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Should Insulin Be Capitalized

Lecture 2: How To Write Drug Dosages

Lecture 2: How To Write Drug Dosages

In order to write and read drug orders or prescriptions, we need to know how they should be written. Because it is so important to minimize the chance that someone might misread a drug order, there are specific units of measure, abbreviations, and rules for writing orders that must be used. In this section, we will learn what these rules are and practice using them in example drug orders. The Metric System The most commonly used system of measurement in the medical profession is the metric system. It is the most modern system and is preferred because all units of measure come in powers of 10, making it easy to convert from one unit to another. Metric system units of measure : weight length volume grams g meters m liters L milligrams mg 1000 mg = 1 g micrograms mcg (μg) 1000 mcg = 1 mg Do NOT use μg for micrograms--use mcg instead! centimeters cm milliliters mL 1000 mL = 1 L cubic centimeters (cc) are milliliters (1 cc = 1 mL) Do NOT use cc for cubic centimeters--use mL instead! In the above table we can see the basic units of measurement for each category, along with the abbreviations for each unit. In this table we have included some older abbreviations for micrograms and milliliters (or cubic centimeters) that used to be common, but that should no longer be used. These outdated abbreviations are included because you may still encounter them on drug labels or syringes, and because it is important to be aware when reading drug orders that some doctors may use outdated abbreviations--if you see any of these abbreviations when reading a drug order, it is a good idea to question the drug order, just to be sure! Some other metric units: Most drug dosages are measured by weight in grams, milligrams or micrograms; however certain special drugs have other metric units that m Continue reading >>

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

When writing medical terminologies, people are often confused as to when they should capitalize the terminology, italicize it or leave it as such. For diabetes, people are very confused whether or not it should be capitalized. Some tend to type Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in small caps while others would capitalize its first letters. Medical agencies have also varied when it comes to capitalizing Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in its reports or articles. Many have expressed their frustration regarding these types and the way it has to be written. However, back in the past, capitalizing Type 2 diabetes was not a problem for those hoping to ensure that their grammar was correct when using these terminologies. Not many know but diabetes was not previously divided into types such as Type 1 or Type 2 back in the past. In 1979, the nomenclature or classification for diabetes was introduced by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG). Under the document, the two major types of diabetes were given descriptive names based on their clinical structure: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The World Health Organization (WHO) approved this typing a year later; however, since research has continuously discovered new things about the disease, the typing was no longer suitable. Many patients ended up getting the wrong classification for their diabetes type, affecting their evaluation and treatment. Research has also pointed out new types of diabetes which did not fit the two major types cited by the NDDG, thus the necessity to revise the typing and establish new criteria for diagnosis. Eventually, the new classification system indicated four major types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 (Type I), type 2 (Type II), other types and gestationa Continue reading >>

Protein Naming Guidelines

Protein Naming Guidelines

Preamble Consistent nomenclature is indispensable for communication, literature searching and entry retrieval. Therefore, the JCBN has, in cooperation with the EBI, the SIB, and PIR agreed on minimal protein nomenclature rules. Ambiguities regarding gene/protein names are a major problem in the literature and it is even worse in the sequence databases which tend to propagate the confusion. Warning: this is a preliminary document; many rules still have to be added, modified or expanded. General naming rules If it exists, the approved nomenclature should be used. If no accepted unification exists, and several alternatives are of equal frequency in the literature, the one with the easiest extensibility or standardization should be used. In addition, preference is given to names that best reflect the common acronym or gene symbol. The protein naming guidelines are based on the premise that a good and stable recommended name (Recommended name) for a protein is a name that is as neutral aspossible. A recommended name should be, as far as possible, unique and attributed to all orthologs. One reason for this is that it should be possible to propagate a protein name to all orthologous proteins, from various organisms. This is why, ideally, the protein name should not contain a specific characteristic of the protein, and in particular it should not reflect the function or role of the protein, nor its subcellular location, its domain structure, its tissue specificity, its molecular weight or its species of origin. Therefore: A recommended name should not contain information about the molecular weight of the protein. e.g. "unicornase subunit A" is preferred to "unicornase 52 kDa subunit." A recommended name should not be based on the name of a disease. e.g. "Bloom syndrome protein" Continue reading >>

Johnson & Johnson: After Rising 15% This Year, What's Next?

Johnson & Johnson: After Rising 15% This Year, What's Next?

Summary Johnson & Johnson’s stock rallied 15% this year, primarily driven by weaker dollar. With its medtech business languishing despite having scope for revenue growth, I believe the stock is a bit overvalued. However, an appropriate acquisition in the cardiovascular space could propel the stock far higher, although management isn’t willing to take any such initiative just yet. I believe management will eventually acquire a cardiovascular company, and also solidify its diabetes care business further. Johnson & Johnson’s (JNJ) cardiology business is struggling. Despite that, the company indicated that it’s unlikely to be involved in any M&A (merger and acquisition) deals to bolster the business, a Leerink Partners analyst said. In fact, J&J’s another medtech business also disappointed investors after showing significant promise, which is its diabetes care business. Driven by a project for developing a complete artificial pancreas system (APS) led by its diabetes division Animas, the diabetes care business should have posted high growth. However, the project didn’t quite see the light of success. Both the cardiology market and the blood glucose controlling market are poised for high growth. However, J&J’s initiative to capitalize on the opportunities by the current management remained disappointing. Meanwhile, competitor Medtronic (MDT) is progressing well in both the areas. This article will analyze J&J’s long-term prospects in the stock market. Johnson & Johnson’s Medical Devices Business J&J’s overall revenue growth remained more or less stagnant in the past four years. Its medical devices business, though, which consists of six segments - cardiovascular, diabetes care, diagnostics, orthopedics, surgery, and vision care - is going through a declin Continue reading >>

Review Of Basal‐plus Insulin Regimen Options For Simpler Insulin Intensification In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Review Of Basal‐plus Insulin Regimen Options For Simpler Insulin Intensification In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: Abstract To identify simple insulin regimens for people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus that can be accepted and implemented earlier in primary and specialist care, taking into consideration each individual's needs and capabilities. Methods Using randomized clinical trials identified by a search of the PubMed database, as well as systematic reviews, meta‐analyses and proof‐of‐concept studies, this review addresses topics of interest related to the progressive intensification of a basal insulin regimen to a basal‐plus regimen (one basal insulin injection plus stepwise addition of one to three preprandial short‐acting insulin injections/day) vs a basal‐bolus regimen (basal insulin plus three short‐acting insulin injections per day) in people with Type 2 diabetes. The review explores approaches that can be used to define the meal for first prandial injection with basal‐plus regimens, differences among insulin titration algorithms, and the importance of self‐motivation and autonomy in achieving optimum glycaemic control. A basal‐plus regimen can provide glycaemic control equivalent to that obtained with a full basal‐bolus regimen, with fewer injections of prandial insulin. The first critical step is to optimize basal insulin dosing to reach a fasting glucose concentration of ~6.7 mmol/l; this allows ~40% of patients with baseline HbA1c >75 mmol/mol (9%) to be controlled with only one basal insulin injection per day. Compared with a basal‐bolus regimen, a basal‐plus insulin regimen is as effective but more practical, and has the best chance of acceptance and success in the real world. Continue reading >>

Pumper’svoice

Pumper’svoice

Lighten Your Lows Pump therapy can help you avoid hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia has been called the greatest limiting factor in intensive diabetes management. Were it not for the risk of hypoglycemia, we could simply load up on insulin and keep blood sugars from ever rising too high. Unfortunately, hypoglycemia does exist, and it creates a number of problems for those of us who take insulin: risk of accidents, seizures and loss of consciousness; rebound highs; impaired intellectual and physical performance; unwanted weight gain; and worsening of hypoglycemia unawareness. It is not realistic to achieve tight blood glucose control without any episodes of hypoglycemia. However, we should make every effort to minimize the frequency and severity of lows. To do this, we need to do everything possible to match the insulin we need with the insulin we take. After all, it is the simple act of taking too much insulin that is the root cause of hypoglycemia. One of the main advantages offered by insulin pump therapy is the ability to closely mimic the actions of a healthy pancreas. There are a number of reasons why pump users tend to experience fewer and less severe bouts of hypoglycemia compared to those on injections. First is the ability to carefully match basal insulin to the body’s needs. Long-acting insulin (NPH, Lantus, Levemir) cannot be adjusted and fine-tuned the way basal insulin delivered with a pump can. Most people need extra basal insulin at certain times of day and less at others. Injected long-acting insulin does not usually provide a drop-off in the insulin level when less basal insulin is needed, and thus sets a person up for low blood sugar. But the pump’s basal insulin delivery can be reduced at times of day when less insulin is needed. Pumps also allow for temp Continue reading >>

Insulin In The Uk

Insulin In The Uk

Tweet Insulin may be a key part of your treatment if you suffer from diabetes. Insulin enables your body to use glucose. Different types of insulin can act very differently in different people. Insulin regime suitable for individual patients are tailored by your diabetes care team. Type or dosage of insulin can be changed if required to meet the individual needs of the patient. Insulin can be packaged in vials (bottles), cartridges or prefilled pens. The vials are used with syringes, whereas the cartridges are used with pen injectors. Prefilled pens are disposable pen injectors, which contain insulin. Prefilled pens are useful for people with dexterity or visual problems. List of insulins The table highlights the various insulin types, their manufacturers, the insulin source and how it's available. It also highlights insulin ranges that have been discontinued. Insulin type Name Manufacturer Type Source Rapid-acting analogue Apidra Sanofi analogue vial & cartridge Apidra Sanofi analogue prefilled pen Humalog Lilly analogue vial & cartridge Humalog Lilly analogue prefilled pen Novorapid Novo Nordisk analogue vial Novorapid Penfill Novo Nordisk analogue cartridge Novorapid Novolet Novo Nordisk analogue prefilled pen Long-acting analogue Lantus Sanofi analogue vial, cartridge & prefilled pen Levemir Novo Nordisk analogue cartridge & prefilled pen Tresiba Novo Nordisk analogue cartridge & prefilled pen Short-acting Human Actrapid Novo Nordisk human vial Actrapid Pen* Novo Nordisk human prefilled pen Actrapid Penfill* Novo Nordisk human cartridge Human Velosulin* Novo Nordisk human vial Pork Actrapid* Novo Nordisk pork vial Humaject S* Lilly human prefilled pen Humulin S Lilly human vial & cartridge Hypurin Bovine Neutral CP Pharmaceuticals beef vial & cartridge Hypurin Porci Continue reading >>

The Best Company For Investing In The Diabetes Market

The Best Company For Investing In The Diabetes Market

The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 29.1 million Americans suffer from diabetes, with that number reaching as high as 387 million around the globe. By 2035, the worldwide number is estimated to grow to as many 592 million patients. Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by the body's inability to produce or effectively utilize insulin, which prevents the body from adequately regulating blood glucose levels. Diabetes is typically classified into two major groups: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the body attacking its own insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Without any natural insulin production, patients with type 1 diabetes must rely on frequent insulin injections in order to regulate and maintain blood glucose levels. As of 2012, about 1.25 million American had been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results when the body is unable to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or becomes insulin resistant, and this type is much more common than type 1. About 19 million Americans have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and a further 8.1 million have type 2 but remain undiagnosed. Treating diabetes is both complicated and costly. The most recent estimates from the American Diabetes Association indicate that total costs to treat diabetes in the U.S. reached $245 billion in 2012 alone, up from $174 billion in 2007. It's no surprise that a market with that level of spending has attracted investors' attention. There are plenty of ways for investors to gain exposure to the diabetes treatment market, such as Big Pharma companies like Sanofi, Novo Nordisk, and Eli Lilly, who produce a range of drugs used to treat the disease. On the opposite end of the diversity sp Continue reading >>

You Clicked On A Page That’s Meant For Healthcare Providers.

You Clicked On A Page That’s Meant For Healthcare Providers.

Efficacy of Humalog Mix75/25 Humalog Mix75/25 provided improved glucose control Two studies in adult patients with type 2 diabetes When added to metformin, Humalog Mix75/25 improved A1C1 Two open-label, randomized, crossover trials compared the glycemic response of Humalog Mix75/25 BID + metformin with that of glargine QD + metformin1,2 Humalog Mix75/25 improved fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial glucose (PPG) control3 A randomized, double-blind study with 3-way crossover compared Human Insulin 70/30, Humalog Mix75/25, and Humalog® Mix50/50™ after a standardized breakfast meal3 PAIR-IN: Design and methods1 Humalog Mix75/25 BID plus metformin versus glargine QD plus metformin Open-label, randomized, crossover trial, 16 weeks on each treatment 105 insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes Mean age 55 years All randomized patients included in safety analysis 67 patients included in efficacy analysis (29 patients excluded because they may have received expired study drug) Baseline A1C: 8.7% Primary endpoint Note: PAIR-IN average (standard deviation) daily dose of insulin was 0.62 (0.37) U/kg for Humalog Mix75/25 vs 0.57 (0.37) U/kg for glargine (P<.001). PAIR-PI: Design and methods Humalog Mix75/25 BID plus metformin versus glargine QD plus metformin Inadequately controlled patients with type 2 diabetes on once- or twice-daily insulin alone or in combination with oral agents 97 patients Open-label, randomized, crossover trial Note: PAIR-PI average (standard deviation) daily dose of insulin was 0.42 (0.20) U/kg for Humalog Mix75/25 vs 0.36 (0.18) U/kg for glargine (P<.001). Humalog Mix75/25 BID plus metformin versus glargine QD plus metformin Insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes 105 patients 67 patients included in efficacy analysis (29 patients exclude Continue reading >>

As Consumerism Grows, Payers Must Capitalize On Open Enrollment

As Consumerism Grows, Payers Must Capitalize On Open Enrollment

Most Americans have health insurance today, either through an employer, Medicare, Medicaid or the state and federal exchanges, but according to new research from Xerox, only three out of 10 are very confident that their current health plan is the best fit for their family. Understandably so. Enrolling in a health plan in today’s ever-changing healthcare landscape is anything but simple. From deductibles, to copays, to in-network and out-of-network providers, the enrollment process can be frustrating and confusing. In addition, new technology has changed the way people enroll in a health plan altogether, enabling them to shop online for health insurance the same way they would shop for new shoes or books on Amazon. However, the shopping experience is nowhere near as user friendly as what consumers experience with their favorite online retailer. One-click checkout, anyone? In fact, Xerox’s survey, which received more than 2,000 responses from U.S. adults, found that among those who have health insurance (1,937), more than half have experienced one or more challenges with the open enrollment process including frustration with the enrollment process, not understanding their healthcare options and being asked the same information more than once. Why this presents an opportunity for payers As the cost of care continues to rise and provider networks and drug benefits change and evolve, consumers need help understanding their benefit choices and the financial implications that may apply. This is an opportunity for payers to start a dialogue and enhance the member experience—even potentially gain new customers. Though many Americans today are more involved and knowledgeable than ever before about healthcare and are even leveraging technology to make more self-informed deci Continue reading >>

Insulin: Its History And Future

Insulin: Its History And Future

Learn about the invention of the life-saving drug insulin, and what the future holds in store. We all know that without insulin, those of us with type 1 diabetes would slowly starve to death. Our bodies don't make insulin, so we can't process the food we eat properly and get energy and nutrients from it. In this article, I'll talk about the development of insulin, as well as how insulin is used right now in diabetes treatment. At the end, I'll talk a little about the future of insulin and type 1 diabetes. History of Insulin and Diabetes Before insulin became available, children routinely were fed a cup of cooking oil a day because that was thought to help them process food. The results were as you imagine. The archives of Joslin Diabetes Center, where Elliott P. Joslin, MD, was one of the first Americans to use insulin, are replete with before and after pictures of children who looked at death’s door one month, and months later appeared to be healthy normal children. Insulin was greeted as a cure for diabetes; however, today we know that it can only control the disease, and with extended life comes a long list of long-term complications. Diabetes was first described and named by Aratacus of Cappadocia in Asia Minor in the first century AD. The name came from the analogy that diabetics' urine was like water coming through a siphon. The sweet smell of the urine of diabetics was first noted in the 17th century by the Oxford physician, Thomas Willis, but ancient Indians in the 4th century are said to have noted ants congregating at the urine of diabetics. Attempts at treatment began when no more was known about diabetes than the polyuria. John Rollo, Surgeon-General to the Royal Artillery treated a patient by dietary restriction in 1706. The great figure in the story of d Continue reading >>

Diabetologia Style Guide

Diabetologia Style Guide

This style guide is intended to be an evolving document to help make your copy-editing more efficient and to maintain consistency. If you come across an item that isn't covered or needs updating, please email us at [email protected] We recommend that you view this guide using Mozilla, as some formatting (e.g. small capitals) is not recognised in Internet Explorer. Download Mozilla free here This section gives a basic outline of what tasks are required for each article. More detailed information on each point is given elsewhere in the style guide. In this section: Timing Please acknowledge receipt of articles sent for copy-editing and let us know whether you can take them. We normally request that articles be returned within 3 working days. Please let us know if you need any significant extension to this. General The text should be edited for accuracy, clarity and consistency, following the style guide. In general, retain the author's style but make changes to assist readability. PerfectIt should be used as a pre- or post-editing tool. Let us know if you have any problems with this. Papers for copy-editing will have words or parts of words highlighted in pink to help you identify words or phrases that may need attention (see guide to pre-editing checks for details). Please complete an author query form for each article with a list of queries to be passed on to the author. Please also complete the copy-editor's checklist and note any queries for the attention of the Editorial Office. Data Please cross-check all data in the paper, where possible. In particular, check that results reported in the Abstract are consistent with the rest of the paper and are rounded correctly; similarly, cross-check data reported in the Results to the figures and tables, as appropria Continue reading >>

Enhanced Glycemic Control With Combination Therapy For Type 2 Diabetes In Primary Care

Enhanced Glycemic Control With Combination Therapy For Type 2 Diabetes In Primary Care

Go to: Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports that as many as 220 million individuals have diabetes.1 The Framingham Offspring Study database indicates that the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has doubled in the US from the 1970s through the 1990s.2 In the US, it was estimated in 2010 that nearly 26 million individuals had diabetes, of which 7.0 million (27%) were undiagnosed.3 Furthermore, the prevalence of diabetes (driven largely by DM2) is projected to reach 12.0% by 2050, affecting more than 48 million individuals.4 Disconcertingly, almost half of deaths in this population occur before the age of 70 years, and the WHO projects that the number of diabetes deaths will double between 2005 and 2030. Clinicians also increasingly recognize the additional burden of DM2 in children and adolescents.5 Most patients with DM2 are appropriately managed within the primary care sector, with the occasional need for consultation by diabetologists. Since DM2 is associated with increased mortality, increased risk of macrovascular disease (ie, stroke and myocardial infarction), and increased microvascular disease (ie, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), there are numerous challenges worthy of intervention for risk reduction. Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight, and avoiding tobacco use can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. Good control of glucose (glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >7%) in patients with DM2 has been shown to reduce microvascular disease and improve quality of life.6 Despite the salutary effects attributable to good glucose control, only about half of patients with diabetes are at the currently recognized treatment goal.7 In addition to glycemic control, comprehensive DM2 care requires attention Continue reading >>

Novo Picks Up The Pace With Its Next-gen Insulin, Eyeing A 2016 U.s. Debut

Novo Picks Up The Pace With Its Next-gen Insulin, Eyeing A 2016 U.s. Debut

Last year's surprising FDA rejection blew a hole in Novo Nordisk's ($NVO) plans to capitalize on a new long-acting insulin, but the Danish drugmaker said its follow-on study is coming through ahead of schedule, clearing the way for a 2016 launch. The treatment, marketed in Europe as Tresiba, is a once-a-day insulin analog with a long duration of action. In late-stage data submitted to the FDA, Tresiba came through on its efficacy goals of reducing baseline blood glucose, but some troubling safety signals led the agency, notoriously strict on diabetes drugs, to strike down Novo's application and demand a cardiovascular outcomes study. The rejection sent Novo reeling and put off what seemed like a near-term launch into 2017 at the earliest, the company said at the time. But that outcomes study is progressing ahead of plan, Novo said on its earnings call Thursday. The company now expects to kick off an interim analysis by year's end, potentially allowing it to submit data to the FDA in the first half of next year and finally launch the product in the U.S. in 2016. That's good news for a treatment expected to peak at more than $3 billion a year in global revenue, a cornerstone of Novo's next-generation diabetes portfolio. And the accelerated timing should help Novo contend with its fast-encroaching rivals. Sanofi ($SNY) just submitted Toujeo, successor to top-selling insulin Lantus, for FDA approval, and Eli Lilly ($LLY) expects to file its long-acting peglispro for approval in the first quarter of next year. And the pair's ongoing legal squabble will likely keep a Lantus biosimilar off the U.S. market until at least mid-2016, preserving pricing as Novo gears up for commercialization. But the biggest potential for Novo's new insulin may be its role in an investigational com Continue reading >>

How Would You Use Insulin In A Sentence?

How Would You Use Insulin In A Sentence?

The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historical usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com. Continue reading >>

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