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Targeting Inflammation In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: Time To Start

Targeting Inflammation In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes.

Targeting Inflammation In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes.

Targeting inflammation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. [email protected] Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Sep;15 Suppl 3:193-6. doi: 10.1111/dom.12172. Islets of patients with type 2 diabetes display the typical features of an inflammatory process characterized by the presence of cytokines, chemokines, immune cell infiltration, impaired function and tissue destruction with fibrotic areas. Functional studies have shown that targeting inflammation may improve insulin secretion and sensitivity. In particular clinical proof of concept studies using modulators of the interleukin-1 (IL-1)-nuclear factor--B (NF-B) pathway demonstrated the role of the innate immune system in type 2 diabetes. This programme has now entered the phase 3 of clinical development. Other targets such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) may be equally important but have been neglected based on poorly designed studies. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes and review the opportunity of clinical translation. Continue reading >>

Dysfunctional Adipose Tissue And Low-grade Inflammation In The Management Of The Metabolic Syndrome: Current Practices And Future Advances - F1000research

Dysfunctional Adipose Tissue And Low-grade Inflammation In The Management Of The Metabolic Syndrome: Current Practices And Future Advances - F1000research

The ongoing worldwide obesity epidemic makes the metabolic syndrome an increasingly important entity. In this review, we provide a short background on the metabolic syndrome, we discuss recent developments in the three main options that have been identified for intervention in the metabolic syndrome, i.e. lifestyle and surgical and pharmacological interventions, and we focus on different views in the literature and also include our own viewpoints on the metabolic syndrome. In addition, we discuss some emerging treatment targets for adipose tissue dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, i.e. activation of the inflammasome and the complement system, and consider some selected opportunities for intervention in these processes. Marleen M. J. van Greevenbroek ( [email protected] ) Corresponding author: Marleen M. J. van Greevenbroek How to cite: van Greevenbroek MMJ, Schalkwijk CG and Stehouwer CDA. Dysfunctional adipose tissue and low-grade inflammation in the management of the metabolic syndrome: current practices and future advances [version 1; referees: 2 approved]. F1000Research 2016, 5(F1000 Faculty Rev):2515 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.8971.1 ) Copyright: 2016 van Greevenbroek MMJ et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Grant information: The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. First published: 13 Oct 2016, 5(F1000 Faculty Rev):2515 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.8971.1 ) Latest published: 13 Oct 2016, 5(F1000 Faculty Rev):2515 (doi: 10. Continue reading >>

Possible Role Of Interleukin-1 In Type 2 Diabetes Onset And Implications For Anti-inflammatory Therapy Strategies

Possible Role Of Interleukin-1 In Type 2 Diabetes Onset And Implications For Anti-inflammatory Therapy Strategies

Possible Role of Interleukin-1 in Type 2 Diabetes Onset and Implications for Anti-inflammatory Therapy Strategies Affiliation Department of Systems Immunology and Braunschweig Integrated Centre of Systems Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany Affiliation Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany Affiliation Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany * E-mail: [email protected] Affiliations Department of Systems Immunology and Braunschweig Integrated Centre of Systems Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany, Institute of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Technische Universitt Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany Possible Role of Interleukin-1 in Type 2 Diabetes Onset and Implications for Anti-inflammatory Therapy Strategies Increasing evidence of a role of chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes progression has led to the development of therapies targeting the immune system. We develop a model of interleukin-1 dynamics in order to explain principles of disease onset. The parameters in the model are derived from in vitro experiments and patient data. In the framework of this model, an IL-1 switch is sufficient and necessary to account for type 2 diabetes onset. The model suggests that treatments targeting glucose bear the potential of stopping progression from pre-diabetes to overt type 2 diabetes. However, once in overt type 2 diabetes, these treatments have to be complemented by adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies in order to stop or decelerate disease progression. Moreover, the model suggests that while glucose-lowering therapy needs to be continued all the way, dose and duration of Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Receptor Down-regulation Is Associated With Severity Of Albuminuria In Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Vitamin D Receptor Down-regulation Is Associated With Severity Of Albuminuria In Type 2 Diabetes Patients

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vitamin D Receptor Down-Regulation Is Associated With Severity of Albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Department of Nephrology (B.Y., J.H., W.Z., A.M.L., S.K.Y., J.S., J.W.W., H.Z.), The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China; Search for other works by this author on: Department of Nephrology (B.Y., J.H., W.Z., A.M.L., S.K.Y., J.S., J.W.W., H.Z.), The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China; Search for other works by this author on: Department of Nephrology (B.Y., J.H., W.Z., A.M.L., S.K.Y., J.S., J.W.W., H.Z.), The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China; Search for other works by this author on: Department of Nephrology (B.Y., J.H., W.Z., A.M.L., S.K.Y., J.S., J.W.W., H.Z.), The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China; Search for other works by this author on: Department of Nephrology (B.Y., J.H., W.Z., A.M.L., S.K.Y., J.S., J.W.W., H.Z.), The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China; Search for other works by this author on: Department of Nephrology (B.Y., J.H., W.Z., A.M.L., S.K.Y., J.S., J.W.W., H.Z.), The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China; Search for other works by this author on: Department of Nephrology (B.Y., J.H., W.Z., A.M.L., S.K.Y., J.S., J.W.W., H.Z.), The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China; Search for other works by this author on: Department of Medicine (Y.C.L.), Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 Search for other works by this author on: Department of Nephrology (B Continue reading >>

Elevated B Cell Activation Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Development In Obese Subjects

Elevated B Cell Activation Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Development In Obese Subjects

Elevated B Cell Activation is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Development in Obese Subjects Zhai X.a Qian G.b Wang Y.a Chen X.a Lu J.c Zhang Y.c Huang Q.c Wang Q.c Department of Endocrinology, Changhai hospital, Second Military Medical University, 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433, (China) I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. Background/Aims: Despite strong association between obesity and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), only a subset of obese individuals eventually develops T2D. We sought to determine the immunological factors behind this heterogeneity. Methods: Peripheral blood of obese non-diabetic subjects and obese diabetic subjects were collected and the B cell responses in these subjects were analyzed. Results: We found that the B cells from obese diabetic subjects had similar B cell subtype composition and secreted similar levels of low-grade pro-inflammatory cytokines to obese non-diabetic subjects, characteristic to the background chronic immune activation frequently observed in obese subjects. When examining adaptive B cell antibody responses, however, obese diabetic subjects presented much higher levels of polyclonal activation and antibody secretion, with impaired ability to response to new antigens such as seasonal influenza vaccination. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that in obese diabetic subjects, B cell adaptive response is impaired and potentially contribute to overall higher inflammation. 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel Smyth S, Heron A: Diabetes and obesity: the twin epidemics. Nat Med 2006;12:75-80. Leahy JL: Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Med Res 2005;36:197-209. Donath MY, Shoelson SE: Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol 2011;11:98-107. Manna P, Jain S Continue reading >>

Novartis Phase Iii Cantos Study Demonstrates That Targeting Inflammation With Acz885 Reduces Cardiovascular Risk

Novartis Phase Iii Cantos Study Demonstrates That Targeting Inflammation With Acz885 Reduces Cardiovascular Risk

Novartis Phase III CANTOS study demonstrates that targeting inflammation with ACZ885 reduces cardiovascular risk Study showed a significant 15% reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in people with a prior heart attack and inflammatory atherosclerosis who were treated with 150mg of ACZ885, in addition to standard of care including lipid-lowering therapy Effect driven by 24% relative reduction in risk of heart attack; a non-significant 10% reduction in risk of cardiovascular death was observed Sub-group of study participants whose inflammation was reduced below the median hsCRP saw a 27% relative risk reduction on primary MACE end-point Additionally, a review of blinded, pre-planned oncology safety analyses revealed a 77% reduction in lung cancer mortality and 67% reduction in lung cancer cases in patients treated with 300mg of ACZ885 Novartis plans to discuss the CANTOS study findings with health authorities and to submit the cardiovascular data for regulatory approval The digital press release with multimedia content can be accessed here: Basel, August 27, 2017 - Novartis today revealed primary data from CANTOS, a Phase III study evaluating quarterly injections of ACZ885 (canakinumab) in people with a prior heart attack and inflammatory atherosclerosis as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels of >=2mg/L, a known marker of inflammation. Trial participants received either placebo or one of three doses of ACZ885 in combination with current standard of care therapies, with 91% of them taking lipid-lowering statins. The study showed that ACZ885 led to a statistically significant 15% reduction in the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of non-fatal heart attack, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death, Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications: The Immune System

Diabetes Complications: The Immune System

Renegade macrophages—the garbage collectors of the immune system—go rogue in obesity and Type 2 Diabetes The interrelationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes, complications of diabetes, and immune dysfunction has been suspected for more than a decade1. But it has only been in recent years that many of the threads connecting these conditions have been defined. The diagram below illustrates how energy imbalance in adipose tissue, innate immune activation, and alterations in gut microbiota all contribute to potential chronic inflammation, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic complications. The starting point for this begins in white adipose tissue where innate immune cells such as macrophages and maturing adipocytes interact as they deal with diet-driven energy imbalances. The latter causes a massive infiltration of macrophages (the big eaters of the immune system) changing their representation in the tissue from 10% to an estimated 40% of cells. These macrophages polarize into a subtype (called M1) that are pro-inflammatory and behave as if they are fighting a never-ending bacterial infection. Specific lipid metabolites use toll-like and NOD receptors on macrophages to activate a protein complex known as the inflammasome, and this further increases cytokine (and other) mediators of inflammation produced by the M1 macrophages. The macrophage-driven inflammatory attack depletes the maturing adipocyte population causing those cells that survive to swell as they accumulate an inordinate amount of lipids per adipocyte. This progression of the macrophage inflammatory attack in the adipose tissue is bad enough but unlike what happens in Las Vegas, the inflammatory insult does not stay just in the adipose tissue. Instead, an increasing number of metabolically-intolerant, polarized Continue reading >>

Ebscohost | 96237276 | Targeting Inflammation In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: Time To Start.

Ebscohost | 96237276 | Targeting Inflammation In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: Time To Start.

Targeting inflammation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: time to start. Source: Nature Reviews Drug Discovery . Jun2014, Vol. 13 Issue 6, p465-476. 12p. Abstract: The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and associated complications is now well established. Several conditions that are driven by inflammatory processes are also associated with diabetes, including rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriasis and Crohn's disease, and various anti-inflammatory drugs have been approved or are in late stages of development for the treatment of these conditions. This Review discusses the rationale for the use of some of these anti-inflammatory treatments in patients with diabetes and what we could expect from their use. Future immunomodulatory treatments may not target a specific disease, but could instead act on a dysfunctional pathway that causes several conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome. Copyright of Nature Reviews Drug Discovery is the property of Nature Publishing Group and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. For access to this entire article and additional high quality information, please check with your college/university library, local public library, or affiliated institution. Important User Information: Remote access to EBSCO's databases is permitted to patrons of subscribing institutions accessing from remote locations for personal, non-commercial use. However, remote access to EBSC Continue reading >>

Targeting Inflammation In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: Time To Start.

Targeting Inflammation In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: Time To Start.

Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2014 Jun;13(6):465-76. doi: 10.1038/nrd4275. Epub 2014 May 23. Targeting inflammation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: time to start. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and associated complications is now well established. Several conditions that are driven by inflammatory processes are also associated with diabetes, including rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriasis and Crohn's disease, and various anti-inflammatory drugs have been approved or are in late stages of development for the treatment of these conditions. This review discusses the rationale for the use of some of these anti-inflammatory treatments in patients with diabetes and what we could expect from their use. Future immunomodulatory treatments may not target a specific disease, but could instead act on a dysfunctional pathway that causes several conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome. Continue reading >>

Canakinumab Reduces Risk Of Heart Disease Events By Targeting Inflammation

Canakinumab Reduces Risk Of Heart Disease Events By Targeting Inflammation

Canakinumab reduces risk of heart disease events by targeting inflammation Canakinumab reduces risk of heart disease events by targeting inflammation High intensity exercise gives beta cells new strength, study finds 19 June 2017 Phase III results of the CANTOS heart trial have shown that a drug, previously tested in type 2 diabetes , cuts cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The drug in question is canakinumab (ACZ885), an antibody to a pro-inflammatory cytokine molecule, called Il-1B, which is known to drive atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the name for the damage to blood vessels whereby arteries become clogged. Canakinumab is the first and only agent which has shown that selectively targeting inflammation significantly reduces CVD risks. In the six-year trial, drug maker Novartis tested canakinumab plus standard of care in 10,061 patients who had previously suffered a myocardial infarction (MI). The participants all had a high level of inflammation in the body, as evidenced by elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Previous research suggested that high CRP levels may be a reliable indicator of atherosclerosis and that it can influence risks of having heart problems return. The inflammation hypothesis of atherosclerosis holds that plaque appear to repair damaged blood vessels that have been exposed to the forces of inflammation and oxidative stress. The CANTOS trial represents an important breakthrough in cardiovascular medicine as it shows for the first time that reducing inflammation through Il-1B reduces CVD risks. The Phase III CANTOS study showed that canakinumab met its primary endpoint in increasing the time to a heart attack , stroke or CVD death compared with standard of care alone. Although full results will not appear until later Continue reading >>

Targeting Inflammation Using Salsalate In Type 2 Diabetes (tinsal-t2d) (tinsal-t2d)

Targeting Inflammation Using Salsalate In Type 2 Diabetes (tinsal-t2d) (tinsal-t2d)

Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information Growing evidence over recent years supports a potential role for low grade chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In this study we will determine whether salsalate, a member of the commonly used Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) class, is effective in lowering sugars in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study will determine whether salicylates represent a new pharmacological option for diabetes management. The study is conducted in two stages. The first stage is a dose ranging study, administering salsalate compared to placebo over three months. The primary objective of Stage 2 of the study is to evaluate the effects of salsalate on blood sugar control in diabetes; the tolerability of salsalate use in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); and the effects of salsalate on measures of inflammation, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiac risk. The second stage is a second trial and posted under alternate registration. Type 1 diabetes and/or history of ketoacidosis determined by medical history History of severe diabetic neuropathy including autonomic neuropathy, gastroparesis or lower limb ulceration or amputation History of long-term therapy with insulin (>30 days) within the last year Therapy with rosiglitazone (Avandia) or pioglitazone (Actos), or extendin-4 (Byetta), alone or in combination in the previous 6 months Patients requiring corticosteroids within 3 months or recurrent continuous oral corticosteroid treatment (more than 2 weeks) Use of weight loss drugs [e.g., Xenical (orlistat), Meridia (sibutramine), Acutrim (phenylpropanol-amine), or similar over-the-counter medications] with Continue reading >>

Treating Rheumatological Diseases And Co-morbidities With Interleukin-1 Blocking Therapies

Treating Rheumatological Diseases And Co-morbidities With Interleukin-1 Blocking Therapies

Treating rheumatological diseases and co-morbidities with interleukin-1 blocking therapies Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA, Division of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy and Search for other works by this author on: Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Search for other works by this author on: Rheumatology, Volume 54, Issue 12, 1 December 2015, Pages 21342144, Giulio Cavalli, Charles A. Dinarello; Treating rheumatological diseases and co-morbidities with interleukin-1 blocking therapies, Rheumatology, Volume 54, Issue 12, 1 December 2015, Pages 21342144, The inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-1 orchestrate local and systemic inflammatory responses underlying a broad spectrum of diseases. Three agents for reducing IL-1 activities are currently available. Anakinra is a recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist. Anakinra binds to the IL-1 receptor and prevents the activity of IL-1 and IL-1. The soluble decoy receptor rilonacept and the neutralizing mAb canakinumab block IL-1. A mAb directed against the IL-1 receptor and a neutralizing anti-human IL-1 are in clinical trials. The availability of therapies specifically targeting IL-1 unveiled the pathological role of IL-1-mediated inflammation in a broadening list of diseases. Conditions effectively treated with agents blocking IL-1 range from classic rheumatic diseases, such as RA and gout, to autoinflammatory syndromes, such as systemic JIA and FMF. However, IL-1 antagonism is also effective against highly prevalent inflammatory diseases, namely cardiovascular diseases Continue reading >>

Effect Of Targeting Inflammation With Salsalatethe Tinsal-cvd Randomized Clinical Trial On Progression Of Coronary Plaque In Overweight And Obese Patients Using Statins

Effect Of Targeting Inflammation With Salsalatethe Tinsal-cvd Randomized Clinical Trial On Progression Of Coronary Plaque In Overweight And Obese Patients Using Statins

Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Diagram The flow of patients in the study is shown. All data are presented through trial completion or point of withdrawal. MDCTA indicates multidetector computed tomographic angiography. Coronary Artery Segment Plaque Volume, Assessed at Baseline and 30 Months, for Noncalcified Plaque, Total Plaque, Fatty Plaque, Fibrous Plaque, and Calcified Plaque in the Salsalate and Placebo Groups A, The means (95% CIs) are shown. P values represent the difference in segment plaque volume from baseline to final assessment within each treatment group. B, Changes in segment plaque volume are presented as box and whisker plots, with the top and bottom of the whisker representing the maximum and minimum observations, respectively. Box boundaries represent the interquartile range (75% and 25% boundaries, respectively), the line within the box represents the median, and the square in the salsalate and circle in the placebo represents the mean. Coronary Calcium Score, Remodeling Index, and Luminal Stenosis, Assessed at Baseline and 30 Months The means (95% CIs) in the salsalate and placebo groups are shown. P values evaluating the difference between baseline and 30-month assessments within the salsalate and placebo groups and the difference in change between the 2 groups are shown. Baseline Characteristics of the Study Cohort and by Treatment Group Continue reading >>

The Role Of Inflammation In Type 2 Diabetes, By Professor Bente Klarlund Pedersen

The Role Of Inflammation In Type 2 Diabetes, By Professor Bente Klarlund Pedersen

The Role of Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes, by Professor Bente Klarlund Pedersen To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video From the course by University of Copenhagen Diabetes and obesity are growing health problems in rich and poor countries alike. With this course you will get updated on cutting-edge diabetes and obesity research including biological, genetic and clinical aspects as well as prevention and epidemiology of diabetes and obesity. All lectures are provided by high-profile scientists from one the world's leading universities in diabetes research. This course is part of the EIT Health Campus programme.We hope you will enjoy our course.Best Wishes Jens Juul Holst, Signe Srensen Torekov and Nicolai Wewer Albrechtsen Department of Biomedical Sciences Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences University of Copenhagen Exercise has many beneficial effects - but how does it actually work? Professor Bente Klarlund will take you through the latest scientific research on how the exercise of skeletal muscles affect our organs and entire body. Department of Biomedical Sciences & NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research Department of Biomedical Sciences & NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research Department of Biomedical Sciences & NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research I'm a medical doctor specialized in infectious diseases. And I'm a professor of Integrative Medicine at the University of Copenhagen, I'm also the director of the Center for Physical Activity Research. In this lecture, I will discuss the role of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular complications are of particular interest, as these are m Continue reading >>

Jci -therapeutic Approaches Targeting Inflammation For Diabetes And Associated Cardiovascular Risk

Jci -therapeutic Approaches Targeting Inflammation For Diabetes And Associated Cardiovascular Risk

Therapeutic approaches targeting inflammation for diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk Allison B. Goldfine and Steven E. Shoelson Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Address correspondence to: Allison B. Goldfine, Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Place, Boston Massachusetts 02215, USA. Phone: 617.309.2643; E-mail: [email protected] . Find articles by Goldfine, A. in: JCI | PubMed | Google Scholar Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Address correspondence to: Allison B. Goldfine, Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Place, Boston Massachusetts 02215, USA. Phone: 617.309.2643; E-mail: [email protected] . Find articles by Shoelson, S. in: JCI | PubMed | Google Scholar First published January 3, 2017- More info Published in Volume 127, Issue 1 (January 3, 2017) J Clin Invest.2017;127(1):8393. . Copyright 2017, American Society for Clinical Investigation Obesity-related sub-acute chronic inflammation has been associated with incident type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Inflammation is increasingly considered to be a pathologic mediator of these commonly co-occurring diseases. A growing number of preclinical and clinical studies support the inflammatory hypothesis, but clinical trials to confirm the therapeutic potential to target inflammation to treat or prevent cardiometabolic conditions are still ongoing. There are multiple inflammatory signaling pathways. Regulation is complex, with substantial crosstalk across these multiple pathways. The activity of select pathways may be differentially regulated in different tissues. Pharmacologic approaches to diabetes management may have direct or indirect antiinflammatory effects, Continue reading >>

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