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Type 1 Diabetes And Menstruation

Menarche Delay And Menstrual Irregularities Persist In Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Menarche Delay And Menstrual Irregularities Persist In Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Menarche delay and menstrual irregularities persist in adolescents with type 1 diabetes Find articles by Georgeanna J Klingensmith 1Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, The Children's Hospital Aurora, Colorado, USA Bahareh M Schweiger: [email protected] ; Janet K Snell-Bergeon: [email protected] ; Rossana Roman: [email protected] ; Kim McFann: [email protected] ; Georgeanna J Klingensmith: [email protected] Received 2011 Jan 31; Accepted 2011 May 6. Copyright 2011 Schweiger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Menarche delay has been reported in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), perhaps due to poor glycemic control. We sought to compare age at menarche between adolescent females with T1DM and national data, and to identify factors associated with delayed menarche and menstrual irregularity in T1DM. This was a cross-sectional study and females ages 12- 24 years (n = 228) with at least one menstrual period were recruited during their outpatient diabetes clinic appointment. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006 data (n = 3690) for females 12-24 years were used as a control group. Age at menarche was later in adolescent females with T1DM diagnosed prior to menarche (12.81 +/- 0.09 years) (mean+/- SE) (n = 185) than for adolescent females diagnosed after menarche (12.17 0.19 years, p = 0.0015) (n = 43). Average age of menarche in NHANES was 12.27 +/- 0.038 years, whi Continue reading >>

Menstrual Cycle & Diabetes: Can Diabetes Affect Your Period?

Menstrual Cycle & Diabetes: Can Diabetes Affect Your Period?

As we know, diabetes is a disease of the hormones. As such, when a person is suffering from diabetes, the different hormones of the body tend to deviate from the normal functioning causing different types of complications in the patient’s body. One such complication specific to that of women is the menstrual cycle. Women get largely affected by even a small deviation caused in hormones and the monthly periods is no different. Diabetes can largely affect the women’s menstrual cycle while any deviation in the regular menstrual cycle in a healthy woman can help doctors predict diabetes. In this article, we shall study how type 1 and type 2 diabetes tends to affect the periods or the monthly menstrual cycle in a woman. So, join in for the article “Can Diabetes Affect Your Period?” Relationship Between Blood Glucose and the Hormones Causing Menstruation It is known that the hormones estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the menstrual cycle in women. What many people do not know is the fact that both these hormones interact with the main hormone insulin as well. Sometimes, these hormones make the body more resistant to insulin and results in the increase of the blood glucose levels during or just before and after the monthly cycle. Besides, progesterone is known to give rise to your hunger. Hence, during periods, if you have diabetes, diabetes management becomes all the more difficult as you tend to eat more. Why is There an Increase in the Blood Glucose During Periods? As seen above, just a few days before and after getting the periods, the hormones, estrogen, and progesterone lead to resistance of the body towards insulin. This effect is however temporary in nature and is known to stay for only a few days. Having said that, it is imperative to know that the Continue reading >>

Hormones And Their Affect On Type 1 Diabetes Management

Hormones And Their Affect On Type 1 Diabetes Management

For people with Type 1 diabetes, there are certain stages in life that can seem a bit more like a rollercoaster than others. In most cases, these ups and downs can be attributed to a shift in hormones. Major hormonal changes can be due to many things, such as puberty, menopause, menstrual cycle, stress and illness, to name a few. Definitive correlations between hormones and blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivities and other possible Type 1 related side effects have been difficult to pinpoint thus far. Until more studies have been published about hormonal effects on T1D, there are things we can keep in mind based on the type of imbalance hormones can generally cause for T1D management. Growth hormones Both men and women experience puberty, and it can occur anywhere between the ages of 9 and 16. One of the primary hormones that kick in during puberty are growth hormones, and it has been noted by medical professionals that this kind of hormone can create insulin resistance. As a result, insulin requirements are often increased significantly during growth spurts. Other things to keep in mind during puberty that can have an effect on T1D: Behavioral changes / Moodiness Body image issues Increase in appetite Peer pressure Changes in sleep habits More (or less) physical activity Menstruation Women often notice changes in their blood sugar levels depending on where they are in their menstrual cycle. Many women have reported having abnormally high blood sugars the week before starting their period, and lower blood sugars in the few days following starting their period. It is important to note, however, that hormones fluctuate differently for each person – especially considering that women use all different kinds of birth control that can contribute to these fluctuations. Me Continue reading >>

Menstrual Cycle Differences Between Women With Type 1 Diabetes And Women Without Diabetes.

Menstrual Cycle Differences Between Women With Type 1 Diabetes And Women Without Diabetes.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate menstrual cycle histories among women with type 1 diabetes, their sisters, and unrelated control subjects without diabetes across all reproductive ages. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Menstrual and reproductive histories were obtained by questionnaire from 143 women with type 1 diabetes, 186 sisters without diabetes, and 158 unrelated control subjects without diabetes participating in the Familial Autoimmune and Diabetes study. RESULTS: Women with type 1 diabetes had more menstrual problems (long cycles, long menstruation, and heavy menstruation) before age 30 years than sisters and control subjects. These differences were all statistically significant, except for heavy menstruation at age <20 years. No differences were observed after age 30 years. Women with type 1 diabetes experienced later menarche, earlier natural menopause, fewer pregnancies, and more stillbirths than women without diabetes. Multiple regression analyses revealed that type 1 diabetes caused an approximate twofold increased risk of any menstrual problem before age 30 years. These were primarily related to long cycles and long menstruation in women aged <20 and 20-29 years, as well as with heavy menstruation from 20 to 29 years. Oral contraceptives were protective for any menstrual problem and heavy menstruation from 30 to 39 years of age. With history of pregnancy from 20 to 40 years of age, any menstrual problem and long menstruation were more likely. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that type 1 diabetes is an independent risk factor for menstrual disturbances in young adults. Future studies may determine whether addressing menstrual disturbances improves quality of life and health for these women. Continue reading >>

Your Menstrual Cycle And Blood Sugar Levels

Your Menstrual Cycle And Blood Sugar Levels

Diabetes can affect a woman's reproductive health because the hormones that control menstruation can cause changes in blood glucose levels. Learn to monitor patterns in your blood glucose changes that correlate to your menstrual cycles. Hormones and blood glucose levels The hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone, interact with the insulin hormone and may make your body more resistant to its own insulin or injected insulin. Because of this, either before, after, or during menstruation you may experience a rise in blood glucose levels for three to five days. These effects might be consistent from month to month, or they might vary, making them more difficult to monitor. An increase in your levels of progesterone can also trigger food cravings that can make diabetes management more difficult. Diabetes and your menstrual cycle Just as your menstrual cycle affects your diabetes, your diabetes, in turn, affects your menstrual cycle. Women with type 1 diabetes, on average, start menstruation a year later than women without diabetes, and they are more likely to have menstrual problems before age 30. Diabetes also increases a woman's chances of having longer menstrual cycles and periods, heavier periods, and earlier onset of menopause. Managing diabetes and your cycle The key to knowing how your menstrual cycle affects your diabetes and vice versa is careful monitoring. Track menstrual cycle changes that relate to your diabetes as closely as you would your blood sugar levels. Using a period tracker app can help you keep track of your cycle and clue you into when you might start experiencing high blood sugars. Compare your cycle with your blood glucose levels and note any trends that you see so you can be prepared for diabetes management changes in Continue reading >>

Menstrual Cycle Differences Between Women With Type 1 Diabetes And Women Without Diabetes

Menstrual Cycle Differences Between Women With Type 1 Diabetes And Women Without Diabetes

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate menstrual cycle histories among women with type 1 diabetes, their sisters, and unrelated control subjects without diabetes across all reproductive ages. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Menstrual and reproductive histories were obtained by questionnaire from 143 women with type 1 diabetes, 186 sisters without diabetes, and 158 unrelated control subjects without diabetes participating in the Familial Autoimmune and Diabetes study. RESULTS—Women with type 1 diabetes had more menstrual problems (long cycles, long menstruation, and heavy menstruation) before age 30 years than sisters and control subjects. These differences were all statistically significant, except for heavy menstruation at age <20 years. No differences were observed after age 30 years. Women with type 1 diabetes experienced later menarche, earlier natural menopause, fewer pregnancies, and more stillbirths than women without diabetes. Multiple regression analyses revealed that type 1 diabetes caused an approximate twofold increased risk of any menstrual problem before age 30 years. These were primarily related to long cycles and long menstruation in women aged <20 and 20–29 years, as well as with heavy menstruation from 20 to 29 years. Oral contraceptives were protective for any menstrual problem and heavy menstruation from 30 to 39 years of age. With history of pregnancy from 20 to 40 years of age, any menstrual problem and long menstruation were more likely. CONCLUSIONS—The results suggest that type 1 diabetes is an independent risk factor for menstrual disturbances in young adults. Future studies may determine whether addressing menstrual disturbances improves quality of life and health for these women. Women with type 1 diabetes are likely to report menstrual disorders, includ Continue reading >>

Glycemic Changes During Menstrual Cycles In Women With Type 1 Diabetes - Sciencedirect

Glycemic Changes During Menstrual Cycles In Women With Type 1 Diabetes - Sciencedirect

Volume 146, Issue 7 , 1 April 2016, Pages 287-291 Glycemic changes during menstrual cycles in women with type 1 diabetesCambios glucmicos durante el ciclo menstrual en mujeres con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 Author links open overlay panel LucreciaHerranz To determine frequency of women with type 1 diabetes showing menstrual cyclic changes in glycemia, analyze their clinical characteristics, and assess the pattern of glycemic changes. We analyzed glucose meter readings along 168 menstrual cycles of 26 women with type 1 diabetes. We evaluated mean glucose, mean glucose standard deviation, mean fasting glucose, percentage of glucose readings >7.8mmol/L and <3.1mmol/L, and mean insulin dose in 4 periods for each cycle. A woman was identified as having cyclic changes when mean glucose rose from early follicular to late luteal in two-thirds of her menstrual cycles. A percentage of 65.4 of the women had cyclic changes. Characteristics of women with and without cyclic changes, including self-perception of glycemic changes, were similar with exception of age at diabetes diagnosis (22.5 [7.5] vs. 14.4 [9.5] years; p=0.039). In women with cyclic changes mean percentage of glucose readings >7.8mmol/L rose from early follicular (52.2 [16.3] %) to early and late luteal (58.4 [16.0] %, p=0.0269; 61.0 [16.9] %, p=0.000). Almost two-thirds of women with type 1 diabetes experience a menstrual cycle phenomenon, attributable to an increase in hyperglycemic excursions during the luteal phase. Enabling women to evaluate their weekly mean glucose from their meter and exploring the causes of hyperglycemic excursions during luteal phase should ensure more accuracy when giving instructions for diabetes management in women with premenstrual hyperglycemia. Determinar la frecuencia de mujeres con di Continue reading >>

Teens, Menstruation And Type 1 Diabetes

Teens, Menstruation And Type 1 Diabetes

Hopefully my title was nice and clear, because if you do not want to "talk", ie. read, about periods, pads and type 1 diabetes, this is NOT the post for you. However, if you are like me and am parenting little ladies, whom also happen to be living with type 1 diabetes, than you might want to know more about the effects of menstruation. A few years ago, it occurred to me that certain changes were happening which also started to wreck havoc on blood sugars. The changes were mostly physical with growth and development, but a few were noticeably, ahem, well... emotional too. One day, my sweet baby went from being happy-go-lucky, to bursting into tears over an imagined hurt to then, running into my arms for a giant cuddle and then back out screaming, AGAIN. Yes. All true. And it all happened in about 30 seconds. A quick blood glucose check and a number would zoom from 120 mg/dl to 360 mg/dl without stopping at 'GO' or collecting $200.00. An Monopoly game reference because suddenly, it seemed as though this stage of parenting was a never-ending circle around the board. Some days, I just wanted to sit on Boardwalk and enjoy every minute with her, but other days had me slumming in the low-rent district of emotions. Please, please, please.. give me a time-out in the jail section. I kid, of course. I really wanted to land her in jail. I kid, again. Sort of. Until we roll the next set of dice, get a doubles, and everyone is happy once more. While we navigated that time period of life, we also realized that up ahead was the realization that menstruation was going to pop right out - and probably when we least expected it. So I prepared and helped her with books, supplies, chocolate and anything else that I thought might be good. Being the mom that I am, I shared my own personal twee Continue reading >>

Menstruation Can Affect Insulin Needs

Menstruation Can Affect Insulin Needs

In some women who have type 1 diabetes, the hormonal changes that come with menstruation can cause changes in blood glucose levels. Monitoring levels and adjusting insulin accordingly is key to managing this monthly shift. Diabetes: How Hormones Affect Blood Glucose The same hormones that control your menstrual cycle can also affect your blood glucose levels. "Two or three days before menstruation, as estrogen and progesterone levels are changing, a number of women — but not all — will notice that their insulin needs increase substantially because their blood glucose levels are rising,” explains Jay Cohen, MD, medical director of the Endocrine Clinic in Memphis and clinical assistant professor in the department of family medicine at the University of Tennessee. If this happens, levels usually decrease after their period begins. Also, Cohen points out, some women don't experience menstrual cycle-related changes in their blood glucose levels, and others may only see decreases in their blood glucose levels around the time of their period. Diabetes: How Your Menstrual Cycle Can Be Affected In addition to your menstrual cycle affecting your ability to control your diabetes, having type 1 diabetes can affect your menstrual cycle. On average, girls who have type 1 diabetes tend to start their periods about a year later than girls who don't have the disease. And women who have type 1 diabetes are twice as likely as those who don't to have menstrual problems before age 30. Specifically, having type 1 diabetes can increase your chances of: Longer menstrual cycles Longer periods Heavier menstruation Earlier onset of menopause "In women whose diabetes is out of control, high blood sugars can put a woman at increased risk of vaginal and yeast infections, and can also affect re Continue reading >>

Periods (menstruation) And Diabetes

Periods (menstruation) And Diabetes

Tweet Different stages of the menstrual cycle may have different effects on your blood glucose levels and the effect can also vary from person to person and from month to month. Recording your blood glucose results can be helpful in finding patterns in your levels and helping you to better control your diabetes. How will my period affect my sugar levels? There is not a definite answer to this as periods affect each one of us differently. However, many women report having higher blood sugar levels a few days prior to their period starting. During your period, you may experience high blood sugar levels but some women notice a sharp drop in sugar levels so it’s best to be prepared for unexpected changes to happen. Why does blood sugar rise before or during periods? Before and during your period, changes in the level of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone can induce temporary resistance to insulin which can last for up to a few days and then drop off. Some girls and women have consistent effects as to how their period affects blood sugar whereas other women may find that the effect on blood sugar varies from one month to another. Coping with periods The effect on blood sugar as a result of periods can change from one month to another so keeping a diary of your blood glucose numbers can help you to see if there are any patterns in your results across different months. If you are finding your blood glucose levels go very high before or during your period, you may need to either inject more insulin (if insulin dependent) or reduce your carbohydrate intake. If you increase your insulin, be careful to avoid hypoglycemia as your insulin sensitivity can sometimes return quickly. Speak to your health team if you need advice on how to manage your insulin doses or carbohydrate Continue reading >>

One For The Ladies - Missed Periods

One For The Ladies - Missed Periods

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community I have had type 1 diabetes for 22 years. My control was poor when I was a teenager but has been good since then (I am now 29). Blood pressure, cholesterol etc. are all normal. Anyway, I have not had a period since December. I have taken several pregnancy tests so can definitely rule that out. I went to the doctors in April and was told that they wouldn't usually investigate until I had missed five periods. Ridiculous, if you ask me! As I had only missed four back then I was sent away. She did, however, mention that it was likely because of my diabetes. Has anybody else heard or experienced anything like this? I'm struggling to understand how it could be diabetes-related given that my control is good. My BMI is 19 so within the normal range. My iron levels are on the low end of normal, but still within the normal range. I'm due to go back to the doctors next week. I'm getting worried as to whether this could be a sign of fertility problems. I won't be fobbed off by the doctors this time. It's been six months now. I'd just be interested to hear if any of you have experienced anything like this or had any views on the situation. You could be a little underweight to ovulate properly for your particular body. My PCOS went undiagnosed whilst I was still anorexic as it was assumed to be a weight thing. PCOS would be anomalous for a T1 like you, but that being said it was anomalous for anyone our weight. It could be a whole bunch of things. Stress is a factor. Maye you could take an ovulation test to see if that's happening but your womb lining isn't building up properly? Are you on birth control? You're supposed to still bleed with most of them but some long Continue reading >>

Fertility Issues In Women With Diabetes

Fertility Issues In Women With Diabetes

Menarche & Menstrual Cycle Disturbances in Type 1 Diabetes Before the first introduction of insulin in clinical care of Type 1 diabetes in 1922, menarche rarely occurred in girls with diabetes during childhood, and when it did occur, menses usually ceased. Successful pregnancy was achieved in only 2% of Type 1 diabetic women.[ 2 ] Initiation of insulin treatment caused menstruation to appear in most female diabetic patients, but did not abolish menstrual irregularities. Earlier studies from 1954 by Bergqvist showed delayed menarche among women with the onset of diabetes before menarche and controlled for their diabetes mellitus as outpatients, together with persistent menstrual disorders remaining in the third and forth decade in 30% of those women.[ 3 , 4 ] The prevalence of these disorders, mainly secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, was shown to be three-times more frequent compared to nondiabetic controls in the study by Rzepka et al. in 1977.[ 5 ] Subsequent epidemiologic studies supported the fact that diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes prior to menarche, particularly before 10 years of age, caused a delay in menarchial age of approximately 1 year when compared with control.[ 6 ] Similar results were obtained in studies conducted in different demographic populations. Moreover, a correlation was found between the menarchial age delay and the presence of menstrual irregularities.[ 7 , 8 ] Kjaer et al. found menstrual dysfunction to be twice as frequent in diabetic women compared with nondiabetic controls (21.6 vs 10.8%),[ 47 ] which is lower than reported by Begqvist, but no less bothersome. In addition, in Strotmeyer's study, Type 1 diabetes was independently associated with longer cycle length (>31 days), long menstruation (6 days), heavy menstruation, and more rep Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Period

Diabetes And Your Period

My blood sugar had been running high all week. One morning it spiked to 300, and it took all day (and extra injections) before I could get it back down to “normal” levels. I was also crampy, bloated, and irritable and knew exactly why I was feeling this way. A few days later I got my period and my blood sugars returned to “normal.” I wrote about fluctuations during the menstrual cycle for a chapter in my book, The Smart Woman’s Guide to Diabetes, and yet every month I’m newly frustrated as if it’s happening for the first time. No woman enjoys having her period, but I’ve always felt that mine was particularly problematic. Not only do I get crampy and bloated, I also feel drained because of high blood sugars. In a 2003 study, women with Type 1 diabetes were shown to have more menstrual problems (long cycles, long menstruation, and heavy menstruation) before age 30 years than their peers without diabetes. These problems may indicate increased risk for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. It was also shown that women with Type 1 diabetes got their periods nearly a year later than control subjects. I got my period the same year I was diagnosed with diabetes and never had regular cycles. I didn’t mind having irregular periods until I was trying to get pregnant and had to take Clomid to kick-start my ovulation. I bought countless pregnancy tests in hopes that the reason I wasn’t getting my period each month was because I was finally pregnant, but each test was negative. I’d heard so many discouraging stories and myths about fertility challenges for women with Type 1 (such as big babies and birth defects) that I was overwhelmed with worry. I made threats in the dark to the Diabetes Gods that if I couldn’t get pregnant, I would give up. I was tired of Continue reading >>

Menstruation

Menstruation

Menstrual cycles can affect your blood glucose levels Menstuation can affect your blood glucose levels because when two hormones – oestrogen and progesterone – are at their highest level just before your period, they affect insulin, which may cause blood glucose levels to rise. Some women find their blood glucose rises considerably, while others do not notice a difference. In others, blood-glucose levels are lower before and during their periods. You need to discover your own pattern so you can adjust your insulin accordingly. Often it is the fasting blood glucose before breakfast that tends to fluctuate the most. Being physically active in the week before your period, can help control fluctuations in your blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

Women And Diabetes | Diabetesnet.com

Women And Diabetes | Diabetesnet.com

Mon, 11/15/2010 - 11:33 -- Richard Morris Fluctuations in hormone levels occur through the menstrual cycle and these fluctuations can affect blood sugar control. When estrogen levels are naturally high, your body may be resistant to its own insulin or injected insulin. Many women find their blood sugar tends to be high 3-5 days before, during or after their periods. Since everyone is different, the only way to manage blood sugars in a setting where sensitivity to insulin changes is to test and record blood sugars four or more times a day the week before, during and after your period for at least 2 or 3 months to find your own pattern. This allows you to adjust your insulin doses and carb intake both before and during this time to better control your blood sugar. Premenstrual symptoms (PMS) can be worsened by poor blood sugar control. It helps to chart your feelings such as tenderness, bloating, grouchiness for a week before, during and after your period. Charting will help you know when your PMS reach their peak during your period so that before your PMS is most severe, you can check your blood sugar more often and take extra insulin or exercise to bring high blood sugars down. Food cravings during PMS are triggered by an increase in progesterone and can make it more difficult to control your blood sugar. Usually the craving is for chocolate or sweet foods. Give in to your cravings by trying sugar-free and fat-free versions, such as chocolate pudding. Take extra insulin or increase your exercise to compensate. You may feel less like exercising during your period. If so, extra insulin may be a good choice for keeping your blood sugar from rising. The extra insulin needed to overcome insulin resistance during this time will not cause weight gain. Treat yourself well duri Continue reading >>

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