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What Can Cause Hyperinsulinemia?

Diet For Hyperinsulinism

Diet For Hyperinsulinism

Based in Springfield, Mo., Jillian Ball, registered and licensed dietitian, has been writing nutrition-based content since 2004. Ball is a nutrition consultant and diabetes educator, and is certified in childhood and adolescent weight management. She holds a bachelor's degree in dietetics with cum laude honors from Missouri State University. Insulin and syringe.Photo Credit: Creatas Images/Creatas/Getty Images Hyperinsulinism occurs when the body produces too much insulin. According to Genetics Home Reference, this can happen as a result of genetics, called familial hyperinsulinism, or it can occur in response to insulin resistance, which causes the pancreas to overproduce insulin in an effort to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone that is released in response to glucose, or sugar, in the blood stream, making diet a major part of treatment. Doctors may not identify hyperinsulinism.Photo Credit: Monkey Business Images/Monkey Business/Getty Images The identification, or diagnosis, of hyperinsulinism often goes undetected by you or your doctor. Explained by the January 2013 "Gene Reveiw," hyperinsulinism does not usually present itself with signs or symptoms until low blood sugar occurs, also known as hypoglycemia. Even then, signs of hypoglycemia are somewhat generic resulting in fatigue, weakness, dizziness or irritability, which can point to a number of conditions. In infants, hyperinsulinism symptoms include poor feeding and seizures. Diet is important to keep healthy.Photo Credit: olgakr/iStock/Getty Images When combating abnormalities in glucose -- sugar -- or insulin regulation in the body, diet intake is always a concern and should be closely monitored. Sugar, especially refined sugars such as white or brown sugar, honey, jellies and syrups, w Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia: A Cause Of Obesity?

Hyperinsulinemia: A Cause Of Obesity?

1Obesity Research Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 650 Albany St, Boston, MA 02118 USA 2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA 1Obesity Research Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 650 Albany St, Boston, MA 02118 USA 1Obesity Research Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 650 Albany St, Boston, MA 02118 USA 2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA Karel A. Erion, Email: [email protected] . Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. This perspective is motivated by the need to question dogma that does not work: that the problem is insulin resistance (IR). We highlight the need to investigate potential environmental obesogens and toxins. The prequel to severe metabolic disease includes three interacting components that are abnormal: (a) IR, (b) elevated lipids and (c) elevated basal insulin (HI). HI is more common than IR and is a significant independent predictor of diabetes. We hypothesize that (1) the initiating defect is HI that increases nutrient consumption and hyperlipidemia (HL); (2) the cause of HI may include food additives, environmental obesogens or toxins that have entered our f Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia: Symptoms, Treatments, And Diet

Hyperinsulinemia: Symptoms, Treatments, And Diet

The typical cause of hyperinsulinemia is insulin resistance . Insulin resistance is what happens when your body doesnt respond correctly to insulin. This incorrect response causes your body to need the pancreas to produce more insulin. As your pancreas makes more insulin, your body continues to resist and respond incorrectly to the higher levels of insulin. Your pancreas will continually need to make more to compensate. Eventually, your pancreas wont be able to keep up with the amount of insulin your body needs to keep your blood sugar at a healthy level. Insulin resistance can eventually lead to type 2 diabetes . Less common causes of this condition are insulinoma and nesidioblastosis. Insulinoma is a rare tumor of the pancreas cells that produce insulin. Nesidioblastosis is when the pancreas produces too many cells that make insulin. Hyperinsulinemia may also develop after having gastric bypass surgery. The theory is that the cells have become too large and active for the body, but the body has changed significantly after the bypass. Doctors arent fully sure why this happens. Hyperinsulinemia is usually diagnosed through a blood test taken when youre fasting. It may also be diagnosed when your doctor is checking for other conditions like diabetes. Treatment for hyperinsulinemia begins by treating whatever is causing it. This is particularly true if your condition is caused by insulinoma or nesidioblastosis. Your treatment may also include a combination of medication, lifestyle changes, and possibly surgery. These lifestyle changes include diet and exercise. The medications used to treat this condition are the same or similar to the medications used to treat diabetes. However, medication should be used only if diet and exercise arent enough to control the condition. S Continue reading >>

Hypertension And Hyperinsulinemia

Hypertension And Hyperinsulinemia

Hypertension is defined as the sustained elevation of either or both systolic and diastolic blood pressure while at rest. There are several different classifications of hypertension, but the two main categories are primary, also called essential hypertension, and secondary hypertension. The majority of all those diagnosed with hypertension fall under the primary category while only a small percentage are classified as secondary hypertensive. Secondary hypertension is the result of some other condition or disease where as primary Hypertension is said, by conventional medicine, to have no identifiable cause for development. An overwhelming number of studies have revealed that diet, obesity and vitamin and mineral deficiencies are related to primary hypertension. Changes in lifestyle and the uses of specific supplements have proven to be extremely effective in the treatment and reversal of mild primary hypertension and could be considered prior to the use of prescription drugs Hypertension is strongly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and is one of the major factors in the incidences of heart attacks in both the diabetic and non-diabetic population. It can also contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies show a definite correlation between hypertension, diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.[i] [ii] We are most interested in the links between diabetes and hypertension and how to prevent and or treat them accordingly. Type I diabetes patients usually develop secondary hypertension while Type II patients are associated with primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension in Type I patients is usually the result of nephropathy often caused by chronic hyperglycemia. Type II diabetes patients can also dev Continue reading >>

Understanding Hyperinsulinemia

Understanding Hyperinsulinemia

Put plainly Hyperinsulinemia means that the amount of insulin in the blood is far higher than what is considered normal. It is not Diabetes but it is often associated with type 2 Diabetes. Hyperinsulinemia is often caused by insulin resistance. It can also be caused by a tumor affecting the pancreas or something called nesidioblastosis, meaning the pancreas has an excess of insulin producing cells. 1 Insulin is required by our body to regulate blood sugars, the pancreas is responsible for producing the necessary amount of insulin at any given time. Someone suffering from Hyperinsulinemia has trouble controlling blood sugar levels, requiring immense amounts of insulin to be produced in order to maintain a normal blood sugar level. Insulin resistance can often lead to the development of type 2 Diabetes because the pancreas cannot keep up with the huge amounts of insulin required to regulate blood sugar levels. Hidden Dangers Of This Under-Diagnosed Condition Hyperinsulinemia has no symptoms or signs unless it causes hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. This makes it a very worrying condition that is most definitely affecting many more people than are being diagnosed. Leading to the development of type 2 Diabetes, causing severe imbalances in insulin and blood sugar levels which can also have significant health repercussions on every bodily system. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with Metabolic Syndrome, conditions such as hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia can all be a result of Hyperinsulinemia. It is not fully understood whether Hyperinsulinemia causes obesity or obesity is the cause of Hyperinsulinemia, or perhaps both. Obesity causes an excess of adipose tissue, which is known to secrete various cytokines, hormones and metabolites that may contrib Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia: Is It Diabetes?

Hyperinsulinemia: Is It Diabetes?

Is hyperinsulinemia a form of diabetes? Answers from M. Regina Castro, M.D. Hyperinsulinemia (hi-pur-in-suh-lih-NEE-me-uh) means the amount of insulin in your blood is higher than what's considered normal. Alone, it isn't diabetes. But hyperinsulinemia is often associated with type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone that's normally produced by your pancreas, which helps regulate blood sugar. Hyperinsulinemia is a sign of an underlying problem. Hyperinsulinemia is most often caused by insulin resistance — a condition in which your body doesn't respond well to the effects of insulin. Your pancreas tries to compensate by making more insulin. Insulin resistance may eventually lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This happens when your pancreas is no longer able to compensate by secreting the large amounts of insulin required to keep the blood sugar normal. Rarely, hyperinsulinemia is caused by: A rare tumor of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (insulinoma) Excessive numbers or growth of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (nesidioblastosis) Hyperinsulinemia usually causes no signs or symptoms, except in people with insulinomas in whom hyperinsulemia can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Treatment of hyperinsulinemia is directed at the underlying problem. Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinemia: Is Hyperinsulinemia The Cart Or Thehorse?

Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinemia: Is Hyperinsulinemia The Cart Or Thehorse?

1. Diabetes Care. 2008 Feb;31 Suppl 2:S262-8. doi: 10.2337/dc08-s264. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia: is hyperinsulinemia the cart or thehorse? Shanik MH(1), Xu Y, Skrha J, Dankner R, Zick Y, Roth J. (1)Division of Endocrinology, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Lake Success, New York, USA. Insulin resistance, recently recognized as a strong predictor of disease inadults, has become the leading element of the metabolic syndrome and renewed as afocus of research. The condition exists when insulin levels are higher thanexpected relative to the level of glucose. Thus, insulin resistance is bydefinition tethered to hyperinsulinemia. The rising prevalence of medicalconditions where insulin resistance is common has energized research into thecauses. Many causes and consequences have been identified, but the directcontributions of insulin itself in causing or sustaining insulin resistance have received little sustained attention. We examine situations where insulin itselfappears to be a proximate and important quantitative contributor to insulinresistance. 1) Mice transfected with extra copies of the insulin gene producebasal and stimulated insulin levels that are two to four times elevated. The miceare of normal weight but show insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, andhypertriglyceridemia. 2) Somogyi described patients with unusually high doses of insulin and hyperglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia with release ofglucose-raising hormones, postulated as the culprits in early studies, havelargely been excluded by studies including continuous glucose monitoring. 3) Ratsand humans treated with escalating doses of insulin show both hyperinsulinemiaand insulin resistance. 4) The pulsatile administration of insulin (rather thancontinuous) results in reduced requi Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia Symptoms

Hyperinsulinemia Symptoms

Hyperinsulinemia is a condition where the blood insulin level is higher than what is considered normal in people without diabetes. Although hyperinsulinemia is not diabetes, the condition is often associated with type 2 diabetes. People with hyperinsulinemia have difficulty maintaining a normal blood sugar level, which means the pancreas has to produce increasing amounts of insulin in order to control it. The primary cause of hyperinsulinemia is insulin resistance, which occurs when the insulin level remains high enough over a long period for the body to become less sensitive to the hormone. This means that the body’s usual response to a given amount of insulin is decreased, which results in the pancreas secreting higher levels of insulin in order for the hormone to exert its usual effects. The pancreas produces increasing levels of insulin until eventually it can no longer produce enough to meet the body’s needs. This leads to a rise in the blood sugar level and insulin resistance is therefore a risk factor for the development of diabetes. In rare cases, hyperinsulinemia may be caused by the presence of a tumor in the insulin-producing cells (islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas. This tumor is referred to as an insulinoma. Another rare cause is a condition called nesidioblastosis, a genetic disorder where abnormal islets of Langerhans produce an excess of insulin. Insulin resistance may occur in response to the body’s endogenous insulin or exogenous insulin given via injection. Insulin resistance is closely associated with inflammation and is thought to be caused by cytokine release disrupting the usual action of insulin. The chronic inflammation seen in obesity can therefore increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of insulin resistance One of the first Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia And Insulin Resistance: World's Biggest Killers?

Hyperinsulinemia And Insulin Resistance: World's Biggest Killers?

When we think about the world’s biggest killer, different things come to mind. Or possibly heart disease, cancer, or maybe even dementia? Well, those three chronic diseases are all good bets. But what if they are just the result of something else, and they all have a common cause? In that case, that common cause could be the world’s biggest killer – and it goes by the name of hyperinsulinemia. This article takes a look at the rapidly growing problem of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, and how they affect our health . Insulin resistance is a term to describe when our body develops a resistance to the effects of the hormone insulin ( 1 ). As a result, we experience increasing blood sugar levels and higher levels of circulating insulin ( 2 , 3 ). Hyperinsulinemia refers to the situation where we have a constant elevation of insulin levels ( 4 ). The literal definition is simply an excess amount of insulin in the blood. Insulin resistance is the usual cause of hyperinsulinemia, and the resulting high insulin levels can be very damaging to our body ( 5 ). There is a strong connection between hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes, but they are not the same thing. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels ( 6 ). However, hyperinsulinemia refers to when the body is producing too much insulin to keep high blood sugar levels in check ( 7 ). Without adequate intervention, chronic hyperinsulinemia can lead to type 2 diabetes ( 8 ). But it must be remembered: hyperinsulinemia is associated with metabolic syndrome, and it’s harmful independently of diabetes. Key Point: Insulin resistance leads to hyperinsulinemia – excess amounts of circulating insulin in the body. As shown above, insulin resist Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Hyperinsulinemia - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Peter Van Buren, Martin M. LeWinter, in Heart Failure: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease (Second Edition) , 2011 Hyperinsulinemia is present only in type 2 DM, and therefore does not contribute to cardiomyopathy in type 1 DM. Cardiac hypertrophy is perhaps the most important consequence of hyperinsulinemia.24,79,80 Patients with DM have been shown to have increased cardiac mass independent of co-existent hypertension.79,80 Multiple mechanisms are probably responsible for hypertrophy in DM.24 PKC signaling is enhanced by hyperinsulinemia and, as mentioned earlier, can directly contribute to the hypertrophic response.70,71 Insulin acutely augments glucose uptake via activation of a tyrosine kinase receptormediated Akt-1 pathway81 (Figure 26-7). Akt-1 inactivates glycogen synthase kinase-3, an inhibitor of nuclear factor in activated lymphocytes (NFAT-3), a key hypertrophy mediator. Hyperinsulinemia-mediated increased sympathetic activation may also function to augment Akt-1 activity.81 The tyrosine kinase pathway also contributes to PKC activation (see Figure 26-7). Finally, insulin is an activator of the MAPK hypertrophic pathway.82 Johan Verhaeghe, Roger Bouillon*, in Principles of Bone Biology (Third Edition) , 2008 Hyperinsulinemia is the compensatory answer to hepatic and muscle insulin resistance; when inadequate, impaired fasting glucose and/or postload hyperglycemia (impaired glucose tolerance) ensue. Several population studies have demonstrated a correlation between on the one hand fasting insulin, the HOMA insulin resistance index, and/or postchallenge glucose and insulin concentrations and on the other hand the aBMD at the hip and/or the spine (Barrett-Connor and Kritz-Silverstein, 1996; Dennison et al., 2004; Stolk et al, 1996; Thomas et al., 2001). Ye Continue reading >>

Causes Of Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinism

Causes Of Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinism

Home Conditions Insulin Resistance Causes of Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinism Causes of Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinism The Causes of Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinism The main reason for hyperinsulinism or excessive release of insulin is insulin resistance . Most of the time people get insulin resistance as a result of eating too much and being overweight. Even if you are overweight, theyre ways to increase insulin sensitivity . Usually, if people lose weight their insulin resistance will go down. One should realize that insulin resistance is a broad term and that you could be insulin sensitive in one way and resistant in another. Fat, muscle and the liver store glucose . You could be insulin sensitive in your muscles and resistant in your fat cells, in which case youll be muscular and lean. This isnt always optimally healthy. For example, if you have elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha it will cause insulin resistance in fat cells but not muscle cells. This isnt a good situation even though aesthetically youll look good. Sometimesthin people can also have insulin resistance. PCOS is a relatively common disorder among women, affecting up to 10% of women 12-45. Thin women with PCOS also have insulin resistance. There is also research that suggests that there is a male version of PCOS experienced by a certain percentage of men. PCOS and its associated IR is much easier to detect in women because of overt androgenic signs like facial hair growth, alopecia (balding) and fertility issues, but males can have a similar kind of issue and wouldnt be noticeable because men all healthy men have facial hair, etc However, the symptoms can manifest itself as premature balding. In thin people, IR can in part be caused by an inefficient conversion Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia: A Cause Of Obesity?

Hyperinsulinemia: A Cause Of Obesity?

Abstract This perspective is motivated by the need to question dogma that does not work: that the problem is insulin resistance (IR). We highlight the need to investigate potential environmental obesogens and toxins. The prequel to severe metabolic disease includes three interacting components that are abnormal: (a) IR, (b) elevated lipids and (c) elevated basal insulin (HI). HI is more common than IR and is a significant independent predictor of diabetes. We hypothesize that (1) the initiating defect is HI that increases nutrient consumption and hyperlipidemia (HL); (2) the cause of HI may include food additives, environmental obesogens or toxins that have entered our food supply since 1980; and (3) HI is sustained by HL derived from increased adipose mass and leads to IR. We suggest that HI and HL are early indicators of metabolic dysfunction and treating and reversing these abnormalities may prevent the development of more serious metabolic disease. Notes Continue reading >>

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

General Discussion Congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is the most frequent cause of severe, persistent hypoglycemia in newborn babies, infants, and children. In most countries it occurs in approximately 1/25,000 to 1/50,000 births. About 60% of babies with HI are diagnosed during the first month of life. An additional 30% will be diagnosed later in the first year and the remainder after that. With early treatment and aggressive prevention of hypoglycemia, brain damage can be prevented. However, brain damage can occur in children with HI if the condition is not recognized or if treatment is ineffective in the prevention of hypoglycemia. Insulin is the most important hormone for controlling the concentration of glucose in the blood. As food is eaten, blood glucose rises and the pancreas secretes insulin to keep blood glucose in the normal range. Insulin acts by driving glucose into the cells of the body. This action of insulin maintains blood glucose levels and stores glucose as glycogen in the liver. Once feeding is completed and glucose levels fall, insulin secretion is turned off, allowing the stores of glucose in glycogen to be released into the bloodstream to keep blood glucose normal. In addition, with the switching off of insulin secretion, protein and fat stores become accessible and can be used instead of glucose as sources of fuel. In this manner, whether one eats or is fasting blood glucose levels remain in the normal range and the body has access to energy at all times. This close regulation of blood glucose and insulin secretion does not occur normally in people who have HI. The beta cells in the pancreas, which are responsible for insulin secretion, are blind to the blood glucose level and secrete insulin regardless of the blood glucose concentration. As a resu Continue reading >>

Understanding Hyperinsulinemia

Understanding Hyperinsulinemia

Hyperinsulinemia is the state of having increased fasting insulin level in the blood that is beyond normal level. Although it is often associated with type 2 diabetes, hyperinsulinemia does not necessarily mean that one is diabetic. Hyperinsulinemia is a condition when the body produces too much insulin than what it usually needs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, an endocrine organ located in the upper portion of the abdomen. Its function is to regulate the entry of sugar (glucose) into the cells, which use it to produce energy, and to store excess sugar in the liver for later use. The body detects an increase in sugar in the blood when food is ingested, which signals the pancreas to produce insulin. An increase in insulin allows sugar to enter the cells to be converted to energy. The reduction of sugar levels in the blood triggers the pancreas to stop producing insulin, until more food is ingested. Insulin therefore regulates blood sugar levels, thus preventing a condition known as hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), which is often associated with type 2 diabetes. However, some people tend to produce too much insulin compared to other people, even when they are in a fasting state, signalling hyperinsulinemia. This condition is strongly linked to an underlying condition, which could lead to other health problems. The most common cause of hyperinsulinemia is insulin resistance, a condition where the cells are resistant to insulin effects, and are thereby unable to utilize glucose. To compensate, the pancreas compensates by producing more insulin. Insulin resistance is a condition that covers a wide clinical spectrum, including obesity, glucose intolerance (prediabetes), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. These disorders, in turn are linked with various Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinemia

Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinemia

Insulin resistance, recently recognized as a strong predictor of disease in adults, has become the leading element of the metabolic syndrome and renewed as a focus of research. The condition exists when insulin levels are higher than expected relative to the level of glucose. Thus, insulin resistance is by definition tethered to hyperinsulinemia. The rising prevalence of medical conditions where insulin resistance is common has energized research into the causes. Many causes and consequences have been identified, but the direct contributions of insulin itself in causing or sustaining insulin resistance have received little sustained attention. We examine situations where insulin itself appears to be a proximate and important quantitative contributor to insulin resistance. 1) Mice transfected with extra copies of the insulin gene produce basal and stimulated insulin levels that are two to four times elevated. The mice are of normal weight but show insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. 2) Somogyi described patients with unusually high doses of insulin and hyperglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia with release of glucose-raising hormones, postulated as the culprits in early studies, have largely been excluded by studies including continuous glucose monitoring. 3) Rats and humans treated with escalating doses of insulin show both hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. 4) The pulsatile administration of insulin (rather than continuous) results in reduced requirements for insulin. 5) Many patients with insulinoma who have elevated basal levels of insulin have reduced (but not absent) responsiveness to administered insulin. In summary, hyperinsulinemia is often both a result and a driver of insulin resistance. HORMONE REGULATES TISSUE SENSITIVITY— A ho Continue reading >>

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