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Vitamin D And Insulin Resistance

Analysis Of Association Between Vitamin D Deficiency And Insulin Resistance

Analysis Of Association Between Vitamin D Deficiency And Insulin Resistance

Analysis of Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Insulin Resistance Received 2019 Feb 27; Accepted 2019 Apr 1. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( ). This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Recent evidence revealed extra skeleton activity of vitamin D, including prevention from cardiometabolic diseases and cancer development as well as anti-inflammatory properties. It is worth noting that vitamin D deficiency is very common and may be associated with the pathogenesis of insulin-resistance-related diseases, including obesity and diabetes. This review aims to provide molecular mechanisms showing how vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the insulin resistance formation. The PUBMED database and published reference lists were searched to find studies published between 1980 and 2019. It was identified that molecular action of vitamin D is involved in maintaining the normal resting levels of ROS and Ca2+, not only in pancreatic -cells, but also in insulin responsive tissues. Both genomic and non-genomic action of vitamin D is directed towards insulin signaling. Thereby, vitamin D reduces the extent of pathologies associated with insulin resistance such as oxidative stress and inflammation. More recently, it was also shown that vitamin D prevents epigenetic alterations associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is one of the factors accelerating insulin resistance formation. The results of basic and clinical research support beneficial action of vitamin D in the reduction of insulin resistance and related pathologies. Keywords: insulin resistance, insulin-responsive tissues, vit Continue reading >>

Role Of Vitamin D In Insulin Resistance In Obese Individuals

Role Of Vitamin D In Insulin Resistance In Obese Individuals

Role of vitamin D in insulin resistance in obese individuals Dilinado Nascimento Marreiro Email author Vitamin D is a fat-soluble compound responsible for promoting intestinal absorption of calcium, and this, in turn, acts as a signal transmitter or activator as protein in secretory processes and release of hormones. Vitamin D receptors are distributed in various tissues of the body and involved in biochemical reactions in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as obesity. The aim of this article is to provide updated information on the role of vitamin D in insulin resistance in obese individuals. It was conducted a search of articles published in PubMED, SciELO, and LILACSdatabase, without limit for the year of publication, using the keywords vitamin D, insulin resistance, and obesity. Excess adipose tissue seems to impair insulin signaling by inhibiting the phosphorylation of its receptor, resulting in insulin resistance. Studies have evidenced role of vitamin D in mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obesity by acting in improving glycemic control both by increasing hepatic and peripheral glucose uptake and by promoting the secretion of this hormone. Vitamin D exerts a protective effect in the treatment and prevention of insulin resistance in patients with obesity and protects the body against oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, contributing to glycemic control. Unfortunately, current data related to the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance are still inconclusive. Homeostatic model assessmentInsulin resistance Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2 Obesity is characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat, resulting in an imbalance between consu Continue reading >>

Effects Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance And Myosteatosis In Diet-induced Obese Mice

Effects Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance And Myosteatosis In Diet-induced Obese Mice

Effects of vitamin D on insulin resistance and myosteatosis in diet-induced obese mice Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Visualization Affiliation Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Affiliation Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Affiliation Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Affiliation Department of Public Health, Molecular and Forensic Medicine, and Sport Medicine Centre Voghera, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Affiliation Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Affiliation Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Affiliation Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Contributed equally to this work with: Massimo Collino, Marco Alessandro Minetto Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Contributed equally to this work with: Massimo Collino, Marco Alessandro Minetto Roles Conceptualization, Supervision, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliations Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Continue reading >>

What To Know About Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes Risk

What To Know About Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes Risk

While experts in diabetes care validate a genuine link between diabetes and vitamin D, there is no clear consensus on the effectiveness of supplements. Getty Images A recent study published by the European Journal of Endocrinology set out to determine whether consistent vitamin D3 supplementation could improve insulin sensitivity in patients either newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or at high risk of developing the disease. Consisting of 96 randomized patients, the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included giving patients 5,000 international units (IUs) daily for 6 months. In individuals at high risk of diabetes or with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, vitamin D supplementation for 6 months significantly increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and -cell function, suggesting that it may slow metabolic deterioration in this population, explained the recent report. has failed to find a benefit from vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity. on vitamin Ds effect on insulin sensitivity and secretion included dosages of 4,000 IUs for nearly three years. The results were unimpressive with only a 2 percent difference between the group that did develop type 2 diabetes and the group that did not. Was the success of this recent study the result of looser standards, or was the dosage of 5,000 IUs per day finally high enough to have a noticeable impact? Researchers suggest past studies may have failed to prove the benefits of vitamin D supplementation due to variables including ethnicity, glucose tolerance, and vitamin D dosage and duration during the study. Experts in diabetes care validate a genuine link between diabetes and vitamin D. Low levels of vitamin D is a prevalent issue in people with and without diabetes across the globe. Research has repeatedly found Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Vitamin D Supplementation On Insulin And Glucose Metabolism In Overweight And Obese Individuals: Systematic Review With Meta-analysis

The Effect Of Vitamin D Supplementation On Insulin And Glucose Metabolism In Overweight And Obese Individuals: Systematic Review With Meta-analysis

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose and insulin metabolism in overweight and obese subjects. The search process was based on the selection of publications listed in the databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Embase and the Cochrane library that met the inclusion criteria. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included. The analysed population consisted of 1181 individuals with BMIs >23 kg/m2. Changes in the concentration of 25(OH)D, fasting glucose, insulin and the HOMA-IR index were assessed. In the meta-regression analysis, a restricted maximum likelihood method was applied. To combine individual study results, a meta-analysis was performed. Vitamin D supplementation did not have an effect on glucose concentrations, insulin level and HOMA-IR values when the supplemented dose, time of supplementation and baseline of 25(OH)D concentration were taken under consideration in subgroup-analysis. This meta-analysis provides evidence that vitamin D supplementation has no significant effect on glucose and insulin metabolism in overweight and obese individuals. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), in 2013, 8.3% of adults in the world suffered from diabetes1. Around 80–90% of people with type 2 diabetes are obese or overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2)2,3. It is well-known that obesity is related to insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia4,5,6. Therefore, obesity has been recognized as one of the most important single risk factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, the role of vitamin D in the regulation of insulin secretion is highly investigated7,8. New findings suggest that supplementation with vitamin D could influence insulin secretion and improve Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Tweet Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the health of your bones, teeth and joints, and assisting immune system function. This underrated vitamin is found in certain foods but is also produced by the body in response to exposure to the sun. When the sun’s ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays are exposed to bare skin, the body converts a cholesterol derivative into Vitamin D. In fact, it’s now known that every cell and tissue within the body has a Vitamin D protein receptor. However, most of us in the UK and other Western countries are deficient in Vitamin D, including many patients with Type 2 diabetes, due to limited sunlight exposure caused by a number of factors, including more time spent at home, in the office or the car, shorter days in winter, sunscreen use in summer and fears of skin cancer. Vitamin D deficiency The signs of Vitamin D deficiency can range from bone pain and muscle weakness to depression and weakened immune system, while longer-term deficiency can result in obesity, high blood pressure, psoriasis, osteoporosis, chronic fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Exposing your skin to the sun for 15-20 minutes each day can help increase your body’s own production of vitamin D and thus reduce your risk of diabetes and other serious medical conditions. Alternatively, you can get your daily intake of vitamin D through dietary supplements and foods such as nuts, oily fish, eggs, powdered milk and some fortified cereals. Effects on diabetes Vitamin D is believed to help improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin – the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels – and thus reduce the risk of insulin resistance, which is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>

(pdf) Role Of Vitamin D In The Development Of Insulin Resistance And Type 2 Diabetes

(pdf) Role Of Vitamin D In The Development Of Insulin Resistance And Type 2 Diabetes

All content in this area was uploaded by Hanne (A.J.) Van Ballegooijen ISSUES IN THE NUTRITIONAL TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES AND OBESITY (E MAYER-DAVIS, SECTION EDITOR) Role of Vitamin D in the Development of Insulin Resistance Stefan Pilz &Katharina Kienreich &Femke Rutters & Renate de Jongh &Adriana J. van Ballegooijen & #Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is mainly a consequence of insufficient sunlight induced vitamin D production in the skin and has been associated with various chronic diseases includ- ing type 2 diabetes. Experimental data have shown that vitamin D is important for glucose induced insulin secretion, improves insulin resistance, and exerts anti-inflammatory actions. Epi- demiological studies have largely documented that a poor vitamin D status is associated with higher risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The majority of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in healthy or prediabetic individuals have, however, failed to demonstrate relevant vitamin D effects on insulin resistance or diabetes incidence. In patients with type 2 diabetes, a few RCTs reported some moderate effects of vitamin D on glycemic control and insulin resistance. While these findings warrant further in-depth studies, the current evidence is insufficient to recommend vitamin D supplemen- tation for the prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. Keywords Vitamin D .Cholecalciferol .Insulin resistance . Vitamin D plays a crucial role in bone and mineral metabolism and has been increasingly linked to extra-skeletal diseases, including diabetes mellitus and its complications [16]. Iden- tification of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in almost all human cells and the fact that VDR activation regulates hundreds of genes is regarde Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Oral Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Pre-diabetic Patients

The Effects Of Oral Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Pre-diabetic Patients

The effects of oral vitamin D on insulin resistance in pre-diabetic patients Seyed A. Hoseini , Ashraf Aminorroaya , Bijan Iraj , and Massoud Amini Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Address for correspondence: Prof. Massoud Amini, Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Sedigheh Tahereh Research, Complex, Khorram Street, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: [email protected]_m Received 2012 Oct 18; Revised 2012 Nov 18; Accepted 2012 Dec 18. Copyright : Journal of Research in Medical Sciences This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Some epidemiological and interventional studies have shown the role of vitamin D on insulin secretion and resistance. A previous study in our center showed that intramuscular vitamin D decreases insulin sensitivity in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated the role of oral vitamin D on the insulin sensitivity index and insulin resistance in pre-diabetic patients. In a randomized clinical trial, we divided 45 people with pre-diabetes aged 47.4 6.6 (range 33-61) years into three groups: group A subjects treated with 50,000 IU oral vitamin D and 500 mg calcium carbonate (n = 21), group B subjects treated with a single 300,000 IU intramuscular vitamin D and 500 mg calcium carbonate (n = 9), and group C subjects treated with 500 mg calcium carbonate alone (n = 15). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] was measured at Continue reading >>

Effects Of 6-month Vitamin D Supplementation On Insulin Sensitivity And Secretion: A Randomised, Placebo-controlled Trial

Effects Of 6-month Vitamin D Supplementation On Insulin Sensitivity And Secretion: A Randomised, Placebo-controlled Trial

To determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. This single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomised 96 participants at high risk of diabetes or with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes to vitamin D3 5000 IU daily or placebo for 6 months. We assessed at baseline and 6 months: (1) primary aim: peripheral insulin sensitivity (M-value using a 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp); (2) secondary aims: other insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, C-peptide area under the curve, HOMA2-B) indices using a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); -cell function (disposition index: M-value insulinogenic index); fasting and 2-h glucose post OGTT; HbA1c; anthropometry. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (% or mean s.d.): women 38.5%; age 58.7 9.4 years; BMI 32.2 4.1 kg/m2; prediabetes 35.8%; diabetes 20.0%; 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) 51.1 14.2 nmol/L. At 6 months, mean 25(OH)D reached 127.6 26.3 nmol/L and 51.8 16.5 nmol/L in the treatment and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). A beneficial effect of vitamin D3 compared with placebo was observed on M-value (mean change (95% CI): 0.92 (0.241.59) vs 0.03 (0.73 to 0.67); P = 0.009) and disposition index (mean change (95% CI): 267.0 (343.4 to 877.4) vs 55.5 (696.3 to 585.3); P = 0.039) after 6 months. No effect was seen on other outcomes. In individuals at high risk of diabetes or with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, vitamin D supplementation for 6 months significantly increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and -cell function, suggesting that it may slow metabolic deterioration in this population. Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Supplementation Increases Insulin Sensitivity, Beta-cell Function

Vitamin D Supplementation Increases Insulin Sensitivity, Beta-cell Function

Vitamin D supplementation increases insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function Please provide your email address to receive an email when new articles are posted on this topic. Receive an email when new articles are posted on this topic. Taking 5,000 IU of vitamin D per day may improve insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function for those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, according to findings published in the European Journal of Endocrinology. Since low vitamin D status is highly prevalent worldwide, the potential role of vitamin D supplementation in improving glucose homeostasis generated great enthusiasm among scientists and clinicians, Claudia Gagnon, MD, clinician researcher at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Qubec-Universit Laval in Qubec City, Canada, and colleagues wrote. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation have shown inconstant effects on measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and [beta]-cell function. Ninety-six participants (mean age, 58.7 years; 38.5% women) took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study at CHU de Qubec-Universit Laval. A daily regimen of either 5,000 IU of vitamin D3 or placebo was randomly assigned to the participants, who were all aged at least 25 years and had newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes or were considered at high risk based on waist circumference and insulin resistance indicators. All participants had a baseline serum 25-hydroxvitamin D level of 55 mmol/L or less. The researchers assessed peripheral insulin sensitivity via M-value, which was obtained from a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp at baseline and at 6 months from study enrollment, which took place from January 2013 to October 2016. The researchers also evaluated hepatic insulin sensitivity, whole-body i Continue reading >>

Small Study: Vitamin D Repletion May Decrease Insulin Resistance

Small Study: Vitamin D Repletion May Decrease Insulin Resistance

Small study: Vitamin D repletion may decrease insulin resistance WASHINGTON Normalizing vitamin D levels correlated with lower insulin resistance and decreased adipose fibrosis in obese patients, according to a study presented at the Eastern regional meeting of the American Federation for Medical Research. Approximately 86 million U.S. patients have prediabetes, according to Diabetes Report Card 2014, the most recent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vitamin D therapy may be able to help lower that number and prevent diabetes in some patients, Jee Young You, MD, a research fellow at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, said at the meeting. When theres increased adiposity, there is reduction of the blood flow which will further lead to inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis, which all together leads to insulin resistance, Dr. You said. It is shown that there are vitamin D receptors present on adipocytes, so we hypothesize repleting vitamin D will help in reducing this inflammation. In a double blind study, Dr. You and her colleagues randomized 11 obese patients, with an average body mass index of 34 kg/m2, insulin resistance, and vitamin D deficiency to vitamin D repletion therapy. Eight similar patients served as controls. The average age was 43 years. Patients in the test group were placed on a step schedule for vitamin D supplementation. For 3 months, they received 40,000 IU of vitamin D3 weekly in an effort to reach a target 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of greater than 30 ng/ml. Patients then received another 3 months of the same supplementation with an aim to reach a target level of greater than 50 ng/ml. We wanted to see if there was a dose dependent effect for vitamin D in patients, Dr. You said. Endogenous glucose Continue reading >>

Low Levels Of Vitamin D And Minerals Increase Insulin Resistance

Low Levels Of Vitamin D And Minerals Increase Insulin Resistance

Low Levels of Vitamin D and Minerals Increase Insulin Resistance A study published in the Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research compared the levels of vitamin D3, calcium, and magnesium in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Researchers examined 30 diabetic patients and 30 matched controls. Glucose, insulin, and vitamin D3 levels were measured using fasting blood samples.1 Compared to vitamin D3 levels (19.55 ng/mL) found in healthy controls, levels (12.29 mg/mL) in the diabetic group were lower.In patients with diabetes, calcium and magnesium levels were low whereas fasting glucose and insulin levels and insulin resistance are high. Higher insulin levels are expected in individuals with insulin resistance. When cells are insulin resistant, theybecome ineffective in transportingglucosemoleculesinto cells. Because of this, theres more glucose circulating in the blood. In the presence of elevated blood glucose, the beta cells of the pancreas work harder to release more insulin. Eventually, the pancreas becomes exhausted and is no longer able to pump out insulin. Together, elevated blood glucose levels and ineffective pancreatic beta cells lead to type 2 diabetes. Circulating blood glucose levels are associated with many other chronic medical conditions like dementia, heart disease, obesity, and cancer. Nutrients are required for various functions in cells. Calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D3 all play important roles in disease prevention and health. When it comes to type 2 diabetes, vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium have been associated with supporting glycemic control. The following table highlights the effects of these nutrients and their food sources: Supports pancreatic beta cell activityBeta cells possess vitamin D receptors2Animal studies show that missing vitamin Continue reading >>

Does Vitamin D Deficiency Lead To Insulin Resistance In Obese Individuals?

Does Vitamin D Deficiency Lead To Insulin Resistance In Obese Individuals?

Research Article - Biomedical Research (2017) Volume 28, Issue 17 Does vitamin D deficiency lead to insulin resistance in obese individuals? Zeynep Hlya Durmaz 1 * , Aslhan Dilara Demir 2 , Tuba Ozkan 3 , etin Kln 4 , Rdvan Gkan 4 and Meral Tiryaki 5 1 Department of Biochemistry, Amasya University Research Hospital, Amasya, Turkey 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Amasya University Research Hospital, Amasya, Turkey 3 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Amasya University Research Hospital, Amasya, Turkey 4 Department of Microbiology, Amasya University Research Hospital, Amasya, Turkey 5 Department of Pathology, Dkap Yldrm Beyazt Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Visit for more related articles at Biomedical Research Aim: Obesity has become an important health problem in developed and developing countries. Nowadays, vitamin D deficiency is very common in obese individuals. Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other diseases. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D deficiency on insulin resistance in obese subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 individuals, (146 females and 24 males) were included in the study. According to Body Mass Index (BMI), patients were divided into 3 groups. Serum vitamin D was compared with insulin resistance and HbA1c. Results: It was shown that serum vitamin D levels were statistically decreased according to BMI. There was also a statistically significant increase in Hba1c level due to increased BMI. There is also a positive correlation between BMI and insulin resistance. Positive correlation was found between HbA1C and insulin resistance. There was no statistically significant difference between the levels of insuli Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Insulin Resistance In T2dm

Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Insulin Resistance In T2dm

Home / Resources / Articles / Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Insulin Resistance in T2DM Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Insulin Resistance in T2DM There have been studies showing a relationship between T2DM and vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency can be seen in diseases such as CVD, metabolic syndrome disorders and osteoporosis. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is more common in women with T2DM. Vitamin D plays many different roles in the body such as increasing calcium concentration in the cells, regulating the peroxisome proliferative activated receptor (PPAR), and anti-inflammatory properties. This was an 8-week single blind study, which included 100 patients with T2DM. Patients were given vitamin D3 with their current diet and drug regimen. Patients were told to keep their same medications and diet regimens. After treatment with vitamin D3, FPG and insulin concentration decreased significantly. Hemostatic model assessment-Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) showed a reduction after vitamin supplementation was given. Mean serum concentration of TC, TG, HDL or LDL cholesterol did not change after eight weeks of supplementation. It appears that 25(OH)D concentration and final FPG has an inverse relationship. The higher concentration of 25(OH)D led to a lower level of FPG. When concentration of vitamin d was 40-60 ng/ml, the effect of vitamin D on insulin resistance was significant. A limitation on the study was that a placebo was not used when comparing the effects of vitamin D in T2DM. T2DM patients have lower concentration of 25(OH)D Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency more common in women with T2DM FPG and insulin concentration decreased after treatment of vitamin D Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome February 2013 Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Insulin Action And Secretion An Overview Of Current Understanding And Future Perspectives

Vitamin D And Insulin Action And Secretion An Overview Of Current Understanding And Future Perspectives

Vitamin D is obtained from sun exposure, diet (oily fish or fortified dairy products) and dietary supplements. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is a valid marker of vitamin D status.1 Very low levels of 25(OH)D (e.g. Vitamin D is obtained from sun exposure, diet (oily fish or fortified dairy products) and dietary supplements. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is a valid marker of vitamin D status.1 Very low levels of 25(OH)D (e.g. <2025nmol/l) have long been recognised as the cause of rickets in childhood and in adults can give rise to skeletal and muscular abnormalities.2 Research in recent years has indicated that vitamin D concentrations not low enough to result in skeletal abnormalities are nevertheless associated with a number of pathological conditions.3 It has therefore been suggested that serum 25(OH)D concentration should preferably be above 75nmol/l.2,4 With this background, hypovitaminosis D may be considered a major health problem, with more than one billion people worldwide having either vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency.2 During recent years, a considerable body of evidence has emerged suggesting that vitamin D may also have an impact on the development of type 2 diabetes (see Figure 1).57 Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) revealed that vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.6 Conversely, in the Nurses Health Study, Pittas et al. reported a 33% decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in women with high vitamin D intake compared to women with low intake.8 Resistance to the metabolic actions of insulin in the liver and muscle, and insulin secretory dysfunction in the -cells of the pancreas are the main pathophysiological disturbances t Continue reading >>

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