mealtime. Type of Insulin & Brand Names Onset Peak Duration Role in Blood Sugar Management Rapid-Acting Lispro (Humalog) 15-30 min. 30-90 min 3-5 hours Rapid-acting insulin covers insulin needs for meals eaten at the same time as the injection. This type of insulin is often used with Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin

Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin

Getting Started When most people find out they have Type 2 diabetes, they are first instructed to make changes in their diet and lifestyle. These changes, which are likely to include routine exercise, more nutritious food choices, and often a lower calorie intake, are crucial to managing diabetes and may successfully lower blood glucose levels to an acceptable level. If they do not, a drug such as glyburide, glipizide, or metformin is often prescribed. But lifestyle changes and oral drugs for Type 2 diabetes are unlikely to be permanent solutions. This is because over time, the pancreas tends to produce less and less insulin until eventually it cannot meet the body’s needs. Ultimately, insulin (injected or infused) is the most effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes. There are many barriers to starting insulin therapy: Often they are psychological; sometimes they are physical or financial. But if insulin is begun early enough and is used appropriately, people who use it have a marked decrease in complications related to diabetes such as retinopathy (a diabetic eye disease), nephropathy (diabetic kidney disease), and neuropathy (nerve damage). The need for insulin should not be viewed as a personal failure, but rather as a largely inevitable part of the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. This article offers some practical guidance on starting insulin for people with Type 2 diabetes. When to start insulin Insulin is usually started when oral medicines (usually no more than two) and lifestyle changes (which should be maintained for life even if oral pills or insulin are later prescribed) have failed to lower a person’s HbA1c level to less than 7%. (HbA1c stands for glycosylated hemoglobin and is a measure of blood glucose control.) However, a recent consensus statement from Continue reading >>

How To Use Long-acting Insulin: Types, Frequency, Peak Times, And Duration

How To Use Long-acting Insulin: Types, Frequency, Peak Times, And Duration

Long-acting insulin can help to stabilize blood sugar levels throughout the day, with only one or two shots. Fast-acting insulin replaces the surge of insulin that a healthy pancreas would release at mealtime. In contrast, long-acting insulin mimics the low-level flow of insulin normally released between meals and overnight. In this way, long-acting insulin works to establish a healthy baseline blood sugar level for the body to work around. Contents of this article: Using long-acting insulin Long-acting insulin cannot be delivered in pill form because it would be broken down in the stomach. Instead, it must be injected into the fatty tissue under the skin. From here, it can be gradually released into the bloodstream. Delivery methods According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, there are a few ways to deliver long-acting insulin. These include: Needle and syringe: a dose of insulin is drawn from a vial into a syringe. Different types of insulin must not be mixed in the same syringe. Pen: this can be loaded with a cartridge containing a premeasured dose, or prefilled with insulin and discarded after use. Injection port: a short tube is inserted into the tissue beneath the skin. Insulin can be delivered using either a syringe or a pen. This only requires the skin to be punctured when the tube needs to be replaced. Injection sites Long-acting insulin can be injected into the abdomen, upper arms, or thighs. Abdomen injections deliver insulin into the blood most quickly. The process takes a little more time from the upper arms, and it is even slower from the thighs. It is important to stay consistent with the general injection area, but the exact injection site should be rotated frequently. Repeat injections at the same spot on the skin Continue reading >>

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

When you eat, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin moves sugar (glucose) from your blood to your cells for energy or storage. If you take insulin, you may need some at mealtime to help lower your blood sugar after you eat. But even between meals, you need insulin in small amounts to help keep blood sugar stable. This is where long-acting insulin comes in. If you have diabetes, either your pancreas can’t produce enough (or any) insulin, or your cells can’t use it efficiently. To control your blood sugar, you need to replace or supplement the normal function of your pancreas with regular insulin injections. Insulin comes in many types. Each type differs in three ways: onset: how quickly it starts working to lower your blood sugar peak: when its effects on your blood sugar are strongest duration: how long it lowers your blood sugar According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the five types of insulin are: Rapid-acting insulin: This type starts to work just 15 minutes after you take it. It peaks within 30 to 90 minutes, and its effects last for three to five hours. Short-acting insulin: This type takes about 30 to 60 minutes to become active in your bloodstream. It peaks in two to four hours, and its effects can last for five to eight hours. It is sometimes called regular-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting insulin: The intermediate type takes one to three hours to start working. It peaks in eight hours and works for 12 to 16 hours. Long-acting insulin: This type takes the longest amount of time to start working. The insulin can take up to 4 hours to get into your bloodstream. Pre-mixed: This is a combination of two different types of insulin: one that controls blood sugar at meals and another that controls blood sugar between meals. Lo Continue reading >>

When Does Humulin Insulin Peak?

When Does Humulin Insulin Peak?

Like all regular insulins, Humulin R helps to prevent your blood sugar level from rising excessively after meals. The activity of Humulin R typically peaks two to four hours after you inject the medication. To synchronize the peak activity of Humulin R with the blood sugar peak associated with eating, you inject this form of insulin approximately 20 to 30 minutes before meals. Humulin N contains insulin in a chemical suspension that slows and prolongs its release. The peak activity of Humulin N typically occurs approximately eight hours after your injection. The duration of activity is approximately 12 to 16 hours. The activity profile of Humulin N makes it useful for maintaining a relatively constant level of insulin in your bloodstream if administered twice daily. This helps keep your blood sugar level steady between meals. Humulin 70/30 is a premixed formulation containing 70 percent Humulin N and 30 percent Humulin R. The premixed drug is convenient if your doctor prescribes both regular and NPH insulin. Two activity peaks occur with this combination medication; one approximately two hours after injection from the regular insulin and a second lower peak approximately 10 hours after injection from the NPH insulin. Variability in Peak Activity The reported peak activity times for various types of Humulin are averages; your experience may be different. After using Humulin for several weeks, you and your doctor may discover from your home glucose monitoring that you are experiencing peak activity earlier or later than the reported average. If this occurs, the timing of your injections may need to be adjusted. Do not change the dose or timing of your insulin injections unless you talk with your doctor. The peak activity of your insulin dose may also change from one day t Continue reading >>

Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication)

"Insulin therapy" redirects here. For the psychiatric treatment, see Insulin shock therapy. Insulin is used as a medication to treat high blood sugar.[3] This includes in diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.[3] It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.[3] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows.[5] Human versions can be made either by modifying pig versions or recombinant technology.[5] It comes in three main types short–acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate–acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine).[5] Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.39 to $10.61 per 1,000 iu of regular insulin and $2.23 to $10.35 per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[8][9] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds.[5] Medical uses[edit] Giving insulin with an insulin pen. Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacid Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.[1] Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose.[2] In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>

Insulin Types: A Review

Insulin Types: A Review

Earlier articles have discussed insulin's role in our bodies, what happens when we don't have it, and why some of us have to take it by injection. But all insulins are not And, how can we use their differences to better self manage? Insulins are described and subdivided by concentration strength, source, and time of onset/peak. This last category is most critical, but we really need an understanding of all three criteria. All insulins sold in the United States today are of U 100 strength, 100 units of insulin per cc of fluid. But there are other dilutions in other countries, and if you were to encounter one of these (all perfectly usable), and inject your usual volume of insulin, you'd get a different At one time, all insulin was produced by laboratory animals, most often cows and pigs. In the last decade, however, American insulin manufacturers have almost completely shifted to use of "recombinant DNA" (Rdna) technology, enabling laboratory production of a close analog to real human insulin. This "human" insulin is said to more closely match our endogenous (pancreatic) insulin. Although labelled much like "animal source" insulins, recombinant DNA insulins are not quite the same, either in time of onset or in amount of insulin required. Experience shows that any switch between the one and the other must be done with care, and under your doctor's supervision the types might be different enough to cause you trouble Lente, Ultralente, Lantus", and the pre mixes: 70/30, 50/50, and Humalog 75/25, are divided and distinguished by their time of onset and duration. As shown in the chart below, When does this insulin begin to act in my body? averages you may well find a given insulin is different for Test frequently, keep good notes, and make your own The chart below is a gener Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin. Diabetes: The failure to make insulin or to respond to it constitutes diabetes mellitus. Insulin is made specifically by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. If the beta cells degenerate so the body cannot make enough insulin on its own, type I diabetes results. A person with this type of diabetes must inject exogenous insulin (insulin from sources outside the body). In type II diabetes, the beta cells produce insulin, but cells throughout the body do not respond normally to it. Nevertheless, insulin also may be used in type II diabetes to help overcome the resistance of cells to insulin. By reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood, insulin is thought to prevent or reduce the long-term complications of diabetes, including damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. History of Insulin: In 1921, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin while they were working in the laboratory of John J.R. Macleod at the University of Toronto. Banting and Best extracted material from the pancreas of dogs. They first used this material to keep diabetic dogs alive and in 1922 they used it successfully on a 14-year-old boy with diabetes. In 1923, James B. Collip, a biochemist, discovered that purifying the extract prevented many of the side effects. In 1923, Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Best and Collip were overlooked but Banting and Macleod shared the prize money with them. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved insulin in 1939. Insulin was the first hormone to be synthesized completely i Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

A good way to improve your glucose levels is to track the peaks and drops in your glucose , so you can figure out why they happened and how to correct them. Once you identify glucose patterns (they ARE there!), you also want to understand when each of your insulins is active and when they typically stop lowering your glucose. This helps you adjust your doses or food intake to stop unwanted ups and downs in your readings. The table below shows the start, peak, and end times for various insulins with some explanations and typical uses for each. When Does My Insulin Peak and How Long Does It Last? designed to peak, covers meals and lowers high BGs Humalog , Novolog and Apidra insulins currently give the best coverage for meals and help keep the glucose lower afterward. Their glucose lowering activity starts to work about 20 minutes after they are taken, with a gradual rise in activity over the next 1.75 to 2.25 hours. Their activity gradually falls over the next 3 hours with about 5 to 6 hours of activity being common with these insulins.Although insulin action times are often quoted as 3-5 hours, the actual duration of insulin action is typically 5 hours or more. See our article Duration of Insulin Action for more information on this important topic. In general, "rapid" insulins are still too slow for many common meals where the glucose peaks within an hour and digestion is complete within 2-3 hours. The best kept secret on stopping post meal spiking is to eake the injection or bolus earlier before the meal and to eat slower low glycemic carbs. Regular insulin still carries its original name of "fast insulin" but its slower action often works better for people who take Symlin or for those who have gastroparesis (delayed digestion). It is also a great choice for those who Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Insulin is a hormone the body makes to control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It lowers blood sugar by allowing glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter body cells. Without enough insulin, the level of glucose in the bloodstream can become too high. Everyone needs insulin to use food properly. People without diabetes make enough of their own insulin to keep their blood sugar at healthy levels all the time. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin of their own. Instead, they need to take shots of one or more types of insulin to keep their blood sugars close to normal. Between 75 and 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin shots to help them get the best control of their blood sugar levels. Deciding How Much Insulin to Take The amount of insulin a person needs depends on: Body weight Percentage of body fat Activity level Diet Other medicines Emotions and stress General health Type of insulin When you first start taking insulin shots, your doctor might ask you to change the amount you take or the time you take it several times. You and your doctor will base these changes on the results of your blood sugar tests. You'll need to make adjustments until you find the dose and schedule that work best for you. Each person's need for insulin is different: Some people can control their blood sugar with one shot of insulin a day. Most people need more than three shots every day. Many people need more than one type of insulin. If you take several insulin shots a day or use more than one type of insulin, it doesn't mean your diabetes isn't in good control. Your blood sugar, not the amount or type of insulin you take, is the best way to judge how well you are doing. If you take three shots a day and your blood sugar is near normal, that's Continue reading >>

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