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What Are The Complications Of Type 1 Diabetes?

How To Avoid Complications From Type 1 Diabetes

How To Avoid Complications From Type 1 Diabetes

Having type 1 diabetes means your body doesn’t make insulin. This hormone moves sugar (glucose) from your bloodstream into your cells, where it’s used for energy. Without insulin, too much sugar builds up in your blood. That can damage your nerves and blood vessels, leading to serious health problems. When you don't manage your diabetes and control your blood sugar, your whole body can pay the price. Some of the most common complications are: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve disease (neuropathy) Foot problems, including ulcers Eye disease (retinopathy) Skin infections Gum disease (inflammation and infection) You can’t completely erase your chances of developing these conditions, but you can lower the odds. High blood sugar levels can cause real damage to your body. That's why it’s important to keep your numbers in check every day. Ask your doctor about getting an A1c test. This tracks your average blood sugar over a period of a few months. It gives you a better, bigger picture of how well you’re managing your diabetes. You're much more likely to have a heart attack or stroke than people without diabetes are, but you can lower your risk. Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol in the healthy range. High numbers for both are common with diabetes, so remember to get them checked. Make smart food choices to help manage your blood sugar levels and keep your heart and kidneys healthy. Fill up on produce, fiber, and good fats. Avoid foods high in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Exercise can lower your blood sugar level and your risk for all sorts of problems, like heart disease and stroke. It’s also good for your blood pressure and cholesterol. Talk with your doctor before you get started, though. They might warn you against some workouts with high-impac Continue reading >>

Complications Of Type 1 Diabetes.

Complications Of Type 1 Diabetes.

Abstract The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide and the concern regarding the number of new cases of diabetes relates to the development of chronic complications. It has been recognized for years that the complications are a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and as such, negatively affect the quality of life in individuals with diabetes with an increase in disability and death. Specifically, the complications of diabetes have been classified as either microvascular (ie, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) or macrovascular (ie, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and peripheral vascular disease). For purposes of this article, the authors focus on a brief review of the major complications. Continue reading >>

5 Common Type 1 Diabetes Complications

5 Common Type 1 Diabetes Complications

3 0 Type 1 diabetes carries with it a much higher risk of developing some associated serious health problems. While in the past, getting diabetes-related health complications was almost a certainty, with modern blood glucose monitoring, control, and treatment, the risks have decreased significantly. Even a few decades ago, life expectancy for people with diabetes was regularly considered to be 10 years shorter than for people without the disorder. In 2012, however, a large-scale study found that life-expectancy was now only about 6 years less than average. For comparison, a lifetime of smoking will reduce life expectancy by 10 years. So what are the diabetes complications that you need to be looking out for? Largely, they fall into either cardiovascular or neuropathic categories. To make diabetes complications even more complicated, they tend to affect people of different sexes and different ethnicities differently. One more wild card is that recent studies have found that some people with Type 1 diabetes actually never develop most of the complications associated with diabetes. The good news is that with proper blood glucose control and a healthy lifestyle, the risks for developing Type 1 diabetes complications are drastically reduced. Some studies have actually found that careful monitoring and management can reduce the chances of developing any of these by as much as 50%. Still, everyone with Type 1 diabetes should keep a careful eye out for the five most common diabetes complications. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic Ketoacidosis (or DKA), is a condition caused by severe hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) which causes rapid fat breakdown in the body. As the fat breaks down, they release fatty acids which are then converted into chemicals called ketones, which are highly Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

eye disease, such as diabetic retinopathy nerve damage, such as diabetic neuropathy kidney disease, such as diabetic nephropathy heart disease and stroke, such as cardiovascular disease Eye Disease The early stage of diabetic retinopathy, known as "background" diabetic retinopathy, unfolds as the walls of the retina weaken from high blood sugar and high blood pressure, developing small, dot-like bulges, or "micro-aneurysms," which can leak fluid or blood into the surrounding tissue. In the second, more destructive stage, called proliferative diabetic retinopathy, new blood vessels form on the retina in response to the damage. When called to the spot where damage occurred, the cells generate new blood vessels as part of the repair. Nerve Damage Diabetic neuropathy is the medical name given to progressive damage to the nervous system caused by type 1 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy can lead to a loss of feeling in the hands and feet. Reduced circulation resulting from high blood glucose impairs normal wound healing in the extremities, so minor damage can linger and develop into permanent injury. At the same time, neuropathy can cause severe pain in limbs that otherwise have reduced normal sensation. Kidney Disease Diabetic kidney disease or diabetic nephropathy is a slow deterioration of the kidneys and kidney function which, in more severe cases, can eventually result in kidney failure, also known as end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. Heart Disease and Stroke Cardiovascular disease is a range of blood vessel system diseases that includes both stroke and heart attack. The two most common types of cardiovascular disease are coronary heart disease, caused by fatty deposits in the arteries that feed the heart, and hypertension, or high blood pressure. Contribute to JDRF researc Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don't react to insulin This topic is about type 1 diabetes. Read more about type 2 diabetes Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear following birth. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. You should therefore visit your GP if you have symptoms, which include feeling thirsty, passing urine more often than usual and feeling tired all the time (see the list below for more diabetes symptoms). Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it's the most common type of childhood diabetes. This is why it's sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) doesn't produce any insulin – the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. This is why it's also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body's organs. In type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop l Continue reading >>

The 30-year Natural History Of Type 1 Diabetes Complications

The 30-year Natural History Of Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Declining incidences in Europe of overt nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, and mortality in type 1 diabetes have recently been reported. However, comparable data for the U.S. and trend data for neuropathy and macrovascular complications are lacking. These issues are addressed using the prospective observational Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Childhood-Onset Diabetes Complications Study. Participants were stratified into five cohorts by diagnosis year: 1950–1959, 1960–1964, 1965–1969, 1970–1974, and 1975–1980. Mortality, renal failure, and coronary artery disease (CAD) status were determined on the complete cohort (n = 906) at 20, 25, and 30 years. Overt nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, and neuropathy were assessed at 20 and 25 years on the subset of participants with a clinical examination. There was a decreasing trend by diagnosis year for mortality, renal failure, and neuropathy across all time intervals (P < 0.05), with the 1950–1959 cohort having a fivefold higher mortality at 25 years than the 1970s’ cohorts. Proliferative retinopathy and overt nephropathy showed nonsignificant declines at 20 years (P < 0.16 and P < 0.13, respectively) and no change at 25 years. CAD event rates, which were lower than the other complications, also showed no trend. Although some type 1 diabetes complications (mortality, renal failure, and neuropathy) are declining, others (CAD, overt nephropathy, and proliferative retinopathy) show less favorable changes by 30 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The EDC study is a representative (11) prospective type 1 diabetes cohort, now entering its 18th year of follow-up. The EDC baseline examinations were conducted between 1986 and 1988, and participants were examined biennially thereafter. Figure 1 shows the recruitment tre Continue reading >>

Complications

Complications

If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems. High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs. Even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn't cause any symptoms can have damaging effects in the long term. Heart disease and stroke If you have diabetes, you're up to five times more likely to develop coronary heart disease (CHD) or have a stroke. Prolonged, poorly controlled blood glucose levels increase the likelihood of developing atherosclerosis (furring and narrowing of your blood vessels). This may result in a poor blood supply to your heart, causing angina (a dull, heavy or tight pain in the chest). It also increases the chance that a blood vessel in your heart or brain will become completely blocked, leading to a heart attack or stroke. Nerve damage High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels of your nerves. This can cause a tingling or burning pain that spreads from your fingers and toes up through your limbs. It can also cause numbness, which can lead to ulceration of the feet. Damage to the peripheral nervous system (the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord) is known as peripheral neuropathy. If the nerves in your digestive system are affected, you may experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is where the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye, becomes damaged. The retina needs a constant supply of blood, which it receives through a network of tiny blood vessels. Over time, a persistently high blood sugar level can damage these blood vessels and affect your vision. Annual eye checks are usually organised by a regional photographic unit. If significant damage is detected, you may be referred to a docto Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

People with type 1 diabetes lack the hormone insulin, which regulates the body's use of glucose for energy. This results in high blood glucose, or hyperglycemia, as glucose builds up in the bloodstream. The main treatment for type 1 diabetes is lifelong insulin therapy, which lowers blood glucose and allows the body to use glucose as fuel. High blood glucose is associated with a number of symptoms, such as increased urination, extreme thirst or hunger, and slow-healing sores. Over time, elevated blood glucose levels can also lead to various complications in different areas of the body, since hyperglycemia damages many different types of tissue. Diabetic Neuropathy Neuropathy is a type of nerve damage, or nerve dysfunction. In people with diabetes, neuropathy may develop when high blood glucose levels damage blood vessels that supply oxygen to nerves. As many as 60 to 70 percent of all people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy, according the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. A common form of diabetic neuropathy is peripheral neuropathy, which causes numbness, pain, and weakness in the toes, feet, legs, hands, or arms. Because of this widespread complication, people with diabetes must take special care of their feet. Nerve damage may cause people to lose feeling in their feet, leading to unnoticed injuries that may become infected (poor blood flow can also lead to slower healing). What's more, nerve damage may cause foot deformations that lead to additional pressure at certain points on the feet — and these pressure points may develop into blisters, sores, or ulcers. Diabetic neuropathy may also affect various other areas of the body, including the digestive tract, heart, sex organs, facial muscles, buttocks, and urinary tract. Di Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Understanding type 1 diabetes is the first step to managing it. Get information on type 1 diabetes causes, risk factors, warning signs, and prevention tips. You can't completely erase your chances of complications from type 1 diabetes, but you can take preventive measures. Here are 8 important habits that will help. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes compounds called ketones. Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of gastroparesis, a stomach problem associated with diabetes. Learn how type 1 diabetes might slow brain growth and cause memory, attention, and learning problems. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Diabetes complications Having type 1 diabetes does not prevent you from living a normal life. People with type 1 diabetes can and do become elite athletes, corporate high-flyers, trapeze artists, medical professionals, teachers and everything in between. But having type 1 diabetes does mean you have to balance your diabetes management with your day to day life to avoid complications. Complications can occur because over time persistent high blood glucose levels can damage the body’s organs. This damage is referred to as diabetes-related complications. It may be frightening to think about complications but it is important to understand all you can about living with type 1 diabetes and the affect your management has on your overall health. If you can manage to keep your blood glucose levels, cholesterol and blood pressure within the normal range, the risk of damage to your body is reduced. With the support of your healthcare team you will be able to develop a daily self-management program that includes setting goals, taking responsibility and making positive lifestyle choices. Effective diabetes care means taking charge of your diabetes management. Ask questions and request more information if you need to. The more you know the more confident you will become and the easier it will be to manage your diabetes. It is important that you follow the annual cycle of care to ensure you are constantly monitored for any complications. When diabetes is left undiagnosed or unchecked for too long, it can be responsible for a number of diabetes related complications such as eye disease (diabetic retinopathy), nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy), heart disease and stroke. See below for more information on complications. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diab Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 diabetes is complicated—and if you don’t manage it properly, there are complications, both short-term and long-term. “If you don’t manage it properly” is an important if statement: by carefully managing your blood glucose levels, you can stave off or prevent the short- and long-term complications. And if you’ve already developed diabetes complications, controlling your blood glucose levels can help you manage the symptoms and prevent further damage. Diabetes complications are all related to poor blood glucose control, so you must work carefully with your doctor and diabetes team to correctly manage your blood sugar (or your child’s blood sugar). Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It develops when there’s too much insulin—meaning that you’ve taken (or given your child) too much insulin or that you haven’t properly planned insulin around meals or exercise. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). There are three levels of hypoglycemia, depending on how low the blood glucose level has dropped: mild, moderate, and severe. If you treat hypoglycemia when it’s in the mild or moderate stages, then you can prevent far more serious problems; severe hypoglycemia can cause a coma and even death (although very, very rarely). The signs and symptoms of low blood glucose are usually easy to recognize: Rapid heartbeat Sweating Paleness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech For more information about hypoglycemia and how to treat it, please read our article on hy Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes, juvenile) is a condition in which the body stops making insulin. This causes the person's blood sugar to increase. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is attacked by the immune system and then it cannot produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas can produce insulin, but the body can't use it. Causes of type 1 diabetes are auto-immune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This can be caused by viruses and infections as well as other risk factors. In many cases, the cause is not known. Scientists are looking for cures for type 1 diabetes such as replacing the pancreas or some of its cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are family history, introducing certain foods too soon (fruit) or too late (oats/rice) to babies, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are skin infections, bladder or vaginal infections, and Sometimes, there are no significant symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests. The level of blood sugar is measured, and then levels of insulin and antibodies can be measured to confirm type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin and lifestyle changes. Specifically, meal planning to ensure carbohydrate intake matches insulin dosing. Complications of type 1 diabetes are kidney disease, eye problems, heart disease, and nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy) such as loss of feeling in the feet. Poor wound healing can also be a complication of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, however, keeping blood sugar at healthy levels may delay or prevent symptoms or complications. There is currently no cure, and most cases of type 1 diabetes have no known cause. The prognosis or life-expectancy for a person with Continue reading >>

Glycemic Control And Vascular Complications In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Glycemic Control And Vascular Complications In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION Morbidity from diabetes is a consequence of both macrovascular disease (atherosclerosis) and microvascular disease (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy). Epidemiologic studies first showed an association between poor glycemic control and microvascular complications [1-4]. The causal relationship of this association was confirmed in the prospective Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), which demonstrated that intensive therapy aimed at lower levels of glycemia results in decreased rates of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes patients [5,6]. Similar findings have been noted in other studies [7]. The importance of tight glycemic control for protection against macrovascular disease in diabetes has also been established in the DCCT/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study for type 1 diabetes. In the EDIC follow-up study to the DCCT, intensive insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes decreased fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events [8]. The effects of glycemic control on microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes will be reviewed here. Glycemic control and vascular complications in type 2 diabetes is discussed separately. (See "Glycemic control and vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus".) PATHOGENESIS The mechanism by which lack of glycemic control predisposes to vascular disease is incompletely understood. Two proposed contributing factors are advanced glycation end products and sorbitol; protein kinase C and other factors also may contribute (algorithm 1). In addition to systemic factors, organ-specific factors also appear to be important. In the kidney, for example, stimulation of mesangial matrix production by hyperglycemia, activation of protein Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Long-term Complications Of Diabetes

Long-term Complications Of Diabetes

Helping kids with diabetes manage their blood sugar levels is a key part of preventing long-term diabetes problems. Here's why. What Long-Term Complications Can Diabetes Cause? Long-term complications related to diabetes are often linked to having high blood sugar levels over a long period of time. But blood sugar control isn't the only thing that determines someone's risk for complications. Things like genetics also can play a role. Many diabetes complications don't appear until after many years of having the disease. They usually develop silently and slowly over time. So even if kids show no symptoms, they still might eventually have problems. Managing diabetes with good nutrition, regular exercise, and medicine can help protect kids from these problems. The major organs and body systems involved in diabetes complications are the: People with diabetes have a greater risk for eye problems, including: Cataracts: A cataract is a thickening and clouding of the lens of the eye. The lens is the part of the eye that helps you focus on what you see. People with diabetes are more likely to develop cataracts. Cataracts can make vision blurry or impair night vision. Cataracts that affect vision can be surgically removed. Retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy involves changes in the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. These are due to damage to, or abnormal growth of, the small blood vessels in the retina, which are thought to be related to high blood sugar levels over time. Someone with retinopathy may not have vision problems at first, but if the condition becomes severe, it can cause blindness. Retinopathy is more likely to become a problem in people with diabetes who also have high blood pressure or use tobacco. Kids with diabetes usually go for annual exa Continue reading >>

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