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Types Of Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Synthetic human insulin is identical to your own. However, relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, regular human insulin has several undesirable features. Synthetic human insulin is identical in structure to your own natural insulin. But when it is injected under the skin it doesn’t work as well as natural insulin. This is because injected human insulin clumps together and takes a long time to get absorbed. The activity of this synthetic human insulin is not well synchronized with your body’s needs. In this section, you will find information about: Fast-acting injected insulin Relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, Regular human insulin has undesirable features, such as a delayed onset of action, and variable peak and duration of action when it is injected under the skin. Because of this, fewer and fewer medical providers are prescribing Regular insulin. The delayed onset of action is the reason you have to inject the insulin and wait before eating. And the variable duration of action predisposes to low blood sugars long after the meal is over. REGULAR INSULIN IS LESS PREDICTABLE THAN RAPID-ACTING ANALOG VERSIONS when injected under the skin. Long-acting injected insulin NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) is a longer-acting human insulin that is used to cover blood sugar between meals, and to satisfy your overnight insulin requirement. A fish protein, protamine, has been added to the Regular human insulin to delay its absorption. This long acting insulin is a cloudy suspension that needs to be remixed thoroughly before each injection. Because NPH is a suspension of different sized crystals, it has a very unpredictable absorption rate and action. This results in more frequent low and high blood sugars. The use of NPH has declined with the availability of o Continue reading >>

Recombinant Human Insulin

Recombinant Human Insulin

Insulin is a preparation for use in diabetes therapy. It is not a drug that cures the source of the disease but only a substitute for the hormone, which is lacking or unavailable to the cells of the patient’s organism. The number of people actually using this preparation in Poland has reached 360 thousand, the figure based on data by Polish Diabetes Association. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes results from the genetic, inborn damage to the beta cells in the pancreas, responsible for insulin production. The symptoms of the disease derive from a deficiency or a complete lack of endogenous insulin. Diabetes of this type emerges in childhood or in adolescence and involves the administration of insulin for the whole life. Dosage of the preparation for these patients is usually average. Life expectancy measured from the start of the therapy is between 50-60 years. Patients with type I diabetes account for 10% of the total number of patients undergoing insulin treatment, this figure based on data by Polish Diabetes Association; Type 2 diabetes usually emerges in patients after the age of 40 and is related to eating habits and obesity. Patients from this group begin their therapy with drugs administered orally and after a period of time the progress of the disease forces many of them to use insulin, initially with small and gradually increasing to very high doses. In diabetes of this type there is no insulin deficiency. Its essential characteristic is the fact that tissue vulnerability to this hormone is steadily fading. The phenomenon, which is called insulin resistance, leads to the consumption of huge doses of exogenous insulin by patients with advanced phases of the disease. Presently, four types of insulin are available worldwide: Animal insulin - o Continue reading >>

Insulin A To Z: A Guide On Different Types Of Insulin

Insulin A To Z: A Guide On Different Types Of Insulin

Elizabeth Blair, A.N.P., at Joslin Diabetes Center, helps break down the different types of insulin and how they work for people with diabetes. Types of Insulin for People with Diabetes Rapid-acting: Usually taken before a meal to cover the blood glucose elevation from eating. This type of insulin is used with longer-acting insulin. Short-acting: Usually taken about 30 minutes before a meal to cover the blood glucose elevation from eating. This type of insulin is used with longer-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting: Covers the blood glucose elevations when rapid-acting insulins stop working. This type of insulin is often combined with rapid- or short-acting insulin and is usually taken twice a day. Long-acting: This type of insulin is often combined, when needed, with rapid- or short-acting insulin. It lowers blood glucose levels when rapid-acting insulins stop working. It is taken once or twice a day. A Guide on Insulin Types for People with Diabetes Type Brand Name Onset (length of time before insulin reaches bloodstream) Peak (time period when insulin is most effective) Duration (how long insulin works for) Rapid-acting Humalog Novolog Apidra 10 - 30 minutes 30 minutes - 3 hours 3 - 5 hours Short-acting Regular (R) 30 minutes - 1 hour 2 - 5 hours Up to 12 hours Intermediate- acting NPH (N) 1.5 - 4 hours 4 - 12 hours Up to 24 hours Long-acting Lantus Levemir 0.8 - 4 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours To make an appointment with a Joslin diabetes nurse educator, please call (617) 732-2400. Continue reading >>

Short Acting Insulin Analogues Versus Regular Human Insulin In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Short Acting Insulin Analogues Versus Regular Human Insulin In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Short acting insulin analogues (Lispro, Aspart, Glulisine) act more quickly than regular human insulin. It can be injected immediately before meals and leads to lower blood sugar levels after food intake. Our analysis showed that short acting insulin analogues were almost identically effective to regular human insulin in long term glycaemic control and were associated with similar episodes of low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia). No information on late complications such as problems with the eyes, kidneys or feet are existing. Until long term safety data are available we suggest a cautious response to the vigorous promotion of insulin analogues. Our analysis suggests only a minor benefit of short acting insulin analogues in the majority of diabetic patients treated with insulin. Until long term efficacy and safety data are available we suggest a cautious response to the vigorous promotion of insulin analogues. For safety purposes, we need a long-term follow-up of large numbers of patients and well designed studies in pregnant women to determine the safety profile for both the mother and the unborn child. You may also be interested in: Continue reading >>

Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Tweet Human insulin is the name which describes synthetic insulin which is laboratory grown to mimic the insulin in humans. Human insulin was developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982. Before human insulin was developed animal insulin, usually a purified form of porcine (pork) insulin, was used. How is human insulin produced? Human insulin is laboratory created by growing insulin proteins within E-coli bacteria (Escherichia coli). What types of human insulin are available? Human insulin is available in two forms, a short acting (regular) form and an intermediate acting (NPH) form. NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is a suspension meaning that the insulin vial should be rolled or repeatedly turned upside down to ensure the solution is uniformly cloudy. Some examples of human insulin: Regular (short acting): Humulin S, Actrapid, Insuman Rapid NPH (intermediate acting): Humulin I, Insuman basal, Insulatard Premixed human insulins: Humulin M2, M3 and M5, Insuman Comb 15, 25 and 50 What are premixed human insulins? Premixed insulins consist of a mix of regular and NPH insulin. The premixed insulins are available in a number of different ratios of mixing. For example Humulin M3 is a mix of 30% short acting to 70% intermediate whereas Humulin M5 is made up of 50% of both short and intermediate acting. In recent years there has been a trend to replace human insulins with newer premixed analogue insulins. How quickly do human insulins act? Short acting (regular) insulin starts to act from about 30 minutes after injecting, with their peak action occurring between 2 and 3 hours after injecting. The duration is up to 10 hours. Intermediate acting (NPH) insulin takes about 2 to 4 hours to start acting, h Continue reading >>

Insulin Analogues In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Getting Better All The Time

Insulin Analogues In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Getting Better All The Time

The treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus consists of external replacement of the functions of β cells in an attempt to achieve blood levels of glucose as close to the normal range as possible. This approach means that glucose sensing needs to be replaced and levels of insulin need to mimic physiological insulin-action profiles, including basal coverage and changes around meals. Training and educating patients are crucial for the achievement of good glycaemic control, but having insulin preparations with action profiles that provide stable basal insulin coverage and appropriate mealtime insulin peaks helps people with type 1 diabetes mellitus to live active lives without sacrificing tight glycaemic control. Insulin analogues enable patients to achieve this goal, as some have fast action profiles, and some have very slow action profiles, which gives people with type 1 diabetes mellitus the tools to achieve dynamic insulin-action profiles that enable tight glycaemic control with a risk of hypoglycaemia that is lower than that with human short-acting and long-acting insulins. This Review discusses the established and novel insulin analogues that are used to treat patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and provides insights into the future development of insulin analogues. Lucidi, P. et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic doses of basal insulins NPH, glargine, and detemir after 1 week of daily administration at bedtime in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized cross-over study. Diabetes Care 34, 1312–1314 (2011). Russell-Jones, D. et al. Fast-acting insulin aspart improves glycemic control in basal-bolus treatment for type 1 diabetes: Results of a 26-week multicenter, active-controlled, treat-to-target, randomized, parallel-group trial (Onset 1). Dia Continue reading >>

The Different Types Of Insulin For Type 1 Diabetes

The Different Types Of Insulin For Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes involves a deficiency of insulin production due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, in other words the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. As a result, these cells can't produce insulin in adequate amounts to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. This leads to hyperglycaemia (excess of glucose in the bloodstream) and weight loss, accompanied by ketoacidosis (acid build-up), during which the body breaks down fat into fatty acids and ketones. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in the teenage years, but may have an earlier or later onset, with the hallmark being the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis either at presentation or in the absence of insulin therapy. Type 1 diabetics require insulin therapy to maintain normal glucose and lipid metabolism. This is non-negotiable, and there are really no other alternatives in the management of this condition, which can be life-threatening. a. Human insulin vs. insulin analogues Insulin was previously harvested from animal pancreas, but this form of insulin included impurities, which lead to allergies in some people. Current insulin preparations are manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and can be broadly classified into two categories: Human insulin, which is identical to human insulin in structure. Human insulin analogues, in which one or two amino acids of human insulin are changed or substituted. Contrary to what one would expect, human insulin (Actrapid, Humulin N, Insuman, Humulin 30/70, Actraphane and Insuman 30/70) given subcutaneously (beneath the skin) doesn't act optimally. This is due to delayed or variable absorption, which leads to day-to-day variations in glucose. This led to the development of the human insulin analogues, which have a more consistent abso Continue reading >>

Insulin Analogs—are They Worth It? Yes!

Insulin Analogs—are They Worth It? Yes!

The availability of insulin analogs has offered insulin replacement strategies that are proposed to more closely mimic normal human physiology. Specifically, there are a considerable number of reports demonstrating that prandial insulin analogs (lispro, aspart, glulisine) have pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles closer to normal, with resulting faster onset and offset of insulin effect when compared with regular human insulin. In addition, basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir) have been reported to offer longer duration of action, less variability, more predictability, less hypoglycemia (especially nocturnal), and a favorable effect on weight. However, an argument against use of analog insulins as compared with use of regular or NPH insulin is one that states that the effectiveness and risk of hypoglycemia are the only two valid clinical outcomes that should be used to compare the analog and human insulins. Thus, there remains a debate in some circles that analog insulins are no more effective than human insulins, yet at a much higher financial cost. To provide an in-depth understanding of both sides of the argument, we provide a discussion of this topic as part of this two-part point-counterpoint narrative. In the counterpoint narrative, Dr. Davidson provides his argument and defends his opinion that outside of a few exceptions, analog insulins provide no clinical benefit compared with human insulins but cost much more. In the point narrative presented here, Dr. Grunberger provides a defense of analog insulins and their value in clinical management and suggests that when evaluating the “cost” of therapy, a much more global assessment is needed. Editor in Chief, Diabetes Care Introduction Insulin analogs offer insulin replacement strategy that results i Continue reading >>

Insulin Analog

Insulin Analog

An insulin analog is an altered form of insulin, different from any occurring in nature, but still available to the human body for performing the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control. Through genetic engineering of the underlying DNA, the amino acid sequence of insulin can be changed to alter its ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) characteristics. Officially, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) refers to these as "insulin receptor ligands", although they are more commonly referred to as insulin analogs. These modifications have been used to create two types of insulin analogs: those that are more readily absorbed from the injection site and therefore act faster than natural insulin injected subcutaneously, intended to supply the bolus level of insulin needed at mealtime (prandial insulin); and those that are released slowly over a period of between 8 and 24 hours, intended to supply the basal level of insulin during the day and particularly at nighttime (basal insulin). The first insulin analog approved for human therapy (insulin Lispro rDNA) was manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company. Fast acting[edit] Lispro[edit] Main article: Insulin lispro Eli Lilly and Company developed and marketed the first rapid-acting insulin analogue (insulin lispro rDNA) Humalog. It was engineered through recombinant DNA technology so that the penultimate lysine and proline residues on the C-terminal end of the B-chain were reversed. This modification did not alter the insulin receptor binding, but blocked the formation of insulin dimers and hexamers. This allowed larger amounts of active monomeric insulin to be available for postprandial (after meal) injections.[1] Aspart[edit] Main article: Insulin aspart Novo Nordisk created "aspart" and Continue reading >>

How Are The Insulins Commonly Classified?

How Are The Insulins Commonly Classified?

Nowadays, the insulins available for use are generally classified based on their predicted onset and duration of action, as outlined below. The common classifications are: Long-acting analogue ‘Analogues’ are insulins where the natural amino acid sequence has been modified to either promote faster or slower action than with natural insulin. Please note that the commercial brand names of the insulin products can vary internationally. Reasons for the variation in onset and duration of action of the same insulin class in different people will be explored during Weeks 3 and 4. Rapid acting analogue (in all cases 1mL liquid volume = 100 units of insulin (U100) Insulins where the natural amino acid sequence has been modified to promote faster action than with natural insulin Should all be taken just before or with food Onset of action: Within 15 minutes Duration of action: 3-5 hours All times can vary from person to person Types of ‘rapid acting analogue’: Insulin aspart (available as NovoRapid or, in a new faster-acting form, Fiasp in the UK) Insulin lispro (available as Humalog in the UK) Insulin glulisine (available as Apidra in the UK) Short acting or neutral (in all cases 1mL liquid volume = 100 units of insulin (U100) Insulin either human or derived from animals Should all be taken 20-30 minutes before food Onset of action: Within 30 minutes Duration of action: 6-8 hours All times vary from person to person Types of ‘short acting/neutral’: Human insulin (available as Actrapid in the UK) Human insulin (available as Humulin S in the UK) Human insulin (available as Insuman Rapid in the UK) Derived from cows (available as Hypurin Bovine Neutral in the UK) Derived from pigs (available as Hypurin Porcine Neutral in the UK) Medium or intermediate and long-acting (I Continue reading >>

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Glucose is a type of sugar from food that the body uses for energy. The level of glucose in the bloodstream usually rises after a meal. To be efficiently utilized by the body, glucose in the bloodstream needs to enter the body’s cells. If glucose is unable to enter the cells, blood glucose levels rise leading to hyperglycemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages nerves, blood vessels and vital organs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. The beta cells release more insulin whenever there is a rise in blood glucose levels. Insulin enables glucose to enter the cells, thereby restoring normal blood glucose levels and allowing efficient glucose metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin because the disease has destroyed the beta cells of their pancreas. People with type 2 diabetes can produce insulin but their body does not respond well to it, a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in pregnant women with gestational diabetes because the placenta (organ that connects the fetus to the mother’s blood supply) produces insulin-blocking hormones. Insulin therapy replaces or supplements the body’s own insulin, thereby restoring normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. It is one of the cornerstones of diabetes management, providing intensive blood glucose control crucial in preventing diabetes-related complications. Why is insulin injected into the fat under the skin rather than taken as a pill? Because insulin taken in pill form would be broken down by digestive enzymes and rendered ineffective. The first generation of man-made insulin is called “human insulin.” Developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982, human insulin is the name given to synthet Continue reading >>

Human Insulin Market - Drugs (biologics, Biosimilars), Type (short Acting, Long Acting, Premixed), Brands (lantus, Novorapid, Humalog), Delivery Devices (pens, Pen Needles, Syringes), Applications (type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes) - Forecasts To 2020

Human Insulin Market - Drugs (biologics, Biosimilars), Type (short Acting, Long Acting, Premixed), Brands (lantus, Novorapid, Humalog), Delivery Devices (pens, Pen Needles, Syringes), Applications (type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes) - Forecasts To 2020

HOME › Top Market Reports › Human Insulin Market - Drugs (Biologics, Biosimilars), Type (Short Acting, Long Acting, Premixed), Brands (Lantus, NovoRapid, Humalog), Delivery Devices (Pens, Pen Needles, Syringes), Applications (Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes) - Forecasts to 2020 The global human insulin market is projected to reach USD 39.13 Billion by 2020 growing at a CAGR of 8.1% from 2015 to 2020. Base year considered for the report is 2014. Objectives of the study are: To define, describe, and forecast the global human insulin market on the basis of product, human insulin drugs type, human insulin drugs brand, delivery device, and application To provide detailed information regarding major factors influencing growth of the market (drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges) To strategically analyze micromarkets1 with respect to individual growth trends, future prospects, and contributions to the overall market To analyze opportunities in the market for stakeholders and provide details of the competitive landscape for leading market players To forecast the size of the market segments with respect to four main regions, namely, North America (U.S. and Canada), Europe (Germany, France, U.K., and Rest of Europe), Asia-Pacific (Japan, China, India, and Rest of Asia-Pacific), and the Rest of the World To strategically profile the key market players and comprehensively analyze their market shares and core competencies2 To track and analyze competitive developments such as joint ventures; mergers and acquisitions; new product developments; and partnerships, agreements, and collaborations in the human insulin market Research Methodology This research study involved the extensive use of secondary sources, directories, and databases (such as Hoovers, Bloomberg Busi Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Types Of Insulin

Type 1 Diabetes: Types Of Insulin

Insulin therapy is essential for everyone who has type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes. Various types of insulin are available. They differ in terms of how quickly and how long they are effective, as well as in their chemical structure. Some types of insulin work quickly (short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin), while others only start to work after a certain amount of time, and then work over a longer time period (long-acting or basal insulin). Insulin can be extracted from the pancreas cells of pigs (porcine insulin) or cattle (bovine insulin) and prepared for use in humans. But nowadays most people use genetically engineered insulin for the treatment of diabetes. There are two types of genetically engineered insulin, known as human insulin and insulin analogues. Human insulin is similar to the insulin made in the human body. Insulin analogues have a different chemical structure, but they have a similar effect. What are the different types of insulin? The following types of insulin products differ in terms of how quickly and how long they are effective, as well as in terms of their chemical structure: This kind of insulin takes longer to start working. Peak activity and duration of effect depend on the way in which the action is delayed. Usually works for up to 24 hours. Short-acting insulin – including regular insulin, insulin analogues and premixed insulin – is normally injected before meals. Some people wait a certain amount of time following the injection before they eat. Others vary the time interval between injecting and eating depending on their blood sugar levels. Many people find fixed injection-meal intervals bothersome and difficult to stick to in everyday life. So far there is no evidence to show that blood sugar levels are be Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

What are Insulin Insulin is a hormone that occurs naturally in the body and can also be given by injection as a treatment for diabetes. Naturally-occurring insulin is made by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans located in the pancreas. It helps the cells of the body to uptake glucose (sugar) found in the carbohydrates we eat so that it can be used as energy or stored for later use. Insulin also controls glucose release from the liver. One of the main roles of insulin is to keep blood glucose levels from going too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). People with type 1 diabetes do not make enough insulin to satisfy their body's needs or make none at all. Insulin given by injection acts similarly to naturally occurring insulin. There are more than 20 different types of insulin available for diabetes treatment in the United States. The various types of insulin differ in several ways: such as source (animal, human or genetically engineered), the time for insulin to take effect and the length of time the insulin remains working (ie, rapid acting, short acting, intermediate acting, long acting or very long acting). Insulin is used to treat Type 1 diabetes and it may be used together with oral medications in the later stages of Type 2 diabetes. List of Insulin: Filter by: -- all conditions -- Drug Name View by: Brand | Generic Reviews Avg. Ratings Humulin R (Pro, More...) generic name: insulin regular 0 reviews 10 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 FlexPen (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 0 reviews 10 Humalog Mix 75 / 25 (More...) generic name: insulin lispro/insulin lispro protamine 2 reviews 9.5 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 3 reviews 9.5 ReliOn / Novolin 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: i Continue reading >>

Human Insulin Types: What You Should Know

Human Insulin Types: What You Should Know

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells located in a gland known as the pancreas. Insulin is responsible for helping glucose enter the body cells, so it can be converted to energy. Glucose is a form of sugar and is one of the main sources of fuel. When we eat, glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream. When the level of blood sugar rises, the body signals the pancreas to release the hormone insulin. Insulin will then attach itself to the insulin receptors outside the body cells. This will allow the body cells to open the doorway for glucose to enter the cell for fuel. Diabetic patients cannot produce enough insulin or they become resistant to it. Hence, diabetic patients have high blood glucose levels in the blood. If left untreated, high blood glucose levels can lead to long-term health problems, such as blindness, nerve damage, or kidney problems. People with type 2 diabetes can control their blood sugar levels through regular exercise, a proper diet, and taking diabetes medications. However, people with type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy so that they can survive. This is because their pancreas cannot produce insulin as a result of their immune system. Insulin therapy can either come in form of human, analogue, or animal insulin. What is human insulin? Human insulin refers to the synthetic form of the natural insulin that is produced in our bodies. Human insulin is made in the laboratory to mimic the work of the natural insulin, which is to regulate blood sugar levels. Man made insulin is normally prescribed to people with diabetes, because they cannot make enough insulin or they become resistant to it. Man made insulin can be administered subcutaneously or intravenously. You should not inject man made insulin if you do not know how to use Continue reading >>

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