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Type 2 Diabetes Insulin Production

Abnormalities In Insulin Secretion In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusanomalies De Linsulinoscrtion Dans Le Diabte De Type 2

Abnormalities In Insulin Secretion In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusanomalies De Linsulinoscrtion Dans Le Diabte De Type 2

Volume 34, Supplement 2 , February 2008, Pages S43-S48 Abnormalities in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitusAnomalies de linsulinoscrtion dans le diabte de type 2 Author links open overlay panel P.-J.Guillausseauab Get rights and content Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease, due to decreased glucose peripheral uptake, and increased hepatic glucose production, due to reduced both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Multiple insulin secretory defects are present, including absence of pulsatility, loss of early phase of insulin secretion after glucose, decreased basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations, excess in prohormone secretion, and progressive decrease in insulin secretory capacity with time. -cell dysfunction is genetically determined and appears early in the course of the disease. The interplay between insulin secretory defect and insulin resistance is now better understood. In subjects with normal -cell function, increase in insulin is compensated by an increase in insulin secretion and plasma glucose levels remain normal. In subjects genetically predisposed to type 2 diabetes, failure of -cell to compensate leads to a progressive elevation in plasma glucose levels, then to overt diabetes. When permanent hyperglycaemia is present, progressive severe insulin secretory failure with time ensues, due to glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity, and oxidative stress. A marked reduction in -cell mass at post-mortem examination of pancreas of patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported, with an increase in cell apoptosis non-compensated by neogenesis. Le diabte de type 2 est une maladie multifactorielle, secondaire une rduction du captage du glucose et une production glucose hpatique excessive, lies une diminution conjointe de linsul Continue reading >>

Diabetes Causes

Diabetes Causes

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs because the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) properly. The exact cause of this malfunction is unknown, but genetic and environmental factors play a part. Risk factors for diabetes include obesity and high levels of cholesterol. Some specific causes are discussed below. Lack of insulin production This is primarily the cause of type 1 diabetes. It occurs when insulin-producing cells are damaged or destroyed and stop producing insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar into cells throughout the body. The resulting insulin deficiency leaves too much sugar in the blood and not enough in the cells for energy. Insulin resistance This is specific to type 2 diabetes. It occurs when insulin is produced normally in the pancreas, but the body is still unable move glucose into the cells for fuel. At first, the pancreas will create more insulin to overcome the body’s resistance. Eventually the cells “wear out.” At that point the body slows insulin production, leaving too much glucose in the blood. This is known as prediabetes. A person with prediabetes has a blood sugar level higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Unless tested, the person may not be aware, as there are no clear symptoms. Type 2 diabetes occurs as insulin production continues to decrease and resistance increases. Symptoms of insulin resistance » Genetics plays a role in determining how likely you are to develop some type of diabetes. Researchers don’t fully understand the role of genetics in the development of diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, statistics show that if you have a parent or sibling with diabetes, your odds of developing it yourself increase. Although research is not conclusive, some eth Continue reading >>

Type-2 Diabetes: Insulin Held Up In Traffic

Type-2 Diabetes: Insulin Held Up In Traffic

In a new study, researchers show why insulin secretion is not working properly in patients suffering from type-2 diabetes. In a new study, researchers from the universities of Uppsala and Lund show why insulin secretion is not working properly in patients suffering from type-2 diabetes. The report is published in the journal Cell Metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is a major public health issue with globally more than 400 million individuals affected. Both lifestyle and hereditary components contribute to the disease. The main problem is insufficient secretion of the blood glucose-lowering hormone insulin, which is produced by -cells within the pancreas and secreted into the bloodstream after a meal. A team led by Sebastian Barg at Uppsala University has now discovered that this is due to a defect that slows down the traffic of insulin packages out of the -cell. Insulin is released when small insulin-containing vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, which ejects the hormone into the bloodstream. For this to happen, each of the vesicles must first attach to the cell membrane and allow its secretion machinery to be assembled. By comparing -cells from healthy and type 2 diabetic individuals, the researchers found that the problem lies in the attachment of the insulin vesicles to the cell membrane. In diabetic -cells, arrival of new vesicles at the cell membrane is dramatically slowed, which is likely due to a reduction in several of the proteins responsible for their attachment at the cell membrane. As a consequence, new insulin vesicles cannot assemble their secretion machinery and the amount of insulin that reaches the body is insufficient. The hope is now that the report can guide the development of new treatments for type-2 diabetes. Continue reading >>

Drugs To Increase Insulin Production

Drugs To Increase Insulin Production

Diabetes is a group of diseases that cause high blood sugar (glucose) levels. The high blood glucose levels are caused by problems in insulin production or function. Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas when you eat food. It allows sugar to move from the blood into the cells, where it’s used for energy. If the cells of the body aren’t using insulin well, or if the body is unable to make enough insulin, glucose can build up in the blood. The increase in blood glucose levels may lead to uncomfortable symptoms, such as: constant thirst increased urination excessive hunger unintentional or unexplained weight loss fatigue or lack of energy irritability blurry vision wounds that heal more slowly than normal recurring or frequent infections There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body doesn’t make any insulin. It’s most often diagnosed during childhood, but it may be diagnosed later in life. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or doesn’t use insulin properly. It’s more commonly seen in adults, but the number of children with type 2 diabetes is increasing. Both types of diabetes cause a buildup of glucose in the bloodstream. This can lead to serious health problems, including: vision loss kidney damage skin problems hearing impairment heart disease stroke blood circulation problems limb amputation Most of these complications are preventable with treatment. Treatment plans for diabetes often involve monitoring blood glucose levels, following a healthy diet, and taking medications. Many of these medications work by raising the body’s insulin levels. Increased insulin production helps deliver the glucose in your blood to your cells. This prevents glucose from building up in your bloodstream. N Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: An Introduction

Type 2 Diabetes: An Introduction

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Type 2 diabetes (the full name is type 2 diabetes mellitus) is a disorder of metabolism, characterized by high blood glucose. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for over 90% of cases and is associated with older age, a family history of the disease, obesity, a prior history of gestational diabetes (a form of the disease that can occur in pregnant women), and certain ethnic backgrounds. The role of obesity in increasing risk for type 2 diabetes is particularly prominent. An estimated 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are obese or overweight.1 What goes wrong to cause type 2 diabetes? In type 2 diabetes, the main cause of elevated blood glucose is that the body loses the ability to use the hormone insulin effectively (this is sometimes called “insulin resistance”). Normally, insulin produced by the pancreas allows us to use the glucose we take in to satisfy our energy needs or store it away for later use. The root cause of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is not known, but something goes wrong with the ability of insulin to deliver glucose into cells. In most cases of type 2 diabetes, early in the disease, the pancreas produces a sufficient amount of insulin. However, over time, with type 2 diabetes, insulin production in the pancreas can also decrease. So, type 2 diabetes can involve two different mechanisms that interfere with how insulin normally functions, insulin resistance and decreased production of insulin by the pancreas.1,2 How is type 2 diabetes different from type 1 diabetes? Although both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are both characterized by elevated blood glucose, the cause behind this elevation is what distinguishes the two forms of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes an autoimmune process compromises the ability Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance) Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pan Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

When it comes to your body, you probably spend more time thinking about your hair than your hormones. For some people, though, a problem with a hormone called insulin causes a health condition called type 2 diabetes (pronounced: dye-uh-BEE-tees). Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose (pronounced: GLOO-kose), a sugar that is the body's main source of fuel. Your body needs glucose to keep running. Here's how it should work: Glucose from the food gets into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin (pronounced: IN-suh-lin). Insulin helps the glucose get into the body's cells. The pancreas is a long, flat gland in your belly that helps your body digest food. It also makes insulin. Insulin is like a key that opens the doors to the cells of the body. It lets the glucose in. Then the glucose can move out of the blood and into the cells. But if someone has diabetes, either the body can't make insulin or the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should. The glucose can't get into the cells normally, so the blood sugar level gets too high. Lots of sugar in the blood makes people sick if they don't get treatment. There are two major types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Each type causes high blood sugar levels in a different way. In type 1 diabetes , the pancreas can't make insulin. The body can still get glucose from food, but the glucose can't get into the cells, where it's needed, and glucose stays in the blood. This makes the blood sugar level very high. With type 2 diabetes, the body still makes insulin. But a person with type 2 diabetes doesn't respond normally to the insulin the body makes. So glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy. When glucose can't enter the cells in this way, doctors call Continue reading >>

Preserving Insulin Secretion In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Preserving Insulin Secretion In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Preserving Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab.2008;3(2):147-159. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease characterized by insulin resistance and a progressive decline in -cell function and mass. Current evidence suggests that -cell dysfunction is present early in the course of the disease and that this dysfunction, rather than insulin resistance, is primarily responsible for the progression of T2DM. -cell dysfunction can be accelerated by glucose toxicity, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, chronic increases in inflammatory mediators and, potentially, the use of sulfonylureas. This review suggests that future efforts to limit the impact of T2DM must focus on strategies to preserve -cell function. Several interventions have shown promise in this regard, including lifestyle modifications, thiazolidinediones, potassium channel openers, incretin mimetics, cytokine antagonists, bariatric surgery and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors, although therapeutic insulin remains the most robust and physiological approach. Both Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are diseases of insulin deficiency and -cell failure. In T1DM, autoimmune destruction of -cells results in severe insulin deficiency. Although the -cell loss observed in T2DM is not as sudden, the decline in -cell function is inevitable, progressive and central to the pathophysiology of T2DM, a disease that has reached epidemic proportions in the USA and in other developed countries.[ 1 ] The development of T2DM involves a decrease in insulin secretion due to -cell dysfunction and loss, as well as an increase in insulin resistance. The most common cause of insulin resistance in humans is obesity[ 2 ] and the increasing prevalence of obesity is Continue reading >>

Q&a: Insulin Secretion And Type 2 Diabetes: Why Do Β-cells Fail?

Q&a: Insulin Secretion And Type 2 Diabetes: Why Do Β-cells Fail?

Go to: What is type 2 diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a term that covers a multitude of problems with many etiologies, unified by one common feature: the pathological elevation of blood glucose. Sustained hyperglycemia leads to tissue damage in susceptible organs and eventually results in secondary complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular disease and stroke [1-3]. Diabetes currently affects 387 million people worldwide, and this number is predicted to increase to 592 million by 2035 [4]. The dramatic rise in the disease in recent years not only causes individual misery, but also places an enormous and increasing burden on healthcare systems and the global economy [5,6]. Indeed, many countries spend as much as 10 % of their healthcare budget on treating diabetes and its complications. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common form of the disease, accounting for approximately 90 % of cases [6]. It has a strong genetic component that is amplified by factors such as age, obesity, diet, physical activity and pregnancy. T2D is characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin from the β-cells of the pancreatic islets, coupled with impaired insulin action in target tissues such as muscle, liver and fat (a condition termed insulin resistance). Hyperglycemia results when insulin secretion is unable to compensate for insulin resistance [7]. Insulin resistance is increased during obesity, which explains, at least in part, why T2D risk is enhanced by obesity. The regulation of glucose homeostasis by insulin is summarized in Fig. 1. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is much less common than T2D, accounting for <10 % of cases. It is precipitated by an autoimmune attack on the β-cells that results in an insulin deficient state, although a small numb Continue reading >>

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes of diabetes worldwide and accounts for 90-95% of cases. Risk Factors Your risk of type 2 diabetes typically increases when you are: Other risk factors are: Family history of diabetes in close relatives Being of African, Asian, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander ancestry High blood pressure High blood levels of fats, known as triglycerides, coupled with low levels of high-density lipoprotein, known as HDL, in the blood stream Prior diagnosis of pre-diabetes such as glucose intolerance or elevated blood sugar In women, a history of giving birth to large babies (over 9 lbs) and/or diabetes during pregnancy Type 2 diabetes is strongly inherited These are some of the statistics: 80-90% of people with Type 2 diabetes have other family members with diabetes. 10-15% of children of a diabetic parent will develop diabetes. If one identical twin has type 2 diabetes, there is up to a 75% chance that the other will also be diabetic. There are many genetic or molecular causes of type 2 diabetes, all of which result in a high blood sugar. As yet, there is no single genetic test to determine who is at risk for type 2 diabetes. To develop type 2 diabetes, you must be born with the genetic traits for diabetes. Because there is a wide range of genetic causes, there is also a wide range in how you will respond to treatment. You may be easily treated with just a change in diet or you may need multiple types of medication. The ha Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Key Facts

Type 2 Diabetes: Key Facts

Type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus) is more common than type 1 diabetes. Around 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National 2014 Diabetes Statistics Report, 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the US population have diabetes. This number reflects the 21 million who are currently diagnosed and another 8.1 million who do not even know they have diabetes. There are several key differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The most important difference is in the hormone insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin at all. People with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin, however the cells in the muscles, liver and fat tissue are inefficient at absorbing the insulin and regulating glucose. As a result, the body tries to compensate by having the pancreas pump out more insulin. But eventually the pancreas slowly loses the ability to produce enough insulin, and as a result the cells don’t get the energy they need. Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, meaning that the longer someone has it, the more “help” they will need to manage blood glucose levels. This will require more medications and eventually, injected insulin will be needed. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but their bodies don’t use it correctly; this is referred to as being insulin resistant. People with type 2 diabetes may also be unable to produce enough insulin to handle the gluco Continue reading >>

Abnormalities In Insulin Secretion In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Abnormalities In Insulin Secretion In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes Metab. 2008 Feb;34 Suppl 2:S43-8. doi: 10.1016/S1262-3636(08)73394-9. Abnormalities in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. AP-HP, Department of Internal Medicine B, Hpital Lariboisire, 2, rue Ambroise Rar, 75010, Paris, France. [email protected] Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease, due to decreased glucose peripheral uptake, and increased hepatic glucose production, due to reduced both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Multiple insulin secretory defects are present, including absence of pulsatility, loss of early phase of insulin secretion after glucose, decreased basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations, excess in prohormone secretion, and progressive decrease in insulin secretory capacity with time. beta-cell dysfunction is genetically determined and appears early in the course of the disease. The interplay between insulin secretory defect and insulin resistance is now better understood. In subjects with normal beta-cell function, increase in insulin is compensated by an increase in insulin secretion and plasma glucose levels remain normal. In subjects genetically predisposed to type 2 diabetes, failure of beta-cell to compensate leads to a progressive elevation in plasma glucose levels, then to overt diabetes. When permanent hyperglycaemia is present, progressive severe insulin secretory failure with time ensues, due to glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity, and oxidative stress. A marked reduction in beta-cell mass at post-mortem examination of pancreas of patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported, with an increase in beta-cell apoptosis non-compensated by neogenesis. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

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