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What Are The Side Effects Of Insulin In Dogs?

Diebetes Mellitus And The Dog

Diebetes Mellitus And The Dog

Back to Journal Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the dog. What the heck is it. DM in the dog happens arises when the pancreas gland does not produce enough insulin which is the hormone that allows many tissues of the body to utilize blood sugar. As insulin levels fall the blood sugar becomes elevated which leads to a myriad of side effects. The common cause of DM in the dog is the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas, those are the cells that produce insulin. This is Type 1 Diabetes. This destruction often arises from chronic inflammation of the pancreas gland. Why does the inflammation happen? Many things including being obese are speculated upon. Why do most dogs get Diabetes? They are grossly overweight for a long time. Obesity is by far the number one reason, far and away. Fat dog for years can often equal diabetic dog at the age of 8-10. Type II DM, which arises either from the development of resistance to insulin or from a decreased action of insulin within the body, is rare in dogs. What are the signs of Diabetes Mellitus in dogs These dogs show up at the hospital usually because of signs that include increased thirst and are peeing a ton, eating like a horse(at least initially in the disease) and they are losing weight. Because glucose(sugar) cannot be utilized by the body, weight loss occurs even with more food intake as they are urinating out many calories with the sugar loss in the urine. A severe form of DM called diabetic ketoacidosis may cause the animal to become very sick leading to vomiting, depression, panting, weakness and are dehydrated. These dogs need to be hospitalized in an effort to save them and then regulate the DM. This is typically a case that goes unrecognized by the owner for a long time(many weeks to months) and the dog spirals downward to Continue reading >>

Humulin N

Humulin N

Humulin N (insulin human recombinant) [Human insulin (rDNA origin) isophane suspension] is a man-made insulin product indicated for glucose control in patients with diabetes. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is a frequent side effect of Humulin N (insulin). Symptoms of low blood sugar may include headache, nausea, hunger, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, trouble concentrating, confusion, or seizure (convulsions). Other side effects of Humulin N include injection site reactions (pain, redness, irritation). Tell your doctor if you have serious side effects of Humulin including signs of low potassium level in the blood (such as muscle cramps, weakness, irregular heartbeat). Humulin N (insulin human recombinant) is administered by injection. Any change of insulin should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in strength, manufacturer, type (e.g, regular, NPH, analog), species, or method of manufacture may result in the need to change dosage. Humulin N may interact with albuterol, clonidine, reserpine, guanethidine, or beta-blockers. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. Humulin N (insulin human recombinant) should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is unknown if Humulin N passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding. Our Humulin N Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes mellitus is a common illness in dogs. It is caused by either a decreased production of insulin or decreased functioning of the insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps glucose move from the blood stream into the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. What causes diabetes in dogs? There appear to be many factors that can contribute to the development of diabetes in dogs. Genetics plays a role. Some diabetes may be immune-mediated. This means the dog's immune system works against the pancreas as it tries to produce insulin. What dogs are most at risk of developing diabetes? Dogs of any age can develop diabetes, but most are between 7 and 9 years old. Females appear to be at increased risk. Certain breeds appear to be more at risk, including Samoyeds, Australian terriers, miniature schnauzers, pugs, and miniature and toy poodles. Dogs who have had multiple episodes of pancreatitis also appear to be more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes in dogs? Most dogs with diabetes will have increased thirst and urination. Although the appetite is usually good or increased, there is often weight loss. Some dogs, however, may become obese. In some cases, blindness due to cataracts may be the first indication to an owner that there is a problem. Cataracts would appear as cloudy eyes with vision loss. Several diseases often occur in conjunction with diabetes mellitus, including Cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism), urinary tract infections, hypothyroidism, acute pancreatitis and cancer. The presence of these diseases can complicate the diagnosis and effective treatment of diabetes. Dogs may develop a serious complication of diabetes known as ketoacidosis. In this emergency condition, the blood Continue reading >>

How To Give Insulin To A Dog

How To Give Insulin To A Dog

Dogs with diabetes aren't able to make enough insulin, a hormone that allows the body to store energy from food and move glucose into cells. Because this condition has serious and potentially fatal consequences, diabetic dogs are typically treated with insulin injections one or two times each day. Because insulin is not a sturdy substance, it is important to handle it gently and avoid exposing it to extreme temperatures or excessive motion. Store unopened bottles of insulin in your refrigerator. After they have been opened, it is still advisable to keep insulin in the fridge. It can tolerate short periods of time at room temperature in an area where it’s out of direct sunlight. Before attempting to give your dog insulin, it is wise to practice loading the syringe with the appropriate amount of sterile water or saline. You can even use an apple or orange to practice giving insulin injections until you feel you are ready to try it on your dog. Because there are many different kinds of dog insulin syringes, make sure you buy the size and type recommended by your veterinarian. Always use a new syringe and needle every time you give your dog an insulin injection. This will guarantee that your supplies are sterile and minimize risk of infection. Unwrap the syringe and needle, but leave the needle itself capped until you are prepared to load the syringe with insulin. Carefully roll the bottle of insulin in your hands to make sure the hormone is well mixed. Do not shake it. Remove the needle cap. Then, use the pointer finger and thumb of one hand to hold the insulin syringe while drawing back on the plunger with the other hand. Continue to pull back, filling the plunger with air, until you reach the correct marker for the amount of insulin your dog will need. Hold the bottle Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes most commonly affects middle aged, overweight female dogs. It is caused by a lack of insulin, a hormone that is produced by the pancreas which is essential for glucose metabolism. The pancreas becomes damaged by either inflammation, or the dog’s own immune system attacking it. The result is a shortage of insulin producing cells in the organ, which is irreversible. Consequently, diabetic dogs are very unlikely to go into remission. SIGNS OF DIABETES IN DOGS One of the most obvious symptoms of diabetes in dogs is increased thirst. However, there are other medical conditions that can also cause your dog to drink more than usual, such as kidney or liver disease or Cushing’s Disease. Your vet will run some tests to check for diabetes; they will look for higher than normal levels of glucose in his blood and urine. TREATMENT OF DIABETES Because diabetes in dogs results from a lack of insulin, the treatment is to supplement that insulin with injections of the hormone. The first step is to work out how much insulin your dog needs. He will be admitted to hospital and given a measured dose, and then his blood will be checked at regular intervals to assess his response. When the amount of insulin he needs has been calculated, you can then continue to treat him at home. It’s not difficult to learn how to give insulin injections, and the needles are so fine that your dog will barely notice them. It’s important that your dog’s energy needs are kept constant. This means that he is given the same amount of exercise, because more or less than usual will affect how much insulin he needs. Similarly, his food intake should also be the same from day to day, both in quantity and the timing of his meals. If you can do this, then it will be easier to keep his blood glucose wi Continue reading >>

Handling A Diabetes Emergency

Handling A Diabetes Emergency

Emergencies can happen at any time, so it's best to be prepared and know what to do if an emergency occurs. Talking with your veterinarian is a crucial part of being informed and prepared to handle emergencies. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) The most common side effect experienced with insulin therapy is hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can be caused by: Missing or delaying food. Change in food, diet, or amount fed. Infection or illness. Change in the body's need for insulin. Diseases of the adrenal, pituitary, or thyroid glands, or progression of liver or kidney disease. Interaction with other drugs (such as steroids). Change (increase) in exercise. Signs of hypoglycemia may occur suddenly and can include: Weakness Depression Behavioral changes Muscle twitching Anxiety Seizures Coma Death See below for a list of other side effects. What to do If your pet is conscious, rub a tablespoon of corn syrup on his or her gums. When your pet is able to swallow, feed him or her a usual meal and contact your veterinarian. If your pet is unconscious or having a seizure, this is a medical emergency. CONTACT YOUR VETERINARIAN. In the meantime, you should immediately treat your pet rather than delaying management. Pour a small amount of a sugar solution (eg, corn syrup) onto your finger and then rub the sugar solution onto your pet's gums. The sugar is absorbed very quickly and your pet should respond in 1 to 2 minutes. The sugar solution should never be poured directly into your pet's mouth since there is a risk that the solution will be inhaled into the lungs. Once your pet has responded to the sugar administration and is sitting up, it can be fed a small amount of its regular food. Once the pet has stabilized, it should be transported to your veterinarian for evaluation. Your pet's diet Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Drug Name: Insulin Common Name: Vetsulin®, Humulin®, PZI Vet®, Novolin®, Iletin®, Velosulin® Drug Type: Synthetic hormone Used For: Diabetes mellitus Species: Dogs, Cats Administered: 40units/ml, 100units/ml, and 500units/ml Injectable How Dispensed: Prescription only FDA Approved: Yes General Description Insulin is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps convert your pet’s food into energy by allowing the uptake of sugar by cells. By allowing this uptake and use of sugar, insulin decreases the blood glucose concentrations in the body. When you pet does not produce insulin, sugar can’t enter cells, your pet’s body cannot create fat, sugar, or protein. This also results in a dangerously high blood glucose level. How It Works Insulin replaces the insulin that your pet’s body does not produce. The type of insulin you give to your pet is a synthetic hormone derived from pigs or cows. Storage Information Some forms of insulin need to be refrigerated, pay close attention to the manufacturer’s label. DO NOT FREEZE. Protect from heat and sunlight. Do not use if past the expiration date. Insulin must be given to your pet by an injection 1 to 2 times a day. Because it is a protein, the acids in the stomach would digest it if you were to administer it orally. The proper dose of insulin is determined by your veterinarian through a series of glucose level tests. It is best to give this drug to a pet with a full stomach. It is best to give insulin right after a meal. DO NOT SHAKE THE BOTTLE OF INSULIN Proper handling of insulin: Be sure you have the appropriate size syringe for the concentration of insulin you are using. Variations include: U-40, U-100, and U-500 syringes which go to their c Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs

Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs

3 Dog diabetes: list of symptoms: interpret the signs of diabetes in dogs Many symptoms may arise in diabetic dogs. Some signs of dog diabetes may sometimes remain unnoticed as for weight loss, increased thirst or hunger, lethargy, fatigue. Others will be certainly spotted by the owner. This is the case for skin disorders, or excessive urination, especially for dogs living indoor. Often dog diabetes is diagnosed late, when complications are already present. The symptoms of diabetes complications are more severe and rarely ignored. Dog’s initial signs of diabetes get worse and more noticeable. Other symptoms appear: blindness, vomiting, diarrhea … The situation is quite the same for diabetes concurrent diseases, the diseases that are more often present in diabetic dogs than in non-diabetics although the reason for this co-occurence remain unknown. Diabetes treatment also may cause symptoms. A too high dose of injected insulin, for instance, can cause hypoglycemic symptoms such as shaking, trembling, rapid and heavy breathing, panting, seizures… In general diabetes symptoms are not specific to the disease. The diagnosis of diabetes relies on lab analysis that will be performed by your vet. Recognizing diabetes symptoms are important for the owner of dogs in which diabetes has been diagnosed: the presence and the intensity of symptoms will allow him/her to assess the efficacy of the treatment and help provide the attending vet with consistent information. The evolution of the symptoms in diabetic dogs – infographics The onset of symptoms in diabetic dogs is progressive. They usually appears when the concentration of glucose in the blood has reached a certain level “called the renal threshold” and sugar has started to spill from the blood into the urine. The sym Continue reading >>

Side Effects Of Steroids In Pets

Side Effects Of Steroids In Pets

Are Steroids Safe For Pets? Corticosteroid medications such as prednisolone and prednisone are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine to treat allergies, cancers, and autoimmune problems such as atopic skin disease, flea allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis to name but a few. Used appropriately, steroids can greatly improve your pet's quality of life while helping to treat serious illness. Unfortunately, steroids are often not used appropriately, either due to incorrect or incomplete diagnoses, or because of a lack of understanding by owners of the potential side effects of medications such as prednisone. The following discussion aims to inform readers of these side effects, as well as suggesting possible methods to reduce steroid use in some specific conditions. Common Side Effects Corticosteroids are produced naturally in the adrenal glands, and have a number of important functions in the healthy pet. Cortisol, the predominant naturally occurring steroid, has antiinflammatory homeostatic immune-modulating functions, amongst others. These beneficial effects are dependent on the proper functioning of feedback mechanisms between the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, and the low levels of endogenous steroid are constantly fine-tuned by communication between these organs. When communication breaks down, an animal may develop serious problems such as Cushing's Syndrome or Addison's Disease. When we administer corticosteroids in the form of prednisolone or prednisone, we override this sophisticated feedback mechanism, and are likely to cause at least some mild signs of Cushing's Syndrome. These signs are discussed below. Appearance of Cushing's Syndrome Behavioral Changes Effects of prednisone vary from one animal to the n Continue reading >>

The Somogyi Effect

The Somogyi Effect

Go to site For Pet Owners An insulin dose that is too high may bring about the Somogyi effect or rebound hyperglycemia. This is produced because blood glucose concentrations fall too rapidly. The moment that the Somogyi effect is triggered is very individual—it is a life-saving response. The body attempts to counteract the decline in the blood glucose concentration through a chain of reactions: The blood glucose concentration falls rapidly, or approaches hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentrations of less than 65 mg/dL [2.8 mmol/L]) following the injection of insulin. The animal becomes hungry and either restless or lethargic. In response to a declining blood glucose concentration in the central nervous system, adrenaline and subsequently cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone are released. These hormones bring about an increase in the blood glucose concentration (through gluconeogenesis, release of glucose from hepatic glycogen and increased peripheral resistance to insulin). The resultant hyperglycemia produces polyuria and polydipsia. This can easily be misinterpreted as caused by an inadequate insulin dose. If the morning polyuria is thought to be the result of an insufficient insulin dose and a higher dose is given, the problem will be aggravated. An even more pronounced Somogyi effect will follow. Eventually the counter-regulatory mechanisms may become exhausted resulting in severe hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia due to a Somogyi effect can sometimes persist for as long as 3 days after a single hypoglycemic episode. As a result, blood glucose concentrations do not always normalize within a few days after lowering the insulin dose. When to suspect a Somogyi overswing Minimal glycemia: <65 mg/dL or 3.6 mmol/L Maximum glycemia: 400–800 mg/dL or 22–44 mmol/L Persiste Continue reading >>

Dog Diabetes? Cat Diabetes?

Dog Diabetes? Cat Diabetes?

Organic Herbal Formula Helps: --> Lower Blood Glucose Levels --> Stimulate Natural Insulin Production and --> Reverse Insulin Resistance -- all Without Painful Injections or Harmful Side Effects* When it comes to diabetes in dogs and cats, you have TWO choices: 1. Painful insulin injections that (among other problems) can increase risk of heart attack or stroke in humans by as much as 250%, with similar adverse effects in dogs and cats, OR 2. Natural herbal therapy that has been proven safe and effective by holistic veterinarians, medical science and naturopathic physicians. Dear Dog Diabetes (and Cat Diabetes) At-Home Healer: Pet diabetes is big business for syringe and insulin manufacturers. A recent study finds Americans spending a whopping $12.5 billion a year on diabetes drugs – nearly double the spending of just six years ago. What’s worse, the new drugs cost eight to 10 times more than the older, generic drugs. With so much money at stake, it’s no wonder the needle pushers fight tooth and nail to convince veterinarians that insulin is the only choice. Drugs: Worst Possible Choice But there’s a dark side to glucose-lowering drugs. Like the fact that many diabetes drugs increase the risk of heart attack and stroke by up to 250%. In other words, just by stopping the use of these drugs, the patient is up to 2 1/2 times less likely to die of a heart attack. Mainstream medicine has known about this fact (but chosen to ignore it) for over forty years! The findings came out of a study conducted in 1969 called the University Group Diabetes Program. Many studies begin with animals (dog diabetes) then proceed to humans. This one was just the opposite. Subjects were tested to see if aggressive blood-sugar lowering drugs would protect people with diabetes from heart d Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs – Lack Of Insulin Production In The Body

Diabetes In Dogs – Lack Of Insulin Production In The Body

Diabetes in dogs is an increasingly recognized and diagnosed health problem. Typically occurring in the later years of life, previously healthy dogs begin to show an array of symptoms that can suggest diabetes. As in human medicine, diabetes in dogs can be completely treatable, and with good management it will not affect quality of life or the life span of your dog. However, if the symptoms of diabetes go unnoticed and the disease is left untreated, it can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, and death. In humans, as well as animals, diabetes is caused by a decrease in, or complete lack of insulin production in the body. Ever cell within our bodies requires energy to live. The food we ingest is converted into glucose, which travels throughout the bloodstream, feeding cells and creating energy. Insulin in the body is the vehicle that allows cells to get their energy from the bloodstream. In normal, healthy animals, cells in the pancreas release insulin automatically when a rise in glucose in the blood is detected. The insulin is distributed to cells in the body, allowing them to capture the glucose from within the bloodstream. Almost all diabetes in dogs is caused by type 1, or insulin dependent diabetes. In these animals the pancreas stops producing insulin. Many factors can affect and destroy insulin production by the pancreas, including Cushings disease, steroid and immune system problems, pancreatic infection or stress- but often times a precipitating factor will never be identified for why the pancreas suddenly cease to produce insulin. Regardless of the cause, without insulin, cells throughout the body cannot take in the glucose from the blood, effectively starving them of energy. In response to the cells distress, the brain begins to send signals to eat more, so the Continue reading >>

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Authors Thompson A, Lathan P, Fleeman L Accepted for publication 19 February 2015 Checked for plagiarism Yes Peer reviewer comments 3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente Introduction Insulin the Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms & Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms & Treatment

Chances are you’ve known someone who has diabetes. So you know it takes a lot of work to manage the disease. There’s the regular glucose testing and always being prepared for unexpected shifts in blood sugar levels. At the same time, diabetes is a manageable condition and those who develop it usually carry on normal lives once their condition is under control. But when we think of diabetes, we usually don’t think about our canine companions. Just like people, our pups can become diabetic too. And like diabetic people, diabetic dogs can live normal lives with proper care and treatment. Overview of Dog Diabetes When it comes to dog diabetes, there are similarities between pooches and pet parents. Dog diabetes can be classified as either Type I or Type II. Dogs most frequently develop Type I, which means their pancreas is not producing insulin. Diabetes Type II, which is actually more common in cats, means your pet is not correctly processing the insulin that is being produced. With either diagnosis, your dog’s blood sugar will rise and cause an excessive amount of glucose in the blood. While there’s no cure for dog diabetes, once the symptoms are identified and treatment is outlined, there’s a good chance your dog will lead a relatively normal life. Common Dog Diabetes Symptoms Diabetes is most commonly seen in middle–aged and older dogs, but it’s not unheard of in younger dogs. If you see any of the following behaviors in your doggy, young or old, get them to a veterinarian as soon as possible. The earlier the diagnosis, the better the chances are that your dog will enjoy a healthy life. So what are the symptoms of diabetes in dogs? Change in appetite Weight loss Excessive thirst Increased urination Urinary tract infections Cloudy eyes Lethargy Dehydratio Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

An estimated 347 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes1,or nearly five per cent of the population, with approximately 3.4 million dying as a consequence per year2. Currently eighty per cent of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries3, driving the need for cheaper, easier treatments. The World Health Organisation predicts that diabetes will be the 7th largest cause of death in 20304. Symptoms include raging thirst, rapid weight loss, tiredness and passing large quantities of sugary urine. Diabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke - 50% of people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease (primarily heart disease and stroke), compared to 30% across the world population5 6. Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Treatment of diabetes involves lowering blood glucose and the levels of other known risk factors that damage blood vessels. People with type 1 diabetes require insulin; people with type 2 diabetes can be treated with oral medication, but may also require insulin. Discovery of insulin Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Animal Models Current treatments Current research References Discovery of insulin The discovery, isolation and purification of insulin in the 1920s was a significant medical advance, preventing premature deaths in many sufferers. In 1889 Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski showed that removing the pancreas from a dog produced diabetes7. This was the first demonstration that there was an anti-diabetic factor produced by the pancreas which enabled the body to use sugars in the blood properly. Continue reading >>

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