diabetestalk.net

Should Insulin Be Capitalized

When Preparing The Figures For A Paper, How Should We Write The Name Of The Proteins And Their Phosphorylation State?

When Preparing The Figures For A Paper, How Should We Write The Name Of The Proteins And Their Phosphorylation State?

This may be of help: Nomenclature of Phosphorus-Containing Compounds of Biochemical Importance from the INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY -The J Craig Venter Institute have developed this rules database to "address the need to generate high quality protein names, and capture our significant experience correcting protein names manually, we have developed the Protein Naming Utility (PNU). The PNU is a web based database for storing and applying naming rules to identify and correct syntactically incorrect protein names or to replace synonyms with their preferred name. The PNU allows users to generate and manage collections of naming rules" -In addition, the INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY- Recommendations on Biochemical & Organic Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc. has this web site the offer rules organized by the type of proteins: isomerases, transferferases, lyases, steroids, etc. Continue reading >>

Fda Approves Generics Of Lilly Antidepressant Cymbalta

Fda Approves Generics Of Lilly Antidepressant Cymbalta

Typically, if ever forgot to take my Cymbalta in the A. Would be interested in other's experience with generic as well. My biggest concern sun that with generic manufacturers, what you get from refill to refill cymbalta be different even if I do get used to this mfr's version. pharma These nights are horrible. Yes, Phil - that's what I'm experiencing. sun Duloxetine can pass into breast milk and may pharma a nursing baby. Cymbalta should not breast-feed while generic this medication. Older adults may be more sensitive to the side cymbalta of this medication. Sun not give duloxetine pharma anyone younger than 18 years old without the advice of a doctor. How should Generic take duloxetine? Buy duloxetine online and take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Generic not take in larger or smaller amounts sun for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you cymbalta the best results. Try to take the medicine pharma the same time each day. Do not crush, generic cymbalta sun pharma, chew, break, or open a delayed-release capsule. Breaking or opening the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Do not take Cymbalta if you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor MAOI such as isocarboxazid Sungeneric cymbalta sun pharma, phenelzine Pharmaor tranylcypromine Cymbalta during the generic 2 weeks. Serious, and sometimes fatal, reactions have occurred when these medicines have been used together. Pharma, do not take Cymbalta if you are taking thioridazine Mellaril. Dangerous, even fatal irregular heartbeats may occur sun these medicines are taken generic. Before taking Cymbalta, tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines: Cymbalta is in the FDA pre Continue reading >>

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

When writing medical terminologies, people are often confused as to when they should capitalize the terminology, italicize it or leave it as such. For diabetes, people are very confused whether or not it should be capitalized. Some tend to type Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in small caps while others would capitalize its first letters. Medical agencies have also varied when it comes to capitalizing Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in its reports or articles. Many have expressed their frustration regarding these types and the way it has to be written. However, back in the past, capitalizing Type 2 diabetes was not a problem for those hoping to ensure that their grammar was correct when using these terminologies. Not many know but diabetes was not previously divided into types such as Type 1 or Type 2 back in the past. In 1979, the nomenclature or classification for diabetes was introduced by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG). Under the document, the two major types of diabetes were given descriptive names based on their clinical structure: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The World Health Organization (WHO) approved this typing a year later; however, since research has continuously discovered new things about the disease, the typing was no longer suitable. Many patients ended up getting the wrong classification for their diabetes type, affecting their evaluation and treatment. Research has also pointed out new types of diabetes which did not fit the two major types cited by the NDDG, thus the necessity to revise the typing and establish new criteria for diagnosis. Eventually, the new classification system indicated four major types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 (Type I), type 2 (Type II), other types and gestationa Continue reading >>

Review Of Basal‐plus Insulin Regimen Options For Simpler Insulin Intensification In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Review Of Basal‐plus Insulin Regimen Options For Simpler Insulin Intensification In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: Abstract To identify simple insulin regimens for people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus that can be accepted and implemented earlier in primary and specialist care, taking into consideration each individual's needs and capabilities. Methods Using randomized clinical trials identified by a search of the PubMed database, as well as systematic reviews, meta‐analyses and proof‐of‐concept studies, this review addresses topics of interest related to the progressive intensification of a basal insulin regimen to a basal‐plus regimen (one basal insulin injection plus stepwise addition of one to three preprandial short‐acting insulin injections/day) vs a basal‐bolus regimen (basal insulin plus three short‐acting insulin injections per day) in people with Type 2 diabetes. The review explores approaches that can be used to define the meal for first prandial injection with basal‐plus regimens, differences among insulin titration algorithms, and the importance of self‐motivation and autonomy in achieving optimum glycaemic control. A basal‐plus regimen can provide glycaemic control equivalent to that obtained with a full basal‐bolus regimen, with fewer injections of prandial insulin. The first critical step is to optimize basal insulin dosing to reach a fasting glucose concentration of ~6.7 mmol/l; this allows ~40% of patients with baseline HbA1c >75 mmol/mol (9%) to be controlled with only one basal insulin injection per day. Compared with a basal‐bolus regimen, a basal‐plus insulin regimen is as effective but more practical, and has the best chance of acceptance and success in the real world. Continue reading >>

Future Prospect Of Insulin Inhalation For Diabetic Patients: The Case Of Afrezza Versus Exubera.

Future Prospect Of Insulin Inhalation For Diabetic Patients: The Case Of Afrezza Versus Exubera.

Abstract The current review was designed to compare between the insulin inhalation systems Exubera and Afrezza and to investigate the reasons why Exubera was unsuccessful, when Afrezza maker is expecting their product to be felicitous. In January 2006, Pfizer secured FDA and EC approval for the first of its kind, regular insulin through Exubera inhaler device for the management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in adults. The product was no longer available to the market after less than two years from its approval triggering a setback for competitive new inhalable insulins that were already in various clinical development phases. In contrary, MannKind Corporation started developing its ultra-rapid-acting insulin Afrezza in a bold bid, probably by managing the issues in which Exubera was not successful. Afrezza has been marketed since February, 2015 by Sanofi after getting FDA approval in June 2014. The results from this systematic review indicate the effectiveness of insulin inhalation products, particularly for patients initiating insulin therapy. Pharmaceutical companies should capitalize on the information available from insulin inhalation to produce competitive products that are able to match the bioavailability of subcutaneous (SC) insulin injection and to deal with the single insulin unit increments and basal insulin requirements in some diabetic patients or extending the horizon to inhalable drug products with completely different drug entities for other indications. KEYWORDS: Diabetes mellitus; Insulin inhalation pharmacodynamics; Insulin inhalation pharmacokinetics; Insulin inhalation safety; Insulin inhalers; Insulin types Continue reading >>

Insulin: A Primer

Insulin: A Primer

Authors Jay H. Shubrook, DO, FACOFP, FAAFP, Associate Professor of Family Medicine, Director, Diabetes Fellowship Program, The Diabetes Institute at Ohio University Nancy Mora Becerra, MD, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Sarah E. Adkins, PharmD, BCACP, Faculty, The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy; Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, Ohio University Heritage College of Medicine, Athens, OH Aili Guo, MD, Assistant Professor of Specialty Medicine, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine Peer Reviewer Jeff Unger, MD, ABFP, FACE, Director, Unger Primary Care Concierge Medical Group, Rancho Cucamonga, CA Executive Summary Patients starting on insulin in the ED should be started on a basal insulin 0.1-0.2 U/kg. Patients being treated for acute hyperglycemia (not previously on insulin) should receive 2 U for every 50 mg/dL elevation of glucose over 150 mg/dL. Patients who present acutely ill with an active insulin pump should have the pump turned off and supplemental insulin given IV. Patients who present with unexplained hypoglycemia should have a c-peptide and insulin level drawn. High insulin levels without equal elevation of c-peptide suggest exogenous insulin administration. Introduction Prior to the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a uniformly fatal disease. The first use of exogenous insulin in a dog by Banting and Macloed resulted in the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.1 In January 1922, they injected exogenous insulin in a 14-year-old boy who was dying at the Toronto General Hospital. After receiving the insulin he desperately needed, he improved and by the end of that month his glucosuria and ketonuria normalized.1 Initially, bovine and porcine insulins were purified from animal pancreatic tissues and were used to treat p Continue reading >>

Insulet Corporation Ranked #4 On Forbes 2017 Most Innovative Growth Companies List

Insulet Corporation Ranked #4 On Forbes 2017 Most Innovative Growth Companies List

Previous Release | Next Release Leader in Tubeless Insulin Pump Technology Ranks in Top Five Percent Among List of Most Innovative 100 Public Companies BILLERICA, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Insulet Corporation (NASDAQ: PODD) (Insulet or the Company), the leader in tubeless insulin pump technology with its Omnipod® Insulin Management System (Omnipod System), today announced that it is ranked number four out of 100 on the Forbes 2017 "Most Innovative Growth Companies" list. Insulet was recognized for growth and innovation in the development, manufacturing, and marketing of its differentiated insulin management system. "Insulet's inclusion on the Forbes 2017 ‘Most Innovative Growth Companies' list is a testament to our tremendous success and proven track record of pioneering new technologies," said Patrick Sullivan, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. "Our ranking in the top five percent of this prestigious list reflects our team's focus on driving growth within all areas of our business. We have an unwavering dedication to bring innovative products to market and improve the lives of those living with diabetes." According to Forbes, the "Most Innovative Growth Companies" list includes companies expected by investors to be innovative now and in the future. Companies were ranked by their "innovation premium," which is based on a proprietary algorithm from Credit Suisse HOLT, a platform that calculates the difference between a company's market capitalization and the net present value of cash flows from its existing business. To qualify for consideration in the annual list, companies must have at least seven years of public financial data and a market capitalization between $2 and $10 billion. About Insulet Corporation: Insulet Corporation (NASDAQ: PODD) is an innovative me Continue reading >>

The Best Company For Investing In The Diabetes Market

The Best Company For Investing In The Diabetes Market

The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 29.1 million Americans suffer from diabetes, with that number reaching as high as 387 million around the globe. By 2035, the worldwide number is estimated to grow to as many 592 million patients. Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by the body's inability to produce or effectively utilize insulin, which prevents the body from adequately regulating blood glucose levels. Diabetes is typically classified into two major groups: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the body attacking its own insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Without any natural insulin production, patients with type 1 diabetes must rely on frequent insulin injections in order to regulate and maintain blood glucose levels. As of 2012, about 1.25 million American had been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results when the body is unable to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or becomes insulin resistant, and this type is much more common than type 1. About 19 million Americans have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and a further 8.1 million have type 2 but remain undiagnosed. Treating diabetes is both complicated and costly. The most recent estimates from the American Diabetes Association indicate that total costs to treat diabetes in the U.S. reached $245 billion in 2012 alone, up from $174 billion in 2007. It's no surprise that a market with that level of spending has attracted investors' attention. There are plenty of ways for investors to gain exposure to the diabetes treatment market, such as Big Pharma companies like Sanofi, Novo Nordisk, and Eli Lilly, who produce a range of drugs used to treat the disease. On the opposite end of the diversity sp Continue reading >>

Insulin In The Uk

Insulin In The Uk

Tweet Insulin may be a key part of your treatment if you suffer from diabetes. Insulin enables your body to use glucose. Different types of insulin can act very differently in different people. Insulin regime suitable for individual patients are tailored by your diabetes care team. Type or dosage of insulin can be changed if required to meet the individual needs of the patient. Insulin can be packaged in vials (bottles), cartridges or prefilled pens. The vials are used with syringes, whereas the cartridges are used with pen injectors. Prefilled pens are disposable pen injectors, which contain insulin. Prefilled pens are useful for people with dexterity or visual problems. List of insulins The table highlights the various insulin types, their manufacturers, the insulin source and how it's available. It also highlights insulin ranges that have been discontinued. Insulin type Name Manufacturer Type Source Rapid-acting analogue Apidra Sanofi analogue vial & cartridge Apidra Sanofi analogue prefilled pen Humalog Lilly analogue vial & cartridge Humalog Lilly analogue prefilled pen Novorapid Novo Nordisk analogue vial Novorapid Penfill Novo Nordisk analogue cartridge Novorapid Novolet Novo Nordisk analogue prefilled pen Long-acting analogue Lantus Sanofi analogue vial, cartridge & prefilled pen Levemir Novo Nordisk analogue cartridge & prefilled pen Tresiba Novo Nordisk analogue cartridge & prefilled pen Short-acting Human Actrapid Novo Nordisk human vial Actrapid Pen* Novo Nordisk human prefilled pen Actrapid Penfill* Novo Nordisk human cartridge Human Velosulin* Novo Nordisk human vial Pork Actrapid* Novo Nordisk pork vial Humaject S* Lilly human prefilled pen Humulin S Lilly human vial & cartridge Hypurin Bovine Neutral CP Pharmaceuticals beef vial & cartridge Hypurin Porci Continue reading >>

Diabetologia Style Guide

Diabetologia Style Guide

This style guide is intended to be an evolving document to help make your copy-editing more efficient and to maintain consistency. If you come across an item that isn't covered or needs updating, please email us at [email protected] We recommend that you view this guide using Mozilla, as some formatting (e.g. small capitals) is not recognised in Internet Explorer. Download Mozilla free here This section gives a basic outline of what tasks are required for each article. More detailed information on each point is given elsewhere in the style guide. In this section: Timing Please acknowledge receipt of articles sent for copy-editing and let us know whether you can take them. We normally request that articles be returned within 3 working days. Please let us know if you need any significant extension to this. General The text should be edited for accuracy, clarity and consistency, following the style guide. In general, retain the author's style but make changes to assist readability. PerfectIt should be used as a pre- or post-editing tool. Let us know if you have any problems with this. Papers for copy-editing will have words or parts of words highlighted in pink to help you identify words or phrases that may need attention (see guide to pre-editing checks for details). Please complete an author query form for each article with a list of queries to be passed on to the author. Please also complete the copy-editor's checklist and note any queries for the attention of the Editorial Office. Data Please cross-check all data in the paper, where possible. In particular, check that results reported in the Abstract are consistent with the rest of the paper and are rounded correctly; similarly, cross-check data reported in the Results to the figures and tables, as appropria Continue reading >>

Lecture 2: How To Write Drug Dosages

Lecture 2: How To Write Drug Dosages

In order to write and read drug orders or prescriptions, we need to know how they should be written. Because it is so important to minimize the chance that someone might misread a drug order, there are specific units of measure, abbreviations, and rules for writing orders that must be used. In this section, we will learn what these rules are and practice using them in example drug orders. The Metric System The most commonly used system of measurement in the medical profession is the metric system. It is the most modern system and is preferred because all units of measure come in powers of 10, making it easy to convert from one unit to another. Metric system units of measure : weight length volume grams g meters m liters L milligrams mg 1000 mg = 1 g micrograms mcg (μg) 1000 mcg = 1 mg Do NOT use μg for micrograms--use mcg instead! centimeters cm milliliters mL 1000 mL = 1 L cubic centimeters (cc) are milliliters (1 cc = 1 mL) Do NOT use cc for cubic centimeters--use mL instead! In the above table we can see the basic units of measurement for each category, along with the abbreviations for each unit. In this table we have included some older abbreviations for micrograms and milliliters (or cubic centimeters) that used to be common, but that should no longer be used. These outdated abbreviations are included because you may still encounter them on drug labels or syringes, and because it is important to be aware when reading drug orders that some doctors may use outdated abbreviations--if you see any of these abbreviations when reading a drug order, it is a good idea to question the drug order, just to be sure! Some other metric units: Most drug dosages are measured by weight in grams, milligrams or micrograms; however certain special drugs have other metric units that m Continue reading >>

Special Handling Necessary To Avoid Insulin Errors

Special Handling Necessary To Avoid Insulin Errors

Rx Care Special handling necessary to avoid insulin errors The recent proliferation of insulin products, some with similar names and packaging but very different active ingredients, has left many patients confused—and many pharmacists as well. Treatment of diabetes with insulin has become increasingly complex, and with that comes the risk of its misuse. According to the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, the complexity of insulin therapy has risen sharply in the past decade due to the rising prevalence of diabetes, new formulations of insulin with unique dosing, and new delivery and monitoring devices. "Data derived from scientific research, voluntary reporting programs, and technology used to automate the medication use process clearly show that insulin errors are frequent and cause significant patient harm," said Christopher S. Walsh, Pharm.D., Safe Medication Practice Fellow at ISMP. For this reason, the institute considers insulin a "high-alert" medication—one requiring special handling to ensure its safe use. Practitioners have reported errors caused by confusion between the similar-sounding Lente (insulin zinc suspension) and Lantus (insulin glargine, Aventis); Eli Lilly's Humulin (human insulin) and Humalog (insulin lispro); and premixed products containing both rapid and intermediate-acting insulins, for example, Humulin 70/30 and Humalog Mix 75/25 (insulin lispro/lispro protamine), and Novo Nordisk's Novolin 70/30 and NovoLog Mix 70/30 (insulin aspart/ aspart protamine). But look-alike names and packaging are only a part of the problem, according to ISMP. Errors can occur for many reasons, including unclear communication of drug orders, incorrect prescribing of drug or dose, inappropriate use of syringe, and lack of both staff and patient education, w Continue reading >>

International Unit

International Unit

In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances. International units are used to quantify vitamins, hormones, some medications, vaccines, blood products, and similar biologically active substances. The name international unit has often been capitalized (in English and other languages), although major English-language dictionaries treat it as a common noun and thus use lower case. The name has several accepted abbreviations. It is usually abbreviated as IU in English, and UI in Romance languages (for example Spanish unidad internacional, French unité internationale, Italian unità internazionale, Romanian unitate internațională), IE in several Germanic languages (for example German internationale Einheit, Dutch internationale eenheid) or as other forms (for example Russian МЕ, международная единица [mezhdunarodnaya jedinica], Hungarian NE, nemzetközi egység). In order to remove the possibility of having the letter "I" confused with the digit "1", some hospitals have it as a stated policy to omit the "I", that is, to only use U or E when talking and writing about dosages, while other hospitals require the word "units" (or words "international units") to be written out entirely.[1] (For example, "three international units per litre" may be abbreviated "3 U/L".) Many biological agents exist in different forms or preparations (e.g. vitamin A in the form of retinol or beta-carotene). The goal of the IU is to be able to compare these, so that different forms or preparations with Continue reading >>

As Consumerism Grows, Payers Must Capitalize On Open Enrollment

As Consumerism Grows, Payers Must Capitalize On Open Enrollment

Most Americans have health insurance today, either through an employer, Medicare, Medicaid or the state and federal exchanges, but according to new research from Xerox, only three out of 10 are very confident that their current health plan is the best fit for their family. Understandably so. Enrolling in a health plan in today’s ever-changing healthcare landscape is anything but simple. From deductibles, to copays, to in-network and out-of-network providers, the enrollment process can be frustrating and confusing. In addition, new technology has changed the way people enroll in a health plan altogether, enabling them to shop online for health insurance the same way they would shop for new shoes or books on Amazon. However, the shopping experience is nowhere near as user friendly as what consumers experience with their favorite online retailer. One-click checkout, anyone? In fact, Xerox’s survey, which received more than 2,000 responses from U.S. adults, found that among those who have health insurance (1,937), more than half have experienced one or more challenges with the open enrollment process including frustration with the enrollment process, not understanding their healthcare options and being asked the same information more than once. Why this presents an opportunity for payers As the cost of care continues to rise and provider networks and drug benefits change and evolve, consumers need help understanding their benefit choices and the financial implications that may apply. This is an opportunity for payers to start a dialogue and enhance the member experience—even potentially gain new customers. Though many Americans today are more involved and knowledgeable than ever before about healthcare and are even leveraging technology to make more self-informed deci Continue reading >>

Incorrect Diabetes Terms

Incorrect Diabetes Terms

I am just back from a health conference where I heard too many incorrect terms to wait any longer to make this effort to correct the rest of the world. Several of these terms are “politically incorrect.” One that I have been careful to avoid for years is to label someone who has diabetes as a diabetic. Now, diabetic medications and diabetic foods are fine. But many people who have diabetes actively resist being labeled as a diabetic, as if we were an illness. A correspondent writes, “What I give as an example to doctors and other technical people is: If a person has hemorrhoids, does that make that person one?” Here, I absolutely agree with the American Diabetes Association, which vigorously resists this label, insisting that we are “people with diabetes.” By using the term people with diabetes we follow the general example of “people-first language.” Another term that may or may not be politically incorrect but is certainly objectionable to many people with diabetes is noncompliant. For most of us, to be labeled noncompliant is a worse slander than being called a diabetic. This is particularly true when health care people criticize us for not doing things that they haven’t clearly explained or where we think they are wrong. An endocrinologist friend wisely says, “The ‘noncompliant’ label always grated on me — it’s assuming a model of health care delivery that assumes the doc to be the captain of the ship and the patients to be chained to the oars…” Control is another important issue. People frequently perceive good control as a value judgement. We should replace it with non-emotional terms like “tight control” or “intensive control” or “stringent control” or “aggressive control.” Likewise, poor control is a terribly perjo Continue reading >>

More in insulin