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What Are The Symptoms Of Too Much Insulin In Dogs?

3 Things Your Vet Might Not Tell You About Treating Your Diabetic Dog

3 Things Your Vet Might Not Tell You About Treating Your Diabetic Dog

According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, diabetes affects approximately one in every 500 dogs. Chuck, my senior Pug mix, was diagnosed with the disease shortly after I adopted him. He was 10 years old and severely overweight when he came from the shelter. Although I did get his weight down by 25 percent thanks to a lot of walks, all that extra heft undoubtedly contributed to the onset of his disease. (Please don’t let your dogs get fat, it’s so dangerous to their health!) When your dog is diagnosed with diabetes, there is a ton of information to learn. Yet, there are quite a few things you may just take at face value without even thinking to question. Trust me, don’t do that. Always be inquisitive. Here is what I learned by managing Chuck’s diabetes. 1. There are different types of insulin When Chuck got his first insulin prescription, it was for Humulin N. I went to Costco and paid $130 for a bottle that would last a month. Over the next few days, I did some research and discovered Chuck could be moved to Novolin N (a different type of insulin). This is an equally expensive drug, but I finally found it for $24.88 at my local Walmart. Never underestimate the value of shopping around. Pharmacies frequently have contracts with certain drug companies that affect which drugs they sell and how much they cost. When your dog is diagnosed, invest the time into exploring your medication options. When asked, Chuck’s vet didn’t even know there were two insulins (she just jotted down the one she knew about), and it took some independent research on my part to determine Chuck could be safely moved from one to the other (not all animals can or should, so be careful and only do it with medical supervision). 2. You can do blood glucose curves at home When t Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Curves Help Keep Diabetic Pets On The Straight And Narrow

Blood Glucose Curves Help Keep Diabetic Pets On The Straight And Narrow

Diabetes is not one of those diseases that you get to set it and forget it; it requires constant monitoring and evaluation of the insulin dose to give us control of the disease and decrease its symptom and side effects. After a few decades, people with unregulated (uncontrolled) diabetes tend to end up with retinal problems, blood vessel damage, kidney problems, etc. Because of their shorter life spans, dogs and cats with unregulated diabetes don’t usually face the same long-term consequences it causes in human diabetics. Normally their short life spans cause us grief, but in the case of a diabetic sometimes that short span can be a boon. Pets who are unregulated diabetics will have symptoms that can be irritating, like urinating frequently (“I want in, I want out, I want in, I want out…oh hey, can I come in now?”) or urinating in inappropriate places, such as your new couch or your bedroom pillow. They also can have symptoms that threaten their health, like too much weight loss. Our primary goal with diabetic dogs and cats is to give them a good quality of life: their body weight is stable, they don’t have to hover over the water dish all day, and their potty habits are normal in that they prefer to pee outside rather than on the couch. Accurate monitoring of your pet's diabetes can help to maintain a good quality of life for both you and your pet. After all, who wants to curl up and watch a movie on a pee-soaked couch? Exactly how does monitoring help us to accomplish this higher quality of life? By regulating their blood sugar (glucose) levels. Normal blood glucose levels in dogs and cats are similar to those in humans, about 80-120 mg/dl (4.4-6.6 mmol/L). Animals whose blood glucose levels are in this range will look and act normal. Fortunately for us, the Continue reading >>

Causes And Prevention Of Hypoglycemia (low Glucose) In Dogs

Causes And Prevention Of Hypoglycemia (low Glucose) In Dogs

Hypoglycemia can be caused by a number of things. The basic mechanisms of hypoglycemia are either: 1) an abnormally large rate of removal of glucose from the bloodstream, 2) an abnormally low level of glucose in the blood from dietary intake, or 3) decreased production of glucose from glycogen stores by the liver. Most cases of hypoglycemia are caused by excessive use of glucose by normal body cells or by rapidly-dividing cancer cells. 1 Warning: 3 Foods to Avoid These 3 Foods Should Come with a Warning Label Nucific 2 Pancreatic Disorders Breaking news and the latest research on Pancreatic Disorders. healio.com Hypoglycemia often involves abnormally low levels of the hormone, insulin. In healthy dogs, insulin is made by specialized cells of the pancreas called the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Insulin has a number of important functions, one of the most critical of which is regulating the uptake and storage of glucose from the bloodstream. Blood glucose normally comes from the dog’s intake of food – especially of carbohydrates. There must be a sufficient amount of insulin in circulation for glucose to be able to be moved out of the blood and into cells and tissues, where it is needed as the primary source of a dog’s energy. If the pancreatic beta cells produce too much insulin, then excessive amounts of glucose will be removed from the blood, causing the dog to become hypoglycemic (i.e., to have low blood sugar). Insulin-secreting tumors of the pancreas, called insulinomas or beta-cell tumors, can cause the islet cells to overproduce insulin. Insulinomas are probably the most common cause of hypoglycemia in older dogs. Extra-pancreatic cancer, such as liver carcinoma or sarcoma, leukemia, malignant melanoma or other forms of neoplasia, can be Continue reading >>

Insulin Overdose In Dogs And Cats: 28 Cases (1986-1993).

Insulin Overdose In Dogs And Cats: 28 Cases (1986-1993).

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency, medical history, clinical signs, methods of treatment, and outcome of insulin-induced hypoglycemia and to identify predisposing factors. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 8 dogs and 20 cats with diabetes mellitus that developed hypoglycemia because of insulin overdose. PROCEDURE: Medical records of dogs and cats receiving insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus were reviewed. Medical records of dogs and cats that had an episode of hypoglycemia were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: Overdosing of insulin was more common in cats than in dogs. Median weight of diabetic cats that became hypoglycemic was significantly greater than that of the hospital population of diabetic cats at diagnosis. Eighty percent of cats that became hypoglycemic were receiving insulin doses > 6 U/injection, administered once or twice daily. Dose and type of insulin did not correlate with duration or severity of hypoglycemia. In 7 of 8 dogs and 10 of 20 cats, management factors or concurrent medical problems were considered to be predisposing causes for insulin overdose. Two dogs and 2 cats did not have clinical signs of hypoglycemia, despite documented low concentrations of glucose in their blood. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Diabetic cats, especially if obese, are at greater risk of insulin overdose than are diabetic dogs. The reason for overdose may not be evident. Diabetic dogs and cats may become hypoglycemic without developing autonomic warning signs of hypoglycemia, or these signs may not be recognized (hypoglycemia unawareness). Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

A healthy dog has a blood glucose level ranging from 75 mg to 120 mg. A dog is diagnosed with high blood sugar, or as hyperglycemic, when it exhibits high blood glucose, or sugar above the normal range. Elevated blood sugar may be temporary, stress-induced, or a sign of a serious underlying disease such as pancreatitis or diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar is more common in female than male dogs, and is more likely to occur in older dogs. Elevated blood glucose can occur transiently fairly often for various reasons (diet, stress, exertion, medications). Moderately elevated glucose can indicate infections (dental, kidneys, bladder), inflammatory conditions (pancreatitis) and hormonal imbalances (Hyperadrenocorticism). However persistent high glucose levels in the blood is diagnostic of Diabetes Mellitus. High blood Sugar causes increased thirst and urination. See a veterinarian promptly if your dogs shows these symptoms. The warning signs for high blood sugar are varied. If your dog’s high blood sugar is temporary or the result of stress or medication, you may not see any symptoms. However, if it is the result of a serious disease, you will likely see some of the following: Wounds not healing; infections worsening Depression Enlarged liver Urinary tract or kidney infection Bloodshot eyes Cataracts Extreme fluctuation in weight, gaining or losing Obesity Hyperactivity Excessive thirst or hunger Increased frequency of urination High blood sugar can indicate one of the following issues: Diabetes mellitus, caused by a loss of pancreatic beta cells, which leads to decreased production of insulin, rending the dog unable to process sugar sufficiently. Pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas, which can damage insulin-producing cells, inhibiting the dog’s ability to proce Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment In Dogs

By Ernest Ward, DVM & Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Emergency Situations, Medical Conditions This handout provides detailed information on insulin administration. For more information about diabetes mellitus, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - General Information", and "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? In dogs, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar. This is Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (also called Type 1 Diabetes). This type of diabetes usually results from destruction of most or all of the beta-cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar levels. What do I need to know about insulin treatment for diabetes mellitus? In diabetic dogs, the main treatment for regulating blood glucose is giving insulin by injection. Dogs with diabetes mellitus typically require two daily insulin injections as well as a dietary change. Although the dog can go a day or so without insulin and not have a crisis, this should not be a regular occurrence; treatment should be looked upon as part of the dog's daily routine. This means that you, as the dog's owner, must make both a financial commitment and a personal commitment to treat your dog. If are out of town or go on vacation, your dog must receive proper treatment in your absence. Initially, your dog may be hospitalized for a few days to deal with any immediate crisis and to begin the insulin regulation process. For instance, if your dog is so sick that he has quit eating and drinking for several days, he may be experiencing “diabetic ketoacidosis,” which may require a several days of intensive care. On Continue reading >>

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

The growing diabetes epidemic is not limited to people—diabetes mellitus is increasing among dogs as well. Researchers estimate that one in 200 dogs will develop the disease. Fortunately, treatment has made huge strides in recent years, and as a result, dogs with diabetes are living longer, healthier lives. The mechanism of diabetes is relatively simple to describe. Just as cars use gas for fuel, body cells run on a sugar called glucose. The body obtains glucose by breaking down carbohydrates in the diet. Cells then extract glucose from the blood with the help of insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas in specialized cells called beta cells. (The pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach, produces several hormones.) In diabetes mellitus, cells don’t take in enough glucose, which then builds up in the blood. As a result, cells starve and organs bathed in sugary blood are damaged. Diabetes is not curable, but it is treatable; a dog with diabetes may live many happy years after diagnosis. Kinds of Diabetes Humans are subject to essentially three kinds of diabetes. By far the most common is Type 2, followed by Type 1 and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has typically been a disease of middle and old age (though it is being seen increasingly in young people), and has two causes: The beta cells don’t make enough insulin, or muscle cells resist insulin’s help and don’t take in enough glucose (or both). As a result, blood glucose levels climb. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells, cutting off insulin production; the reason for this attack is thought to be a combination of genetic predisposition plus exposure to a trigger (research into possible triggers is ongoing). Glucose then stays in the blood and, aga Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Illustration of a dog's pancreas. Cell-islet in the illustration refers to a pancreatic cell in the Islets of Langerhans, which contain insulin-producing beta cells and other endocrine related cells. Permanent damage to these beta cells results in Type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes, for which exogenous insulin replacement therapy is the only answer. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas either stop producing insulin or can no longer produce it in enough quantity for the body's needs. The condition is commonly divided into two types, depending on the origin of the condition: Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called "juvenile diabetes", is caused by destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. The condition is also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes, meaning exogenous insulin injections must replace the insulin the pancreas is no longer capable of producing for the body's needs. Dogs can have insulin-dependent, or Type 1, diabetes; research finds no Type 2 diabetes in dogs.[1][2][3] Because of this, there is no possibility the permanently damaged pancreatic beta cells could re-activate to engender a remission as may be possible with some feline diabetes cases, where the primary type of diabetes is Type 2.[2][4][5] There is another less common form of diabetes, diabetes insipidus, which is a condition of insufficient antidiuretic hormone or resistance to it.[6][7] This most common form of diabetes affects approximately 0.34% of dogs.[8] The condition is treatable and need not shorten the animal's life span or interfere with quality of life.[9] If left untreated, the condition can lead to cataracts, increasing weakness in the legs (neuropathy), malnutrition, ketoacidosis, dehydration, and death.[10] Diabetes mainly affects mid Continue reading >>

Diabetic Seizures In Dogs

Diabetic Seizures In Dogs

Seeing your dog have a seizure can be pretty scary, especially the first time this happens. If the seizure is caused by diabetes complications, the good news is that future seizures can be prevented by controlling the dog's diabetes. Why Seizures Happen Any seizure—in a dog or a human—is caused by a kind of electrical storm in the brain. If a dog has diabetes, her body doesn't produce the right amount of insulin for control of blood sugar levels. Insulin is produced by the pancreas, and diabetes can be caused by too much or too little. Very low blood sugar levels can interrupt the normal functioning of the brain, leading to a diabetic seizure. Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Problems relating to diabetes in dogs usually stem from a state of either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. A hypoglycemic dog has very low blood sugar and may experience a seizure as a result. In diabetic dogs, hypoglycemia commonly occurs when an insulin dose is given without sufficient food for the dog's body to utilize the insulin properly. The opposite diabetic state, hyperglycemia, occurs when the dog's blood sugar levels are extremely high. Although hyperglycemia does not typically cause seizures, this is a serious state in which the dog may become depressed, weak and anorexic. Hyperglycemia can cause a dog to become comatose. Seizure Prevention If your dog is diabetic, seizure prevention primarily involves preventing a state of hypoglycemia. Use insulin that is formulated specifically for dogs—Novolin, Vetsulin and Caninsulin are some of the most commonly used forms of canine insulin. Monitor your dog's blood glucose regularly to make sure the insulin dosage is correct and having the desired effect. Monitor your dog's feeding and exercise patterns, if possible with a regular daily schedule Continue reading >>

Annabessacook Veterinary Clinic

Annabessacook Veterinary Clinic

Annabessacook Veterinary Clinic 417 Route 135 Monmouth, Maine 04259 (207)933-2165 _____________________________________________________________________________ Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs There are two forms of diabetes in dogs: diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is a very rare disorder that results in failure to regulate body water content. Your dog has the more common type of diabetes: diabetes mellitus. This is a fairly common disorder and is most often seen is dogs 5 years of age or older. There is a congenital form that occurs in puppies, but this is not common. Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas. This is a small but vital organ that is located near the stomach. It has two significant populations of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta-cells, produces the hormone called insulin. Simply put, diabetes mellitus is a failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The Types of Diabetes In humans, two types of diabetes mellitus have been discovered. Both types are similar in that there is a failure to regulate blood sugar, but the basic mechanisms of disease differ somewhat between the two groups. 1. Type I, or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta-cells. This is the only type of diabetes known in dogs. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar. 2. Type II, or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, is different because some insulin-producing cells remain. However, the amount produced is insufficient, there is a delayed response in secreting it, and the tissues of the dogs body are relatively resistant to it. People with this form may be treat Continue reading >>

Glucose Toxicity And Hypoglycemia

Glucose Toxicity And Hypoglycemia

Go to site For Pet Owners Glucose toxicity Glucose toxicity occurs when insulin secretion is reduced by prolonged hyperglycemia. Prolonged hyperglycemia can occur due to a number of causes. The prolonged and high-dose therapeutic use of glucocorticosteroids can induce diabetes mellitus. The use of exogenous progestogens can lead to growth hormone excess. Progestogens also have an affinity for glucocorticosteroid receptors. In obese dogs, tissue receptors have decreased insulin sensitivity. This leads to a greater demand for insulin, which can result in exhaustion of the islets of Langerhans. Hypoglycemia in canine diabetes If the insulin dose is too high, clinical signs of hypoglycemia may be observed. Hypoglycemia may also be triggered by events causing a relative insulin overdose: Loss of appetite Vomiting Excessive exercise Clinical signs The clinical signs of hypoglycemia, in increasing order of severity, are: Hunger Restlessness Shivering Ataxia Disorientation Convulsions and coma Some animals may just become very quiet and inappetent. Emergency Treatment of Hypoglycemia Immediate oral administration of glucose solution or corn syrup (1 g per kg body weight). Animals that are collapsed should not have large volumes of fluid forced into their mouths as this may result in aspiration pneumonia. Here it is preferable to rub a small amount of the glucose solution or corn syrup onto the animal’s gums or under its tongue. Intravenous dextrose solution (50%) can be administered in severe cases or if oral therapy has been ineffective. Dose for hypoglycemia 1–5 mL 50% dextrose by slow intravenous injection (over 10 minutes)7 — not aimed to correct blood glucose concentration but to reverse clinical signs. Owners of diabetic pets need always to have a source of glucose Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Sugar

Hypoglycemia - Low Blood Sugar

What is Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)? 1. The brain requires glucose (blood sugar) for normal functioning, and unlike many other organs, the brain has a very limited ability to store glucose. As such, the brain is the organ that is most affected when blood sugar gets too low. 2. Low blood sugar can cause seizures 3. Puppies - especially small breed puppies - are particularly susceptible to low blood sugar because their liver is not able to store sufficient amounts of glycogen, as compared with older dogs. 4. Hypoglycemia can be a life-threatening - even fatal - condition, and is known to be a cause of canine seizures. The occurrence of symptoms depends on how far, and how fast, the blood sugar has dropped 5. Treating Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar): During an attack of hypoglycemia your goal is to stay calm, to bring the blood glucose back to a safe level, to continue to observe your dog. You can contact your veterinarian if you feel you need to. These are general guidelines for treating hypoglycemia. Ask your veterinarian for information that is specific to your dog. Severe hypoglycemia: If your dog is severely hypoglycemic, especially if it is having seizures or unconscious, you must give Haggen-Dazs vanilla ice cream immediately. Carefully rub small amounts of ice cream on the inside of the cheeks and gums. Do not put a lot of liquid in the dog's mouth, and be sure the dog does not choke. Do not stick your fingers inside the teeth of a dog that is having seizures - you may get bitten. Then, call your veterinarian if you feel you need further guidance. If your dog continues to be unconscious your dog should be taken to the veterinary emergency room immediately. Moderate hypoglycemia: Haggen-Dazs plain vanilla ice cream should be given, either alone, or combined with f Continue reading >>

The Many Causes Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs And Cats

The Many Causes Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs And Cats

Hypoglycemia is when your pet's blood sugar drops and becomes too low. Find out here the causes, symptoms and treatment options available to pets whose glucose levels tend to rise and fall. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is a potentially life-threatening situation for a dog or cat. Your pet’s blood sugar, or glucose, is their primary source of energy. When glucose levels drop below normal, it results in a loss of energy and decreased ability to function. In severe cases, a pet may lose consciousness or even die. Hypoglycemia is not a disease. It is instead a symptom that points to an underlying medical condition. Here we will look at the causes of hypoglycemia in dogs and cats, and what symptoms to watch for in your pet. There are many causes of hypoglycemia in pets, but the most common is related to diabetes treatment. Diabetes occurs when the body is not able to properly produce or process insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to travel to cells and transform into energy. Without insulin, the glucose remains in the bloodstream, and this is what is referred to as high blood sugar. Insulin injections are given to diabetic pets in order to even out blood sugar levels. However, if a pet parent accidentally gives their pet too much of the drug, it can cause the body to metabolize too much glucose, resulting in low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia. Glucose can also be over-metabolized as a result of insulin-secreting tumors or conditions that require a great deal of energy from the pet, including certain cancers, infection, sepsis, and pregnancy. While the most common, over-metabolization of glucose is not the only cause of hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar can also occur due to decreased production of glucose by the liver (often caused by liver disease, liver shunts, or Ad Continue reading >>

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

Did you know one out of every 300 dogs is diagnosed with diabetes? Especially in senior and middle aged dogs, diabetes is becoming frighteningly common in dogs today. Once your dog gets diabetes, he will most likely need insulin for the rest of his life. So it’s really important to do everything you can to prevent your dog from becoming diabetic. There are many things that can contribute to the risk of your dog getting diabetes … but the good news is, there are also lots of things you can do to help prevent it and minimize the risk. So we called on an expert to tell us how to do that. At Raw Roundup 2017, Dr Jean Hofve gave a talk on canine diabetes and its connection to diet and environmental factors and the best ways to prevent it. But first, what is diabetes and what’s the difference between the two types of the disease? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is all about glucose and how the body handles it. All cells use glucose as their primary source of energy. The pancreas produces the hormones that control glucose … primarily insulin and glucagon. The pancreas is mostly made up of tissue that secretes digestive enzymes … but about 5% of the pancreas is made up of beta cells that produce insulin.The body’s cells need glucose for energy – it’s their primary fuel. But glucose can’t get into those cells without the help of insulin. Dr Hofve explains insulin as the key to a lock … the cells need the “key” (insulin) to let the glucose in. When glucose can’t get into the cells without insulin, it builds up in the blood. This causes hyperglycemia, meaning too much sugar in the blood (hyper = too much, glyc = sugar and emia = in the blood) This is why the pancreas and its creation of insulin is so important. And when it’s not working right, your dog can b Continue reading >>

How To Handle An Insulin Overdose

How To Handle An Insulin Overdose

Cold sweats, trembling hands, intense anxiety, a general sense of confusion -- these are signs of low blood sugar. Your doctor may call it hypoglycemia. It often happens when you take too much insulin. Hypoglycemia happens to many people with diabetes. It can be serious. Thankfully, most insulin problems can be avoided if you follow a few simple rules. How to Avoid Mistakes Several things can put too much insulin in your system. It most often happens when you: Misread the syringes or vials: This is easy to do if you’re unfamiliar with a new product. Use the wrong type of insulin: Let's say you usually take 30 units of long-acting and 10 units of short-acting insulin. It's easy to get them mixed up. Take insulin, but don't eat: Rapid-acting and short-acting insulin injections should be taken just before or with meals. Your blood sugar rises after meals. Taking rapid-acting or short-acting insulin without eating could lower your sugar to a dangerous level. Inject insulin in an arm or leg just before exercise . Physical activity can lower your blood sugar levels and change how your body absorbs insulin. Inject in an area that isn’t affected by your exercise. Symptoms of an Insulin Overdose If you have low blood sugar because of an insulin overdose, you may have: Anxiety Confusion Extreme hunger Fatigue Irritability Sweating or clammy skin Trembling hands If your blood sugar levels continue to fall, you could have seizures or pass out. What to Do If You Have an Insulin Overdose Don’t panic. Most insulin overdoses can be treated at home. Follow these steps if you’re able: Check your blood sugar. You’ll need to know where you’re starting from. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, if patient is taking acetaminophen, or if symptoms/expectation Continue reading >>

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