diabetestalk.net

What Does It Mean When Insulin Is At Its Peak?

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. In people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin as the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by an autoimmune reaction in the body. Insulin replacement by daily injections is required. In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. To compensate the body makes more but eventually cannot make enough to keep the balance right. Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. When insulin is required, it is important to understand that this is just the natural progression of the condition. RMIT University have produced a short overview of insulin, a drug that keeps in excess of one million Australians alive. Watch the video to understand why insulin is important and why so many Australians rely on it to stay alive. Copyright © 2015 RMIT University, Prepared by the School of Applied Sciences (Discipline of Chemistry). At this stage, insulin can only be injected. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as it would be destroyed in the stomach, meaning it would not be available to convert glucose into energy. Insulin is injected through the skin into the fatty tissue known as the subcutaneous layer. You do not inject it into muscle or directly into the blood. Absorption of insulin varies depending on the part of the body into which you inject. The tummy (abdomen) absorbs insulin the fastest and is the site used by most people. The buttocks and thighs are also used by some people. While i Continue reading >>

Insulin Mnemonics For Peak, Onset, Duration & Types

Insulin Mnemonics For Peak, Onset, Duration & Types

Studying diabetes in nursing school and wondering how you are going to remember the onset, peak, and duration of certain types of insulin or the different types of insulins? Need an awesome insulin mnemonic? Well, look no further because here are some clever mnemonics to help you nursing students out there learn these mind-boggling numbers of onset, peak, and duration of insulin. First, let’s go over the different types of insulin and what insulin falls into each category. They are (remember them in order because the first one is the fastest and the last one is the longest): Rapid-acting (fastest) Short-acting Intermediate (medium acting) Long (longest) Remember the phrase to help you remember which ones are the fastest and longest: Ready (rapid), Set (short), Inject (intermediate), Love (long)! Now how do you remember if Novolog is short or rapid or if Levemir is long or short? Remember the word INSULIN and play off of the word. Watch the video below on how to set-up the word. Insulin Mnemonics I Insulin Onset, Peak, and Duration Times Rapid-Acting Insulin: Onset: 15 minutes Peak: 1 hour Duration: 3 “15 minutes feels like an hour during 3 rapid responses.” Short-Acting Insulin: Onset: 30 minutes Peak: 2 hours Duration: 8 hours “Short-staffed nurses went from 30 patient to (2) 8 patients.” Intermediate-Acting Insulin: Onset: 2 hours Peak: 8 hours Duration: 16 hours “Nurses Play Hero to (2) eight 16 year olds.” Long-Acting Insulin: Onset: 2 hours Peak: NONE Duration: 24 hours “The two long nursing shifts never peaked but lasted 24 hours.” More Diabetes NCLEX Review Videos Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin. Diabetes: The failure to make insulin or to respond to it constitutes diabetes mellitus. Insulin is made specifically by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. If the beta cells degenerate so the body cannot make enough insulin on its own, type I diabetes results. A person with this type of diabetes must inject exogenous insulin (insulin from sources outside the body). In type II diabetes, the beta cells produce insulin, but cells throughout the body do not respond normally to it. Nevertheless, insulin also may be used in type II diabetes to help overcome the resistance of cells to insulin. By reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood, insulin is thought to prevent or reduce the long-term complications of diabetes, including damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. History of Insulin: In 1921, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin while they were working in the laboratory of John J.R. Macleod at the University of Toronto. Banting and Best extracted material from the pancreas of dogs. They first used this material to keep diabetic dogs alive and in 1922 they used it successfully on a 14-year-old boy with diabetes. In 1923, James B. Collip, a biochemist, discovered that purifying the extract prevented many of the side effects. In 1923, Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Best and Collip were overlooked but Banting and Macleod shared the prize money with them. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved insulin in 1939. Insulin was the first hormone to be synthesized completely i Continue reading >>

What You Need To Know About Insulin

What You Need To Know About Insulin

Toxicologists, scientists, and pharmaceutical researchers have developed different types of insulin derived from and formulated with other compounds. Doctors and patients have many different types of insulin drugs to choose from including delivery methods and devices. In the past, bovine (cow) and/or porcine (pig) insulin was extracted and used to develop different classifications of insulin. While bovine and porcine (sometimes combined) insulin is similar to human insulin, their composition is a little different. Because of this, some patients’ immune systems produce antibodies making bovine and/or porcine preparations ineffective. This led researchers to investigate human insulin synthesis by developing a chemically identical drug with the help of DNA recombinant (rDNA) technology. Today, almost all insulin prescribed is recombinant DNA human. While only a brief overview of where insulin comes from is presented, it is important for you to know there are many types. Your doctor makes his or her recommendation based on your diabetes, blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, and lifestyle, and from his or her experience with the insulin. Whatever type of insulin your doctor prescribes, keep in mind that it is regulated and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who oversees medication safety and efficacy. Possible Insulin Complications As with any drug or treatment, side effects and complications are possible. Your doctor understands the possible risks (associated with insulin and other medications he or she prescribes. This is another reason to share your complete medical history including allergies, daily medications, and supplements (e.g., vitamins, herbs) with your doctor. Types of Insulin Considering your body’s glucose levels change in response to fo Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Insulin is a hormone the body makes to control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It lowers blood sugar by allowing glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter body cells. Without enough insulin, the level of glucose in the bloodstream can become too high. Everyone needs insulin to use food properly. People without diabetes make enough of their own insulin to keep their blood sugar at healthy levels all the time. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin of their own. Instead, they need to take shots of one or more types of insulin to keep their blood sugars close to normal. Between 75 and 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin shots to help them get the best control of their blood sugar levels. Deciding How Much Insulin to Take The amount of insulin a person needs depends on: Body weight Percentage of body fat Activity level Diet Other medicines Emotions and stress General health Type of insulin When you first start taking insulin shots, your doctor might ask you to change the amount you take or the time you take it several times. You and your doctor will base these changes on the results of your blood sugar tests. You'll need to make adjustments until you find the dose and schedule that work best for you. Each person's need for insulin is different: Some people can control their blood sugar with one shot of insulin a day. Most people need more than three shots every day. Many people need more than one type of insulin. If you take several insulin shots a day or use more than one type of insulin, it doesn't mean your diabetes isn't in good control. Your blood sugar, not the amount or type of insulin you take, is the best way to judge how well you are doing. If you take three shots a day and your blood sugar is near normal, that's Continue reading >>

Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication)

"Insulin therapy" redirects here. For the psychiatric treatment, see Insulin shock therapy. Insulin is used as a medication to treat high blood sugar.[3] This includes in diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, gestational diabetes, and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.[3] It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels.[4] Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.[3] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] Insulin can be made from the pancreas of pigs or cows.[5] Human versions can be made either by modifying pig versions or recombinant technology.[5] It comes in three main types short–acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate–acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine).[5] Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in 1922.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.39 to $10.61 per 1,000 iu of regular insulin and $2.23 to $10.35 per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[8][9] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds.[5] Medical uses[edit] Giving insulin with an insulin pen. Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacid Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

How To Use Long-acting Insulin: Types, Frequency, Peak Times, And Duration

How To Use Long-acting Insulin: Types, Frequency, Peak Times, And Duration

Long-acting insulin can help to stabilize blood sugar levels throughout the day, with only one or two shots. Fast-acting insulin replaces the surge of insulin that a healthy pancreas would release at mealtime. In contrast, long-acting insulin mimics the low-level flow of insulin normally released between meals and overnight. In this way, long-acting insulin works to establish a healthy baseline blood sugar level for the body to work around. Contents of this article: Using long-acting insulin Long-acting insulin cannot be delivered in pill form because it would be broken down in the stomach. Instead, it must be injected into the fatty tissue under the skin. From here, it can be gradually released into the bloodstream. Delivery methods According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, there are a few ways to deliver long-acting insulin. These include: Needle and syringe: a dose of insulin is drawn from a vial into a syringe. Different types of insulin must not be mixed in the same syringe. Pen: this can be loaded with a cartridge containing a premeasured dose, or prefilled with insulin and discarded after use. Injection port: a short tube is inserted into the tissue beneath the skin. Insulin can be delivered using either a syringe or a pen. This only requires the skin to be punctured when the tube needs to be replaced. Injection sites Long-acting insulin can be injected into the abdomen, upper arms, or thighs. Abdomen injections deliver insulin into the blood most quickly. The process takes a little more time from the upper arms, and it is even slower from the thighs. It is important to stay consistent with the general injection area, but the exact injection site should be rotated frequently. Repeat injections at the same spot on the skin Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.[1] Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose.[2] In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

A good way to improve your glucose levels is to track the peaks and drops in your glucose , so you can figure out why they happened and how to correct them. Once you identify glucose patterns (they ARE there!), you also want to understand when each of your insulins is active and when they typically stop lowering your glucose. This helps you adjust your doses or food intake to stop unwanted ups and downs in your readings. The table below shows the start, peak, and end times for various insulins with some explanations and typical uses for each. When Does My Insulin Peak and How Long Does It Last? designed to peak, covers meals and lowers high BGs Humalog , Novolog and Apidra insulins currently give the best coverage for meals and help keep the glucose lower afterward. Their glucose lowering activity starts to work about 20 minutes after they are taken, with a gradual rise in activity over the next 1.75 to 2.25 hours. Their activity gradually falls over the next 3 hours with about 5 to 6 hours of activity being common with these insulins.Although insulin action times are often quoted as 3-5 hours, the actual duration of insulin action is typically 5 hours or more. See our article Duration of Insulin Action for more information on this important topic. In general, "rapid" insulins are still too slow for many common meals where the glucose peaks within an hour and digestion is complete within 2-3 hours. The best kept secret on stopping post meal spiking is to eake the injection or bolus earlier before the meal and to eat slower low glycemic carbs. Regular insulin still carries its original name of "fast insulin" but its slower action often works better for people who take Symlin or for those who have gastroparesis (delayed digestion). It is also a great choice for those who Continue reading >>

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

What you need to know If you have to take insulin to treat diabetes, there’s good news: You have choices. There are five types of insulin. They vary by onset (how soon they start to work), peak (how long they take to kick into full effect) and duration (how long they stay in your body). You may have to take more than one type of insulin, and these needs may change over time (and can vary depending on your type of diabetes). Find out more about the insulin types best for you. Rapid-acting insulin What it’s called: Humalog (lispro), NovoLog (aspart), Apidra (glulisine) Rapid-acting insulin is taken just before or after meals, to control spikes in blood sugar. This type is typically used in addition to a longer-acting insulin. It often works in 15 minutes, peaks between 30 and 90 minutes, and lasts 3 to 5 hours. “You can take it a few minutes before eating or as you sit down to eat, and it starts to work very quickly,” says Manisha Chandalia, MD, director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston. Short-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin R, Novolin R Short-acting insulin covers your insulin needs during meals. It is taken about 30 minutes to an hour before a meal to help control blood sugar levels. This type of insulin takes effect in about 30 minutes to one hour, and peaks after two to four hours. Its effects tend to last about five to eight hours. “The biggest advantage of short-acting insulin is that you don't have to take it at each meal. You can take it at breakfast and supper and still have good control because it lasts a little longer,” Dr. Chandalia says. Intermediate-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin N (NPH), Novolin N (NPH) Intermediate-acting insulin can control blood sugar levels for about Continue reading >>

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

When you eat, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin moves sugar (glucose) from your blood to your cells for energy or storage. If you take insulin, you may need some at mealtime to help lower your blood sugar after you eat. But even between meals, you need insulin in small amounts to help keep blood sugar stable. This is where long-acting insulin comes in. If you have diabetes, either your pancreas can’t produce enough (or any) insulin, or your cells can’t use it efficiently. To control your blood sugar, you need to replace or supplement the normal function of your pancreas with regular insulin injections. Insulin comes in many types. Each type differs in three ways: onset: how quickly it starts working to lower your blood sugar peak: when its effects on your blood sugar are strongest duration: how long it lowers your blood sugar According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the five types of insulin are: Rapid-acting insulin: This type starts to work just 15 minutes after you take it. It peaks within 30 to 90 minutes, and its effects last for three to five hours. Short-acting insulin: This type takes about 30 to 60 minutes to become active in your bloodstream. It peaks in two to four hours, and its effects can last for five to eight hours. It is sometimes called regular-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting insulin: The intermediate type takes one to three hours to start working. It peaks in eight hours and works for 12 to 16 hours. Long-acting insulin: This type takes the longest amount of time to start working. The insulin can take up to 4 hours to get into your bloodstream. Pre-mixed: This is a combination of two different types of insulin: one that controls blood sugar at meals and another that controls blood sugar between meals. Lo Continue reading >>

Insulin Types: A Review

Insulin Types: A Review

Earlier articles have discussed insulin's role in our bodies, what happens when we don't have it, and why some of us have to take it by injection. But all insulins are not And, how can we use their differences to better self manage? Insulins are described and subdivided by concentration strength, source, and time of onset/peak. This last category is most critical, but we really need an understanding of all three criteria. All insulins sold in the United States today are of U 100 strength, 100 units of insulin per cc of fluid. But there are other dilutions in other countries, and if you were to encounter one of these (all perfectly usable), and inject your usual volume of insulin, you'd get a different At one time, all insulin was produced by laboratory animals, most often cows and pigs. In the last decade, however, American insulin manufacturers have almost completely shifted to use of "recombinant DNA" (Rdna) technology, enabling laboratory production of a close analog to real human insulin. This "human" insulin is said to more closely match our endogenous (pancreatic) insulin. Although labelled much like "animal source" insulins, recombinant DNA insulins are not quite the same, either in time of onset or in amount of insulin required. Experience shows that any switch between the one and the other must be done with care, and under your doctor's supervision the types might be different enough to cause you trouble Lente, Ultralente, Lantus", and the pre mixes: 70/30, 50/50, and Humalog 75/25, are divided and distinguished by their time of onset and duration. As shown in the chart below, When does this insulin begin to act in my body? averages you may well find a given insulin is different for Test frequently, keep good notes, and make your own The chart below is a gener Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Many forms of insulin treat diabetes. They're grouped by how fast they start to work and how long their effects last. The types of insulin include: Rapid-acting Short-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Pre-mixed What Type of Insulin Is Best for My Diabetes? Your doctor will work with you to prescribe the type of insulin that's best for you and your diabetes. Making that choice will depend on many things, including: How you respond to insulin. (How long it takes the body to absorb it and how long it remains active varies from person to person.) Lifestyle choices. The type of food you eat, how much alcohol you drink, or how much exercise you get will all affect how your body uses insulin. Your willingness to give yourself multiple injections per day Your age Your goals for managing your blood sugar Afrezza, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin, is FDA-approved for use before meals for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The drug peaks in your blood in about 15-20 minutes and it clears your body in 2-3 hours. It must be used along with long-acting insulin in people with type 1 diabetes. The chart below lists the types of injectable insulin with details about onset (the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream and begins to lower blood sugar), peak (the time period when it best lowers blood sugar) and duration (how long insulin continues to work). These three things may vary. The final column offers some insight into the "coverage" provided by the different insulin types in relation to mealtime. Type of Insulin & Brand Names Onset Peak Duration Role in Blood Sugar Management Rapid-Acting Lispro (Humalog) 15-30 min. 30-90 min 3-5 hours Rapid-acting insulin covers insulin needs for meals eaten at the same time as the injection. This type of insulin is often used with Continue reading >>

What Is Regular Insulin?: Onset, Peak Time, Duration And Side Effects

What Is Regular Insulin?: Onset, Peak Time, Duration And Side Effects

What is regular insulin? Regular insulin, with alternative names soluble insulin and neutral insulin, refers to a short acting insulin which is used with exercise and diet program to manage high blood sugar in diabetic patients. However, it can be taken in combination with other long acting or intermediate insulin. This medication can be used alone or with other diabetes medication like metformin. Insulin regular is used to treat diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2, in addition to gestational diabetes and other conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis. Insulin regular refers to man made insulin that works the same as the insulin produced by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering the level of blood sugar in the body. If high blood sugar is not properly managed, it can lead to severe health conditions such as heart attack and stroke. For our bodies to properly utilize glucose found in carbohydrate rich foods, insulin is supposed to be present to facilitate the process of glucose absorption. Regular insulin works by helping glucose get into the cells so that our bodies can use to produce energy. This medication should not be used to treat type 2 diabetes in children of any age. Also, you should not use this medication if you are allergic to insulin or experience low levels of blood sugar. Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar usually happens in patients that are diabetic. Symptoms of low blood sugar include: Sweating Shakiness Fatigue or weakness Impaired vision Headache Hunger Loss of consciousness Irritability Difficulty in concentration If you experience these symptoms and you think they are life threatening, you need to inform your doctor immediately. It is advisable you keep sugar sources such as fruit juice, non diet soda or hard candy in case you experi Continue reading >>

More in insulin