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What Are The Side Effects Of Insulin In Dogs?

Service Dogs That Can Monitor Their Owners’ Diabetes

Service Dogs That Can Monitor Their Owners’ Diabetes

Hypoglycemia unawareness is a common — and dangerous — condition that can develop in those with type 1 diabetes. This condition means you don’t experience the symptoms most people do when their blood sugar gets too low. Normal symptoms of low blood sugar include sweating, shaking, or confusion. At very low levels, you may experience seizures, or go into a coma if your blood sugar is too low for too long. One of the solutions for this condition is man’s best friend: a diabetes service dog. Dogs have a naturally heightened sense of smell that makes them excellent hunters. Professional trainers have learned to harness these skills by training dogs to recognize certain smells. These could include the fruity smelling ketones a person’s body produces when they are experiencing a hyperglycemic episode when blood sugar is too high, or the unique scent a person gives off during a hypoglycemic episode when blood sugar is too low. A diabetes service dog isn’t a replacement for checking blood sugar levels. However, it is a safeguard for those who experience episodes low or high blood sugar, especially if they do not have warning symptoms. There are several service dog-training programs across the country. Examples include the National Institute for Diabetic Alert Dogs (NIDAD) and Diabetic Alert Dog University. These organizations train a dog to recognize the difference between certain scents. This includes the scent a person releases when their blood sugar is high or low. According to Dogs 4 Diabetics, there are two different levels of service dogs for people with diabetes. Medical response dogs for diabetes are trained to respond to signs that an owner may be experiencing low blood sugar levels, once they have become symptomatic. A diabetic alert dog, on the other hand Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Drug Name: Insulin Common Name: Vetsulin®, Humulin®, PZI Vet®, Novolin®, Iletin®, Velosulin® Drug Type: Synthetic hormone Used For: Diabetes mellitus Species: Dogs, Cats Administered: 40units/ml, 100units/ml, and 500units/ml Injectable How Dispensed: Prescription only FDA Approved: Yes General Description Insulin is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps convert your pet’s food into energy by allowing the uptake of sugar by cells. By allowing this uptake and use of sugar, insulin decreases the blood glucose concentrations in the body. When you pet does not produce insulin, sugar can’t enter cells, your pet’s body cannot create fat, sugar, or protein. This also results in a dangerously high blood glucose level. How It Works Insulin replaces the insulin that your pet’s body does not produce. The type of insulin you give to your pet is a synthetic hormone derived from pigs or cows. Storage Information Some forms of insulin need to be refrigerated, pay close attention to the manufacturer’s label. DO NOT FREEZE. Protect from heat and sunlight. Do not use if past the expiration date. Insulin must be given to your pet by an injection 1 to 2 times a day. Because it is a protein, the acids in the stomach would digest it if you were to administer it orally. The proper dose of insulin is determined by your veterinarian through a series of glucose level tests. It is best to give this drug to a pet with a full stomach. It is best to give insulin right after a meal. DO NOT SHAKE THE BOTTLE OF INSULIN Proper handling of insulin: Be sure you have the appropriate size syringe for the concentration of insulin you are using. Variations include: U-40, U-100, and U-500 syringes which go to their c Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats: Recognizing The Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats: Recognizing The Signs And Symptoms

Like humans, dogs can suffer from either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. This is due to lack of, or poor response to, insulin in her body. Most dogs suffer from lack of insulin, which would fall under type 1 diabetes and, unfortunately, is the more severe of the two forms. We haven’t quite figured out what exactly causes diabetes in dogs, but veterinarians have narrowed down some contributing factors that increase risk which include: Genetics Autoimmune disease Age (7-9 years) Gender (female dogs being twice as likely to develop diabetes) Obesity Dog breed can also have an impact on the likelihood of diabetes, poodles, keeshonds, and Australian terriers being some of the more likely breeds to suffer from the disease. Diabetes can be a silent disease, so you as the owner must be diligent in looking for symptoms. Greater than normal hunger and/or thirst, frequent urinations (your dog may even begin having accidents in the house), excessive weight loss, lethargy, and vomiting are just a few of the most common symptoms of diabetes. Although dogs with diabetes may show some of all of these symptoms, they are not a definite indication of the disease. Regular veterinarian visits can also aid in catching diabetes early through routine bloodwork. You vet will ask about any changes in your dog’s behavior as well as reviewing bloodwork and urinalysis. With that information, your vet can have a more solid idea of what is going on so that an accurate diagnosis can be made. If your pet is diagnosed with diabetes, treatment will last throughout her life, but that does not mean she cannot live and full and enjoyable life regardless. With frequent veterinarian visits and a home care routine, your dog can still have a normal life. This home care routine will typically consist of daily ins Continue reading >>

Give Me Some Sugar! Canine Low Blood Sugar–symptoms And Treatments

Give Me Some Sugar! Canine Low Blood Sugar–symptoms And Treatments

There is a dog blood-glucose disorder that goes by three names: Canine Hypoglycemia , Exertional Hypoglycemia and Sugar Fits. These names refer to one single condition: cells in your canine’s body aren’t receiving the needed amount of glucose. Your dog’s energy is derived from glucose that is supplied by the blood, but with Canine Hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels lower than 70 mg/dL should be cause for concern and are considered increasingly dangerous, of course, as the numbers go down. The normal level is 70-150 mg/dL. Different factors enter into the cause, but if you suspect your beloved family member might be diabetic, it’s important to have your canine-cutie diagnosed properly, and quickly, since untreated hypoglycemia can, ultimately, result in seizure/coma and death. Symptoms Of Canine Hypoglycemia: Disorientation or confusion Trembling lip Seizures (dogs 4 or over are more prone) Weakness-shakiness-dizziness Anxiety Lack-luster personality/lethargy/depression Prevention/Treatment: Obviously, the goal is to raise your pet’s blood-sugar level or maintain normal sugar levels; and this can be achieved in several ways: Feed your pet smaller, more frequent meals. There is a food supplement known as PetAlive GlucoBalance which aides in pancreatic and liver functions. Smaller meals, plus the PetAlive, can potentially correct the problem, but a blood test from your pet’s vet is required to properly determine if this regime-change will have made a difference. Treats should be avoided, at this time, unless permitted by your dog’s doctor. If you suspect your canine’s blood sugar is low, visiting the vet is crucial. The vet will, automatically, check blood-sugar levels. If necessary, a form of glucose will be fed intravenously -directly into the bloodstream Continue reading >>

How To Care For A Dog With Diabetes

How To Care For A Dog With Diabetes

How To Care For A Dog With Diabetes Diabetes in dogs is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components, including glucose-which is carried into his cells by insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas. When a dog does not produce insulin or cannot utilize it normally, his blood sugar levels elevate. The result is hyperglycemia, which, if left untreated, can cause many complicated health problems for a dog. It is important to understand, however, that diabetes is considered a manageable disorder-and many diabetic dogs can lead happy, healthy lives. Why Dogs Get Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, the form of the disease that strikes the young, is actually quite rare in companion animals when they reach middle-age or senior years. Your dog is much more likely to develop Type II (adult-onset) diabetes around middle age or in his senior years, as a result of a lifestyle that has led to decreased production of insulin or the inability of his body to use it efficiently. Obesity is far and away the biggest reason pets become diabetic. You can help your dog stay trim by feeding him a portion controlled, moisture rich species-appropriate diet consisting primarily of a variety of unadulterated protein sources, healthy fats, veggies and fruit in moderation, and specific nutritional supplements as necessary. Your pet has no biological requirement for grains or most other carbs. Carbs, which can be as much as 80 percent the ingredient content of processed pet food, turn into sugar in your pet’s body. Excess sugar in dogs leads to diabetes. Another lifestyle-related reason pets develop diabetes, one that often goes hand-in-hand with poor nutrition, is lack of phy Continue reading >>

How To Diagnose Diabetes In Miniature Schnauzers

How To Diagnose Diabetes In Miniature Schnauzers

Edit Article Diabetes is a common disease in middle aged or older dogs. Unfortunately, certain breeds are more likely to develop diabetes than others, like Miniature Schnauzers. Over half of Miniature Schnauzers over the age of nine have diabetes.[1] Diagnosing diabetes in early stages can help reduce side effects and increase the likelihood of successful treatment. If you have a Miniature Schnauzer, be aware of the signs of canine diabetes, and if you suspect your dog may have it, take him to the vet. 1 Monitor increased thirst. An early warning sign for canine diabetes is increased thirst. Watch for your dog to drink more throughout the day or drink more at one time. Monitor the water bowl to see if it empties faster.[2] 2 Look for frequent urination. Another early warning sign of canine diabetes is frequent urination. This usually goes hand in hand with the increased thirst, since drinking more can lead to the need to urinate more often.[3] Your dog may have more accidents than usual, or start having accidents in the house when they didn’t before. 3 Watch for increased hunger. Dogs who have diabetes may start to eat more. This is usually combined with weight loss or no change in weight despite eating more.[4] 4 Be aware of weight loss. Weight loss is another early sign of diabetes. With diabetes, weight loss occurs despite having a normal appetite and eating a usual amount of food. Sometimes, weight loss occurs with increased eating.[5] 5 6 7 Recognize sweet smelling urine or breath. Because sugar is released through urine when a dog has diabetes, you might smell a slightly sweet smell from your Miniature Schnauzer’s urine. This might also be on his breath as well.[9] You might notice acetone on your dog’s breath as well. If you smell this, it’s important to Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs

Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs

3 Dog diabetes: list of symptoms: interpret the signs of diabetes in dogs Many symptoms may arise in diabetic dogs. Some signs of dog diabetes may sometimes remain unnoticed as for weight loss, increased thirst or hunger, lethargy, fatigue. Others will be certainly spotted by the owner. This is the case for skin disorders, or excessive urination, especially for dogs living indoor. Often dog diabetes is diagnosed late, when complications are already present. The symptoms of diabetes complications are more severe and rarely ignored. Dog’s initial signs of diabetes get worse and more noticeable. Other symptoms appear: blindness, vomiting, diarrhea … The situation is quite the same for diabetes concurrent diseases, the diseases that are more often present in diabetic dogs than in non-diabetics although the reason for this co-occurence remain unknown. Diabetes treatment also may cause symptoms. A too high dose of injected insulin, for instance, can cause hypoglycemic symptoms such as shaking, trembling, rapid and heavy breathing, panting, seizures… In general diabetes symptoms are not specific to the disease. The diagnosis of diabetes relies on lab analysis that will be performed by your vet. Recognizing diabetes symptoms are important for the owner of dogs in which diabetes has been diagnosed: the presence and the intensity of symptoms will allow him/her to assess the efficacy of the treatment and help provide the attending vet with consistent information. The evolution of the symptoms in diabetic dogs – infographics The onset of symptoms in diabetic dogs is progressive. They usually appears when the concentration of glucose in the blood has reached a certain level “called the renal threshold” and sugar has started to spill from the blood into the urine. The sym Continue reading >>

Regulating Diabetes Mellitus In The Dog And Cat (proceedings)

Regulating Diabetes Mellitus In The Dog And Cat (proceedings)

12345Next Dietary Therapy Historically, cats were fed diets higher in insoluble fiber. These diets were effective to a certain extent for the same reasons they work in dogs. They slow gastrointestinal transit and subsequent glucose absorption. These diets also enhance weight loss which can decrease insulin resistance in obese cats. Currently, dietary recommendations for cats are for high protein and low carbohydrate. Cats, as carnivores, have decreased hepatic enzyme activity to convert dietary glucose for storage and energy. Cats primarily use amino acids and fat in the diet for energy so carbohydrates are left to contribute more to hyperglycemia. Currently Hills md® and Purina DM® are diets that fit into this category of low carbohydrate, high protein. Initially, kitten diets were also used because of their higher protein content. These diets help reduce postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations, decrease insulin requirements, result in better control of diabetes and can produce remission in some cats. Correction of obesity should also be a goal of dietary therapy and can decrease insulin resistance. The dog is an omnivore by nature and is more capable of utilizing carbohydrates for energy and storage than the cat. For this reason, dietary recommendations for dogs have focused on minimizing dramatic post-prandial increases in glucose as well as weight control. Diets higher in fiber, particularly soluble fiber, are used and there are many that fit into this category. Again, correction of obesity is also a goal in the dog. It is important to remember that there is not an ideal diet for all patients. Dogs and cats that are underweight will not tolerate a diet that promotes weight loss so other diets may be necessary. Oral Hypoglycemics The majority of the oral hy Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes is a chronic disease that can affect dogs and cats and other animals (including apes, pigs, and horses) as well as humans. Although diabetes can’t be cured, it can be managed very successfully. Diabetes mellitus, or “sugar diabetes,” is the type of diabetes seen most often in dogs. It is a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to how the body converts food to energy. To understand what diabetes is, it helps to understand some of this process. The conversion of food nutrients into energy to power the body’s cells involves an ongoing interplay of two things: • Glucose: essential fuel for the body’s cells. When food is digested, the body breaks down some of the nutrients into glucose, a type of sugar that is a vital source of energy for certain body cells and organs. The glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood, which then transports the glucose throughout the body. • Insulin: in charge of fuel delivery. Meanwhile, an important organ next to the stomach called the pancreas releases the hormone insulin into the body. Insulin acts as a “gatekeeper” that tells cells to grab glucose and other nutrients out of the bloodstream and use them as fuel. What is diabetes? With diabetes, the glucose-insulin connection isn’t working as it should. Diabetes occurs in dogs in two forms: • Insulin-deficiency diabetes—This is when the dog’s body isn’t producing enough insulin. This happens when the pancreas is damaged or otherwise not functioning properly. Dogs with this type of diabetes need daily shots to replace the missing insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes in dogs. • Insulin-resistance diabetes—This is when the pancreas is producing some insulin, but the dog’s body isn’t utilizing the insulin as it should. The ce Continue reading >>

Apoquel For Itchy Dogs And Cats?

Apoquel For Itchy Dogs And Cats?

For years veterinarians have used steroids to treat pet allergies. We put on our detective caps to try to figure out if the allergy is from fleas, from food, or due to atopy (aka hay fever). We eliminate any possible source of allergies. We treat the treatable. We use flea meds. We try antihistamines. We institute bathing regimes. We add in omega-3 fatty acids. And we might even try elimination diets or test the pet for specific allergic triggers like grasses and pollens and such. Nonetheless, when a flare up occurs we typically reached for steroids when we need a “rescue” medication. A vet would really need to be in a tough spot to give steroids to a diabetic dog or cat. Steroids are notorious for causing insulin resistance. I’d rather walk through a snake pit than give steroids to a diabetic pet. Well, that’s a touch dramatic, but you get my point. Luckily there aren’t too many snake pits in my neighborhood! Thankfully, we now have two rescue drugs for allergy flare ups! Zoetis initially launched Apoquel 2 years ago but then it went on back order. It was so eagerly anticipated that the company couldn’t keep up on production. Little vet clinics like mine didn’t actually get the drug until last year. Even now, I’m only allotted 2 bottles of 2 of the sizes each month. I still only have a handful of pets on the drug because it would be just plain mean to start a pet on the drug then run out! I initially told my clients who got it from not to tell my other clients that they got it from me since I had such a limited supply. I reserved it for only my itchiest patients! Pets who respond usually respond quickly if it is going to work. It has peak plasma concentrations in an hour. Several of my clients with itchy pets have told me it is a “miracle” drug! And Continue reading >>

Symptoms And Signs Of Diabetes In Dogs

Symptoms And Signs Of Diabetes In Dogs

How Diabetes Affects Dogs There are two types of canine diabetes – diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Of these, diabetes mellitus – particularly Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - is by far the most common. In healthy animals, insulin is produced and released by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin is needed for glucose from ingested food to pass into cells and tissues, where it can be processed and used for energy. Dogs with Type 1 diabetes mellitus do not have enough insulin in their blood streams, because their specialized pancreatic cells are either absent or not functioning normally. This prevents them from properly metabolizing dietary sugar, which in turn causes abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and levels of glucose in their urine (glycosuria). Dogs with excess urinary glucose tend to excrete very large amounts of urine, leading to dehydration and unusual thirst. The metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus initially increase a dog’s appetite because its cells are unable to take in and use dietary sugars. This is called “going into starvation mode.” The dog’s body starts breaking down stored fat for energy. This causes certain acid byproducts of fat metabolism called “ketones” to build up in the blood. Ultimately, this can cause a very serious and life-threatening condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis. Disruption of the complex metabolic system can lead to a number of different symptoms. While many of these are vague and non-specific, taken together they can suggest the presence of diabetes mellitus and may help owners and veterinarians arrive at an early diagnosis. Symptoms of Diabetes in Dogs Owners of dogs with diabetes mellitus may notice one or more of the following signs in thei Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Older Dogs

Diabetes In Older Dogs

Most often, diabetes in older dogs is identified as Diabetes Mellitus, and happens because your dog's pancreas becomes unable to produce enough insulin to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Dog diabetes is similar to human diabetes in some ways, and different in others. If you want to make a comparison, you'll find that canine diabetes is somewhat like Type I diabetes in humans. Canine Diabetes Mellitus is usually not seen in younger dogs (those less than 4 or 5 years old), and symptoms most often become noticeable in dogs who are considered to be middle-aged or older. It's also more common in female dogs than in males, and unspayed females are more at risk than spayed females. As with many diseases, some purebred dogs seem to have a predisposition to developing Diabetes during their lifetime. Dog breeds who have an above-average chance of developing canine diabetes include (but may not be limited to): Alaskan Malamute Australian Terrier Beagle Bichon Frise Cairn Terrier Chow Chow Dachshund Doberman Finnish Spitz Fox Terrier Golden Retriever Keeshond Miniature Pinscher Old English Sheepdog Poodle Pug Puli Samoyed Schnauzer Springer Spaniel West Highland Terrier Yorkshire Terrier Mixed breed dogs may be less likely to become diabetic, but they are not immune to developing the disease. Canine Diabetes is not very common, but it is on the rise (as it is in humans). Although there are no firm stats on the incidence of diabetes in dogs, estimates range from between 1 in 100 to 1 in 500 dogs being affected (at max that is 1% of all dogs). However, studies show that over the past five years, there has been an increase of over 30% in the number of dogs being diagnosed with diabetes. Fortunately diabetes is a very treatable condition and diabetic dogs can still live happy, act Continue reading >>

Pancreas Removal's Side Effects In Dogs

Pancreas Removal's Side Effects In Dogs

There are two types of pancreatectomy in dogs, partial and full. In a partial pancreas removal surgery, only the diseased portion of the organ is removed; the remainder functions, but not as well. In the rare full pancreatectomy, the entire pancreas is removed. The pancreas has the jobs of producing insulin and producing enzymes for digestion -- so the dog with a fully removed pancreas will instantly develop type 1 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes in Dogs In type 1 diabetes, insulin levels fluctuate wildly, making them difficult to regulate. When the pancreas is removed in a full pancreatectomy, the dog becomes an instant type 1 diabetic. He must be given digestive enzymes and have multiple insulin injections every day for life. This type of diabetes can be regulated in the dog but takes constant supervision and multiple trips to the veterinarian to get the insulin levels adjusted properly. Partial Pancreatectomy in Dogs The partial removal of the pancreas can sometimes result in pancreatic insufficiency, which is the result of having lowered insulin and digestive enzyme levels in the body. This is known as type 2 diabetes. The pancreas still functions and produces enzymes and insulin, but doesn't produce enough of them. In this case, enzymes are supplemented in the diet, and certain levels of insulin are injected and maintained. This condition is easier to regulate than with a full pancreatectomy. Side Effects and Symptoms After pancreas removal, the dog experiences extreme thirst, hunger and malnourishment, unable to properly process food. He loses weight rapidly while still trying to eat. He has high glucose levels, he's lethargic and vomiting, and suffers from dehydration and weakness, often leading to coma. Cataracts are common, along with liver disease and nervous system Continue reading >>

An In-depth Look: Insulin Resistance In Diabetic Patients: Causes And Management

An In-depth Look: Insulin Resistance In Diabetic Patients: Causes And Management

Insulin resistance can occur secondary to many diseases in dogs and cats. The most common causes of insulin resistance in dogs are hyperadrenocorticism, bacterial infections, hypothyroidism, and diestrus. In cats, the most common causes are acromegaly; hyperadrenocorticism; renal, hepatic, or cardiac insufficiency; bacterial infections; hyperthyroidism; and use of diabetogenic drugs. Common mechanisms of insulin resistance include decreased insulin-receptor concentration, decreased receptor affinity, and defects in the postreceptor pathways. Management of insulin resistance includes a thorough search for an underlying cause and dietary changes. Insulin resistance is a condition in which a normal amount of insulin causes a subnormal response in blood glucose levels.1,2 Insulin resistance progresses to overt diabetes mellitus (DM) when the existing insulin-producing beta cells cannot compensate for the insulin resistance, thus allowing hyperglycemia to occur.1 Insulin resistance should be suspected in a dog or cat when more than 2.2 U/kg per injection of insulin is required to maintain adequate glycemic control.1,3 In addition, insulin resistance in dogs and cats should be considered in the presence of persistent, marked hyperglycemia throughout the day, despite insulin doses of more than 1.5 U/kg per injection.2,3 The differential diagnosis of insulin resistance is quite extensive, and some of the possible diseases cause previously subclinical diabetic patients to become clinically diabetic, whereas other possible diseases exacerbate preexisting DM.2 In dogs, the most common causes of insulin resistance are hyperadrenocorticism, bacterial infections, hypothyroidism, and diestrus.2 In cats, the most common causes are acromegaly; hyperadrenocorticism; renal, hepatic, or ca Continue reading >>

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

Renee Rucinsky, DVM, ABVP (Feline) (Chair) | Audrey Cook, BVM&:S, MRCVS, Diplomate ACVIM-SAIM, Diplomate ECVIM-CA | Steve Haley, DVM | Richard Nelson, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM | Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM | Melanie Poundstone, DVM, ABVP - Download PDF - Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a treatable condition that requires a committed effort by veterinarian and client. This document provides current recommendations for the treatment of diabetes in dogs and cats. Treatment of DM is a combination of art and science, due in part to the many factors that affect the diabetic state and the animal's response. Each animal needs individualized, frequent reassessment, and treatment may be modified based on response. In both dogs and cats, DM is caused by loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells. In the dog, beta cell loss tends to be rapid and progressive, and it is usually due to immune-mediated destruction, vacuolar degeneration, or pancreatitis.1 Intact females may be transiently diabetic due to the insulin-resistant effects of the diestrus phase. In the cat, loss or dysfunction of beta cells is the result of insulin resistance, islet amyloidosis, or chronic lymphoplasmacytic pancreatitis.2 Risk factors for both dogs and cats include insulin resistance caused by obesity, other diseases (e.g., acromegaly in cats, hyperadrenocorticism in dogs), or medications (e.g., steroids, progestins). Genetics is a suspected risk factor, and certain breeds of dogs (Australian terriers, beagles, Samoyeds, keeshonden3) and cats (Burmese4) are more susceptible. Regardless of the underlying etiology, diabetic dogs and cats are hyperglycemic and glycosuric, which leads to the classic clinical signs of polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), polyphagia, and weight loss. Increased fat mobi Continue reading >>

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