diabetestalk.net

Type 1 Diabetes And Early Puberty

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Precocious Puberty: Rare Association

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Precocious Puberty: Rare Association

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Precocious Puberty: Rare Association Mimouna Bessahraoui, Radia Rezak & Sidi mohamed Azzouz Background: Precocious puberty is defined as pubertal development that begins at an earlier age than expected; most paediatric endocrinology subspecialists use cutoff ages of 8 years for girls and 9 years for boys. Objective and hypotheses: We reported in this case, rare association between type 1 diabetes mellitus and precocious puberty. Method: We present a girl with type 1 diabetes developed at the age of 3 years, with good glycaemic control using insulin. She also had a developmental. At the age of 6 years child had breast enlargement, height increase, and an increase in growth velocity. On examination, she was found to have Tanner stage 3 breast development, and her vaginal mucosa was oestrogenised. Her height was above the 97th percentile. Results: Biochemically, she was diagnosed as having central precocious puberty, and magnetic resonance imaging of her pituitary gland diagnosed central precocious puberty idiopathic. Treatment with leuprolide resulted in normalisation of her growth rate and regression of the breast development; the vaginal mucosa also became unoestrogenised. Conclusion: Precocious puberty and type 1 diabetes is a rare association. The relationship has not been determined. Continue reading >>

Children With Diabetes - Ask The Diabetes Team

Children With Diabetes - Ask The Diabetes Team

I think my nine year old daughter, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes four years ago, started a menstrual period the other day but does not show any other signs of puberty other than moodiness. Since most of the women in my family started their periods much later (I was thirteen and a half), I am concerned with such an early start. Can having type 1 diabetes cause puberty happen sooner? No, diabetes does not usually trigger puberty earlier than would have normally occurred. Sometimes a hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism can trigger puberty early, and thyroid problems are more common in children with type1 diabetes. If there is no family history of early puberty on either side, I would make sure someone has reviewed her growth and development and feels that this is normal for her. You say there are "no other signs of puberty other than moodiness," but it is unusual to have a menstrual period before breast development and pubic hair development, and a growth spurt. If she has no physical signs of breast development or pubic hair and is not tall for her age, perhaps the blood is not true menstrual bleeding and could be from a urine infection or perhaps from a vaginal candidal infection if she has scratched a lot and caused local irritation. I suggest you bring her to your pediatrician or to your pediatric endocrinologist to be evaluated. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And Puberty: Does One Affect The Other?

Type 1 Diabetes And Puberty: Does One Affect The Other?

Puberty can be bumpy for kids. They deal with changing bodies, shifting social lives, and surging hormones. For kids with type 1 diabetes , those changes have an extra impact: Theyll have to manage their condition a little differently. It works the other way around, too: Diabetes can affect how puberty happens. It will take some extra effort, but you can help your child stay healthy during this phase. Puberty starts with the release of sex hormones -- estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys. These hormones raise your childs blood sugar. So do stress hormones like cortisol, which can also surge during this time in a teens life. These chemicals can change the cells in your childs body so they dont use insulin as well as they did before. Thats called insulin resistance. In fact, insulin can be 30% to 50% less effective while your child is going through puberty. All of these hormones are strongest at night, which means that your child could have high blood sugar in the morning. Meanwhile, your child is growing, filling out, and building muscle, which means hell need to eat more. Altogether, those changes mean hell need more insulin during puberty. The exception is when a girl has her period. Then she might have to take more or less insulin than she does during the rest of the month. Her blood sugar might go up for a few days before she gets her period, and then drop during the first days of bleeding. Its important for her to check her sugar levels regularly and see how her period affects them. Over time, she can look for patterns and tweak her treatment to keep blood sugar from going too high or low during that time of the month. Diabetes can make puberty start later for some kids. This can happen if their diabetes isnt under control and they dont get enough insulin. Bo Continue reading >>

Early Puberty Associated With Gestational Diabetes

Early Puberty Associated With Gestational Diabetes

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Early puberty associated with gestational diabetes Women who began having menstrual cycles at age 11 had a 39 percent higher risk of developing gestational diabetes, new research has demonstrated. The study followed more than 27,000 women and observed that when menarche began at age 11 compared to age 14, women had a 39 percent higher risk of developing gestational diabetes. An increased risk, although lower, also occurred when menarche began at 12 and 13. Women who began having menstrual cycles at a younger age are at greater risk of developing gestational diabetes, a disease affecting up to 7 percent of pregnant women that can cause babies to develop type 2 diabetes and other complications, new research shows. Previous research has shown an association between beginning menstrual cycles, or menarche, at a young age and the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the new study, published in Diabetes Care, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Diabetes Association, looked specifically at menarche and gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that begins or is first recognized during pregnancy. The study followed more than 27,000 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II and observed that when menarche began at age 11 compared to age 14, women had a 39 percent higher risk of developing gestational diabetes. An increased risk, although lower, also occurred when menarche began at 12 and 13. "This new finding could mean that doctors will begin asking women when they had their first period to determine their risk of developing gestational diabetes. They may represent a high-risk population and should be targeted for prevention programs," said the study's lead author, Dr. Liwei Chen, an assis Continue reading >>

Puberty - Diabetes And The Environment

Puberty - Diabetes And The Environment

Puberty is a Peak Time for Type 1 Diabetes Onset Large-scale, international type 1 diabetes registries show that in general, type 1 diabetes incidence increases with age during childhood, and peaks at puberty ( Soltesz et al. 2007). A Finnish study found that those who progressed most rapidly to type 1 diabetes tended to be either young (under 5) or in early puberty ( Pllnen et al. 2017). It's Hard to Control Type 1 Diabetes During Puberty With hormones gone wild, blood sugar is hard to control. (While the tendency of teens to rebel may also explain some of the lack of control during puberty, it is also hard to control blood sugar during other times of hormone upheaval, such as pregnancy or even throughout a menstrual cycle). Children who develop type 1 diabetes before puberty are at greater risk for complications than children who develop type 1 after puberty ( Cho et al. 2014). Women with Early Puberty at Higher Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Obesity, Gestational Diabetes A study from China found that girls with earlier puberty had a higher risk of later gestational diabetes as well ( Li et al. 2017). Puberty Appears at Younger Ages, Possibly Due to Environmental Chemicals Puberty is showing up at younger ages, especially in girls. A panel of experts examined the evidence regarding environmental factors and puberty timing. The majority of the panelists concluded that the girls data are sufficient to suggest a trend toward earlier puberty from 1940 to 1994 but that the boys data are insufficient to suggest a trend during this same period. Their evaluation of human and animal studies suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (particularly the estrogenic chemicals and anti-androgens) and body fat are important factors associated in altered puberty timing ( Euling et al. 20 Continue reading >>

Puberty And Diabetes

Puberty And Diabetes

Puberty is a challenging time so it's essential for your child to be focused on controlling their diabetes Puberty can be a very challenging time for a child with diabetes, as well as their families. It is therefore useful to have an idea of what to expect during this time. Girls tend to experience puberty slightly earlier than boys, between the ages of 10 and 14, while boys generally develop between the ages of 12 and 16. During puberty, a number of physical, psychological and behavioural changes occur which can cause your child to act differently. These changes can make managing their diabetes more difficult and potentially more stressful for everyone involved. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in children , and learning how to manage your childs diabetes can be hard. Keeping good control of their blood glucose levels is essential, but this requires practice, patience and commitment. Type 2 diabetes in children is often caused by a poor diet from a very early age, combined with a sedentary lifestyle. Treatment often involves lifestyle changes involving diet and exercise. Puberty can make treating both types of diabetes more difficult as your child will have enough to think about growing up. Changing schools, homework and making new friends will take up most of their thoughts, but it is essential to keep your child focused on controlling their diabetes. Sign up to the free Hypo Training Program for more information on diabetes management if your child is susceptible to hypoglycemia. An 1986 study from Amiel et al reported that the body becomes more resistant to insulin during puberty. [161] This can make blood glucose levels higher, and often necessitates increased insulin doses. You should find your childs insulin intake gradually increases through Continue reading >>

Early Puberty Linked To Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Early Puberty Linked To Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk Early puberty is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life, according to a study being published in the November issue of Diabetes Care. In this study of more than 15,000 women from eight European countries, researchers found that those who experienced menarche earlier (between the ages of 8-11 years) had a 70 percent higher incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with those who started menarche at age 13 (the median age). Previous studies have shown an association between the age of menarche (the onset of first menstruation, a marker for the onset of puberty) and other poor health outcomes, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer and mortality. In contrast to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women with early sexual maturation, there was no increase in protection from type 2 diabetes associated with a late (after the age of 15) onset of menarche compared with the average age. The body is undergoing many changes during puberty, said Cathy Elks, PhD, a research fellow at the MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, England. Our research, as well as previous, related studies, suggests that the biological factors implicated in the timing of development may have a role in the development of type 2 diabetes , despite the fact that these processes occur many years before the manifestation of disturbed glycemic control. While girls that develop earlier are more likely to be overweight in adulthood, which is itself a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes, the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes associated with early menarche was still apparent after accounting for adiposity. Around half of the increased risk of type 2 diabetes conferred by early menarche coul Continue reading >>

Puberty And Type 1 Diabetes

Puberty And Type 1 Diabetes

Department of Endocrinology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India Corresponding Author: Dr. Subhankar Chowdhury, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, 244 AJC Bose Road, Kolkata - 700 020, West Bengal, India. E-mail: [email protected] Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright : Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. I Continue reading >>

Pediatric Precocious Puberty

Pediatric Precocious Puberty

We are consistently ranked among the top hospitals in U.S.News & World Report, distinguished for our pediatric care. What is precocious puberty (early puberty)? Abnormally early puberty is called precocious puberty and is characterized by the early development of sexual characteristics in girls before the age of 8 and in boys before the age of 9. Most children with the disorder grow fast at first, but also finish growing before reaching their full genetic height potential. Left untreated, most boys will not grow taller than 5 feet 2 inches, and girls often do not grow taller than 5 feet. Early puberty and sexual development may be caused by tumors or growths of the ovaries, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, or brain. Other causes may include central nervous system abnormalities, family history of the disease, or certain rare genetic syndromes. In many cases, no cause can be found for the disorder. Two types of precocious puberty include the following: Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, also known as central precocious puberty, this form of precocious puberty is the most common, affecting most girls with the disorder and half of boys with the disorder. The puberty is triggered by the premature secretion of gonadotropins (hormones responsible for puberty). Researchers believe that the premature maturation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovaries axis causes this disorder in girls. However, in the majority of cases, no cause for the early secretion of gonadotropin hormones can be found. Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty-this is a form of precocious puberty that is not triggered by the early release of gonadotropin hormones. What are the symptoms of precocious puberty? The following are the most common symptoms of precocious puberty. However, each child may e Continue reading >>

Hormones And Their Affect On Type 1 Diabetes Management

Hormones And Their Affect On Type 1 Diabetes Management

For people with Type 1 diabetes, there are certain stages in life that can seem a bit more like a rollercoaster than others. In most cases, these ups and downs can be attributed to a shift in hormones. Major hormonal changes can be due to many things, such as puberty, menopause, menstrual cycle, stress and illness, to name a few. Definitive correlations between hormones and blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivities and other possible Type 1 related side effects have been difficult to pinpoint thus far. Until more studies have been published about hormonal effects on T1D, there are things we can keep in mind based on the type of imbalance hormones can generally cause for T1D management. Growth hormones Both men and women experience puberty, and it can occur anywhere between the ages of 9 and 16. One of the primary hormones that kick in during puberty are growth hormones, and it has been noted by medical professionals that this kind of hormone can create insulin resistance. As a result, insulin requirements are often increased significantly during growth spurts. Other things to keep in mind during puberty that can have an effect on T1D: Behavioral changes / Moodiness Body image issues Increase in appetite Peer pressure Changes in sleep habits More (or less) physical activity Menstruation Women often notice changes in their blood sugar levels depending on where they are in their menstrual cycle. Many women have reported having abnormally high blood sugars the week before starting their period, and lower blood sugars in the few days following starting their period. It is important to note, however, that hormones fluctuate differently for each person – especially considering that women use all different kinds of birth control that can contribute to these fluctuations. Me Continue reading >>

In The Spotlight: How Teen Hormones Affect Blood Sugar

In The Spotlight: How Teen Hormones Affect Blood Sugar

Shortly after her son Alex turned 13, north Texas mom Tracie noticed a change in his blood sugar control. His numbers were running slightly high … almost all the time. “Because he was diagnosed at age 5, knowing when to test and how to cover carbs [with insulin] were both pretty old-hat by the time Alex became a teen. When he started coming up with these high readings all the time, I just couldn’t figure it out,” she remembers. To get to the bottom of this trend, Tracie questioned her son about things like “sneaking” extra food when out with friends and being careless with entering information into his pump. It only made things worse. “First came the highs, and then — on my part — came the nagging. Was he eating too much with his friends without bolusing for it or being careless and not testing after eating? Was he depressed? Something was definitely up, but the more I got on him about it, the more he withdrew.” At her son’s next endocrinologist appointment, Tracie finally got an explanation. Turns out, it wasn’t too much soda or lack of testing that was the main contributor to her son’s high numbers. It was his hormones. Not Just Those Hormones Beyond the behavioral issues that often crop up at this age, it can be a surprise to parents and caregivers to find out just how much fluctuating hormone levels during puberty affect blood sugar control. The biggest culprit? According to Melinda Penn, M.D., assistant professor of pediatric endocrinology at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Va., “Growth hormone seems to be the hormone that has the greatest impact on blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity during puberty.” Human growth hormone, which surges during adolescent growth spurts, can decrease how efficiently the body uses ins Continue reading >>

Growth Abnormalities In Children With Type 1 Diabetes, Juvenile Chronic Arthritis, And Asthma

Growth Abnormalities In Children With Type 1 Diabetes, Juvenile Chronic Arthritis, And Asthma

Copyright © 2014 Cosimo Giannini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Children and adolescents with chronic diseases are commonly affected by a variable degree of growth failure, leading to an impaired final height. Of note, the peculiar onset during childhood and adolescence of some chronic diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and asthma, underlines the relevant role of healthcare planners and providers in detecting and preventing growth abnormalities in these high risk populations. In this review article, the most relevant common and disease-specific mechanisms by which these major chronic diseases affect growth in youth are analyzed. In addition, the available and potential targeting strategies to restore the physiological, hormonal, and inflammatory pattern are described. 1. Introduction During childhood and adolescence, the longitudinal growth of bones represents one of the most relevant changes of the body composition [1]. Bone growth occurs at different rates and results from complex mechanisms involving a multitude of regulatory hormones. These events are directly influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors [1–4]. Nutritional status represents one of the most relevant factors affecting these interactions. However, several other factors, and especially chronic diseases, might also strongly modulates these complex mechanisms. In fact, chronic diseases, by directly or indirectly modulating bone and hormonal status, may affect growth and final height of subjects with a disease onset during childhood or adolescence. S Continue reading >>

Puberty In Young Diabetics

Puberty In Young Diabetics

Puberty is the period of sexual development marking the transition from childhood to adulthood. It usually occurs around age 11 for girls and 12 for boys. Puberty’s physical, psychological and social changes have an impact on diabetes management. Impact of hormones on diabetes management The hormonal changes at puberty affect blood glucose control, often making it more difficult. Insulin’s effectiveness declines by about 30% to 50% because growth hormones and sexual hormones create insulin resistance. In non-diabetic children, the pancreas compensates for this resistance by secreting more insulin. For the majority of adolescents with diabetes, their doses of injected insulin must constantly be adjusted to maintain proper blood glucose (sugar) control. When puberty is over, their insulin needs normally revert to what they were before. The effect of these hormones is often strongest toward the end of the night. Thus, first thing in the morning, blood sugar can be abnormally high. Menstruation In some women with diabetes, blood glucose (sugar) levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle, an effect also caused by hormones. Many women notice a rise in their blood glucose (sugar) levels a few days before they menstruate and a drop during the first days of their period, which can make them susceptible to hypoglycemia. Social and behavioural changes Adolescence is also synonymous with behavioural and social changes. These include a desire for independence, peer pressure on their food habits and physical activity, heightened concern about body image, and even about their diabetes. This can have an impact on how carefully they stick to their treatment protocol, and on their glycemic control. From a diet perspective, adolescents usually have larger appetites because they are g Continue reading >>

Puberty And Type 1 Diabetes.

Puberty And Type 1 Diabetes.

1. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr;19(Suppl 1):S51-4. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.155402. (1)Department of Endocrinology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have showed that the incidence ofT1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could beadversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years ofinsulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriacsyndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors,circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control ofmetabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin inhumans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activationof the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator, resulting inpubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean bodymass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulinrequirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period ofpuberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrationsreach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, hasthe worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretionin T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DMtends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late nightinsulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase thatpresents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers. Continue reading >>

Puberty In Girls Living With Type 1 Diabetes

Puberty In Girls Living With Type 1 Diabetes

Puberty in Girls Living with Type 1 Diabetes Puberty in girls can really shake things up, especially when living with type 1 diabetes. Laurie Perrin, MD a specialist in womens health, obstetrics and gynecology in Flagstaff, Arizona graciously agreed to provide her professional wisdom on a few pertinent questions for She Sugar. What ages do pubertal changes in girls typically occur? I was curious about this question because we are seeing puberty in girls at much younger ages. We hear many suggestions about eating organic, hormone free, grass fed, free range, cage free, etc. Many place the blame of early pubertal changes on our diet and environment. Dr. Perrin states to expect pubertal changes to occur anywhere from 9-14 years of age. What hormones changes are responsible for erratic blood sugars during puberty (resulting in insulin resistance and higher insulin needs)? Mostly its the increase in growth hormones and IGF -1 which is responsible for changes in the bodies ability to regulate insulin and insulin resistance. Its interesting to note that these changes in insulin resistance occur in both diabetic and non-diabetic children, both due to fluctuations in GH; as well as a reaction to the normal stressors of adolescence creating a cascade of events metabolically resulting in increased insulin requirements. The insulin resistance does seem to be greater with pubertal girls compared to boys though the exact reason for this is still unclear. What age do you recommend for a girls first gynecological visit? I believe a young woman should meet with a gyn physician for a consultation only (no exam, unless there are issues) between 12-15 yrs of age. This would be solely for the purpose of education and an acknowledgement of this being the place for a person to go to for cont Continue reading >>

More in insulin