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Serum Insulin Level

Serum Insulin, Obesity, And The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Black And White Adults

Serum Insulin, Obesity, And The Incidence Of Type 2 Diabetes In Black And White Adults

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study: 1987–1998 Abstract OBJECTIVE—In this study, we tested the hypothesis that fasting serum insulin is higher in nonobese black adults than in white adults and that high fasting insulin predicts type 2 diabetes equally well in both groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—At the baseline examination (1987–1989) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, fasting insulin and BMI were measured in 13,416 black and white men and women without diabetes. Participants were examined at years 3, 6, and 9 for incident diabetes based on fasting glucose and American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS—Fasting insulin was 19.7 pmol/l higher among nonobese (BMI <30 kg/m2) black women compared with white women (race and obesity interaction term, P < 0.01). There were no differences among men. Among nonobese women, the relative risk for developing diabetes was similar between racial groups: 1.4 (95% CI 1.2–1.5) and 1.3 (1.2–1.4) per 60 pmol/l increase in insulin (P < 0.01) for black and white women, respectively (interaction term, P = 0.6). Findings were similar among men. Adjusting for established risk factors did not attenuate this association. CONCLUSIONS—Nonobese black women have higher fasting insulin levels than nonobese white women, and fasting insulin is an equally strong predictor of diabetes in both groups. These results suggest one mechanism to explain the excess incidence of diabetes in nonobese black women but do not explain the excess among black men. Future research should evaluate additional factors: genetic, environmental, or the combination of both, which might explain higher fasting insulin among black women when compared with white women. The excess prevalence of type 2 diabetes among black men and women Continue reading >>

Test Id: Ins Insulin, Serum

Test Id: Ins Insulin, Serum

Diagnosing insulinoma, when used in conjunction with proinsulin and C-peptide measurements Management of diabetes mellitus Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. It regulates the uptake and utilization of glucose and is also involved in protein synthesis and triglyceride storage. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) is caused by insulin deficiency due to destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet (beta) cells. Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin dependent diabetes) is characterized by resistance to the action of insulin (insulin resistance). Insulin levels may be increased in patients with pancreatic beta cell tumors (insulinoma). During prolonged fasting, when the patient's glucose level is reduced to <40 mg/dL, elevated insulin level plus elevated levels of proinsulin and C-peptide suggest insulinoma. Insulin levels generally decline in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In the early stage of type 2 diabetes, insulin levels are either normal or elevated. In the late stage of type 2 diabetes, insulin levels decline. In normal individuals, insulin levels parallel blood glucose levels. To compare insulin and C-peptide concentrations (ie, insulin to C-peptide ratio): -Convert insulin to pmol/L: insulin concentration in mcIU/mL x 6.945 = insulin concentration in pmol/L. -Convert C-peptide to pmol/L: C-peptide concentration in ng/mL x 331 = C-peptide concentration in pmol/L. Twelve hours before this blood test do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin or vitamin B7, which are commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins. Human antimouse antibodies (HAMA) may interfere with the assay. Patients on insulin therapy may develop anti-insulin antibodies. These antibodies may interfere in the ass Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.[1] Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose.[2] In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>

Signs Of Insulin Resistance

Signs Of Insulin Resistance

What is insulin resistance? Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas. It allows your cells to use glucose (sugar) for energy. People with insulin resistance have cells throughout their bodies that don’t use insulin effectively. This means the cells have trouble absorbing glucose, which causes a buildup of sugar in their blood. If your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes, you have a condition called prediabetes caused by insulin resistance. It’s not entirely clear why some people develop insulin resistance and others don’t. A sedentary lifestyle and being overweight increases the chance of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The effects of insulin resistance Insulin resistance typically doesn’t trigger any noticeable symptoms. You could be insulin resistant for years without knowing, especially if your blood glucose levels aren’t checked. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) estimates that nearly 70 percent of individuals with insulin resistance and prediabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes if significant lifestyle changes aren’t made. Some people with insulin resistance may develop a skin condition known as acanthosis nigricans. This condition creates dark patches often on the back of the neck, groin, and armpits. Some experts believe it may be caused by a buildup of insulin within skin cells. There’s no cure for acanthosis nigricans, but if caused by a specific condition, treatment may allow for some of your natural skin color to return. Insulin resistance increases the risk of being overweight, having high triglycerides, and having elevated blood pressure. Since insulin resistance increases your risk for progressing to diabetes, you may not notice right away if you develop Continue reading >>

The One Test Your Doctor Isn’t Doing That Could Save Your Life

The One Test Your Doctor Isn’t Doing That Could Save Your Life

Insulin resistance doesn’t happen overnight. When most of your diet includes empty calories and an abundance of quickly absorbed sugars, liquid calories, and carbohydrates like bread, pasta, rice, and potatoes, your cells slowly become resistant to the effects of insulin. Your body increasingly demands more insulin to do the same job of keeping your blood sugar even. Eventually your cells become resistant to insulin’s call, resulting in insulin resistance. The higher your insulin levels are, the worse your insulin resistance. Your body starts to age and deteriorate. In fact, insulin resistance is the single most important phenomenon that leads to rapid, premature aging and all its resultant diseases, including heart disease, stroke, dementia, and cancer. Insulin resistance and the resulting metabolic syndrome often comes accompanied by increasing central obesity, fatigue after meals, sugar cravings, high triglycerides, low HDL, high blood pressure, problems with blood clotting, as well as increased inflammation. Even without these warning signs, one test can determine high insulin levels years or even decades before diabetes develops. Early detection can help you reverse these symptoms, yet doctors rarely use this crucial test that can detect high insulin levels. Why Doctors Miss the Initial Warning Sign of Insulin Resistance Doctors have been trained to measure a person’s fasting blood sugar, or the glucose levels present in your blood, at least eight hours after your last meal. Most don’t express concern until results show blood sugar levels reaching 110 mg/dl. That’s when they start “watching it.” Then, once your blood sugar reaches 126 mg/dl, your doctor will diagnose you with diabetes and put you on medication. The important thing to note is that bloo Continue reading >>

The One Number That May Best Predict Your Risk Of Sudden Death

The One Number That May Best Predict Your Risk Of Sudden Death

There are seven numbers you should track if you want to monitor your health—five are determined by simple blood tests, and the other two you can determine at home The five blood tests you should regularly obtain are fasting insulin, cholesterol/HDL ratio, serum ferritin, uric acid, and vitamin D; two good indicators for assessing your overall “metabolic fitness” and heart attack risk are your percentage body fat and your waist-to-hip ratio Optimizing your vitamin D level is crucial for health because vitamin D influences about 3,000 of your 30,000 genes, helping to prevent a multitude of diseases from cardiovascular disease to the common cold Minimizing dietary sugar, especially fructose, will go a long way toward optimizing nearly ALL seven of these numbers—if you could do only one thing, this would be the one! By Dr. Mercola The Globe and Maili recently published an article outlining "the 5 numbers that most impact your health." I think they have the right idea, but but I disagree with their test selections. If you really want to monitor your health, I believe the numbers you should be tracking are the seven listed in the table below. These are far more important than tracking your total cholesterol, blood pressure, or BMI, as recommended by the Globe and Mail. Let's take a closer look at these values and what they may reveal about your health. 1. Fasting Insulin (I) 2. Cholesterol/HDL Ratio (C) 3. Percentage Body Fat (F) 4. Serum Ferritin (F) 5. Waist/Hip Ratio (WH) 6. Uric Acid Level (U) 7. Vitamin D Level (D) 1. Fasting Insulin Level Your fasting insulin level reflects how healthy your blood glucose levels are over time. Insulin helps sugar move from your blood into your cells, where it can be used or stored. Chronically elevated blood glucose leads to insu Continue reading >>

Total And Free Insulin (blood)

Total And Free Insulin (blood)

Does this test have other names? Serum insulin level What is this test? This blood test measures two types of insulin in your body: total and free. Insulin is found in your body in many forms. Bound insulin is attached to other proteins. This often happens in people with diabetes who are treated with insulin. Free insulin is not attached to other proteins. Total insulin measures both free and bound insulin. The hormone insulin plays a key role in keeping your blood sugar at the right level. Too little insulin leads to a certain type of diabetes. High levels of insulin can harm your health by leading to hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if you have symptoms of low blood sugar. Symptoms of hypoglycemia often include: Anxiety Trembling Sweating Confusion Nausea Irritability Weakness Irregular heartbeat Hypoglycemia can be caused by: Insulin used as a medicine to control diabetes. Each year, up to 30% of people with type 1 diabetes have a serious episode of hypoglycemia. This also can happen in people with type 2 diabetes, but it's much less common in them. Insulinomas. These are rare tumors in the pancreas that produce insulin. They are usually not cancer. Other types of tumors elsewhere in the body that produce a substance called insulin-like growth factor 2, or IGF-2, which may affect your insulin levels. What other tests might I have along with this test? Your healthcare provider may also order other blood tests, including those that measure: Glucose Proinsulin C-peptide Cortisol Plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHOB) Your healthcare provider may also order a urine test to look at levels of sulfonylurea, a medicine used to treat diabetes. What do my test results mean? Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health Continue reading >>

Fasting Serum Insulin Levels And Insulin Resistance Are Associated With Colorectal Adenoma In Koreans

Fasting Serum Insulin Levels And Insulin Resistance Are Associated With Colorectal Adenoma In Koreans

Go to: Abstract Insulin has been associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, few studies have evaluated the association between insulin and colorectal adenoma. We investigated the relationship between fasting serum insulin levels or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR) and colorectal adenoma. We retrospectively enrolled 15,427 participants who underwent both fasting serum insulin measurement and colonoscopy for a routine health examination at Asan Medical Center from January 2007 to December 2008. Participants with a history of any cancer, previous colectomy or polypectomy, those taking antidiabetic medications, and inflammatory bowel disease, non‐specific colitis, non‐adenomatous polyps only or CRC on colonoscopic findings were excluded. Finally, 3,606 participants with histologically confirmed colorectal adenoma and 6,019 controls with no abnormal findings on colonoscopy were included. Participants were categorized into quartiles (Q) based on fasting serum insulin levels and HOMA‐IR. Fasting serum insulin and HOMA‐IR were significantly higher in participants with colorectal adenomas compared with controls. Multivariate regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits and family history of CRC showed that participants with higher quartiles of fasting serum insulin levels (odd ratio [OR] 1.17 for 2nd Q, 1.19 for 3rd Q, and 1.42 for 4th Q, P < 0.05) or HOMA‐IR (OR 1.18 for 2nd Q and 1.45 for 4th Q, P < 0.05) showed significantly increased ORs of colorectal adenoma compared with the lowest quartiles. These findings showed that increased serum insulin levels and insulin resistance were significantly associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma. Keywords: Insulin, Insulin resistance, Colo Continue reading >>

Do You Know Your Insulin Level?

Do You Know Your Insulin Level?

People often keep close watch on their glucose numbers. But how many of us know our insulin level? Dr. Joseph Mercola says fasting insulin is “the number that may best predict your sudden death.” Sounds important. But what does it mean? Our bodies need some circulating insulin at all times, even when we don’t eat. Otherwise, our livers keep making glucose and dumping it into the blood. Livers do this to prevent blood glucose from going too low. So a fasting insulin level should never be 0, which it might be in a person with untreated Type 1. It shouldn’t go below 3. But a high insulin level is just as problematic. A high insulin level is a sign of insulin resistance or prediabetes. It can also signify early-stage Type 2. According to Dr. Mercola, too much insulin promotes weight gain by storing fat. It promotes insulin resistance, lowers magnesium levels, and increases inflammation. It also tends to lower HDL (“good”) cholesterol and raise levels of LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. All of these increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease. It may be that high insulin levels come before insulin resistance and help cause it. If you already have diabetes, why should you know your insulin level? Mainly, it helps diagnose what is happening with you. Your blood glucose may be high, but how much of the problem is too little insulin? How much is insulin resistance? A fasting insulin level test is valuable in several situations: • Diagnosing prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. “Prediabetes” is one result of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance causes high cholesterol, high glucose, and high blood pressure. A high level of fasting insulin indicates insulin resistance and can encourage a person to make changes to lower it. • Separating Type 2 from LADA (latent Continue reading >>

Comparison Between Serum Insulin Levels And Its Resistance With Biochemical, Clinical And Anthropometric Parameters In South Indian Children And Adolescents

Comparison Between Serum Insulin Levels And Its Resistance With Biochemical, Clinical And Anthropometric Parameters In South Indian Children And Adolescents

Go to: Materials and Methods The study group consists of 185 school going children within the age group of 10–17 years from different schools in Chennai. Children with congenital heart diseases from International Centre for Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Diseases were enrolled as study participants. Informed written consent from the parents and children were obtained before the start of the study. A detailed questionnaire regarding medical history of the parents and children were recorded. This study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. Overweight and obese children and also children with congenital heart disease were included. Children with secondary causes of obesity, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and insulin independent diabetes mellitus and children with relevant drug treatment were excluded. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were recorded. Weight was measured using a beam balance to the nearest 0.1 kg and height was measured to the nearest centimeter using a tape stuck to the wall. Abdominal girth was measured at the level of umbilicus with the subject relaxed and in a standing posture. Hip girth was measured at the widest point of the hips at the level of the greater tronchanter with the patient standing with both feet together. Waist to hip ratio was calculated from these measurements. Children with >85th percentile for age and gender, children with >95th percentile for age and gender, were considered as overweight and obese by using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Charts. Blood pressure levels were also recorded for all children using the Mercury Sphygmomanometer. Venous blood samples were collected after 12 h fasting from all the children, serum separated a Continue reading >>

Hyperinsulinemia

Hyperinsulinemia

Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose. While it is often mistaken for diabetes or hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia can result from a variety of metabolic diseases and conditions. While hyperinsulinemia is often seen in people with early stage type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not the cause of the condition and is only one symptom of the disease. Type 1 diabetes only occurs when pancreatic beta-cell function is impaired. Hyperinsulinemia can be seen in a variety of conditions including diabetes mellitus type 2, in neonates and in drug induced hyperinsulinemia. It can also occur in congenital hyperinsulism, including nesidioblastosis. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance.[1] These conditions are collectively known as Metabolic syndrome.[2] This close association between hyperinsulinemia and conditions of metabolic syndrome suggest related or common mechanisms of pathogenicity.[1] Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to "play a role in obese hypertension by increasing renal sodium retention".[1] In type 2 diabetes, the cells of the body become resistant to the effects of insulin as the receptors which bind to the hormone become less sensitive to insulin concentrations resulting in hyperinsulinemia and disturbances in insulin release.[3] With a reduced response to insulin, the beta cells of the pancreas secrete increasing amounts of insulin in response to the continued high blood glucose levels resulting in hyperinsulinemia. In insulin resistant tissues, a threshold concentration of insulin is reached causing the cells to uptake glucose and therefore decreases blood glucose levels. Studies have shown that Continue reading >>

Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance

Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets. Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood. Insulin plays a major role in metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates—sugars and starches found in many foods—into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Insulin's Role in Blood Glucose Control When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin into the blood. Insulin and glucose then travel in the blood to cells throughout the body. Insulin helps muscle, fat, and liver cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream, lowering blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the liver and muscle tissue to store excess glucose. The stored form of glucose is called glycogen. Insulin also lowers blood glucose levels by reducing glucose production in the liver. In a healthy person, these functions allow blood glucose and insulin levels to remain in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin and thus cannot easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells. The beta cells in the pancreas try to keep up with this increased demand for insulin by producing more. As long as the beta cells are able to produce enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance, blood glucose levels stay in the healthy range. Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes and prediabetes because the bet Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin is an anabolic hormone that promotes glucose uptake, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis of skeletal muscle and fat tissue through the tyrosine kinase receptor pathway. In addition, insulin is the most important factor in the regulation of plasma glucose homeostasis, as it counteracts glucagon and other catabolic hormones—epinephrine, glucocorticoid, and growth hormone. Table 1. Reference Range of Insulin Levels [1] (Open Table in a new window) Insulin Level Insulin Level (SI Units*) Fasting < 25 mIU/L < 174 pmol/L 30 minutes after glucose administration 30-230 mIU/L 208-1597 pmol/L 1 hour after glucose administration 18-276 mIU/L 125-1917 pmol/L 2 hour after glucose administration 16-166 mIU/L 111-1153 pmol/L ≥3 hours after glucose administration < 25 mIU/L < 174 pmol/L *SI unit: conversional units x 6.945 Continue reading >>

Blood Levels Of Insulin And Hemoglobin A1c In Foundation Members

Blood Levels Of Insulin And Hemoglobin A1c In Foundation Members

Life Extension® has an advantage in identifying modern causes of premature aging and death. That’s because we have direct access to tens of thousands of our members’ blood test results. Our review of this real-world data enables us to uncover disease risk factors that are overlooked by the mainstream media. We then alert members about simple steps they can take to mitigate these hazards. Earlier this year, we analyzed fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c blood levels in over 10,000 members. A startling 66% had higher than desired fasting insulin. Twenty-two percent had hemoglobin A1c levels that placed them in a pre-diabetic state. Hemoglobin A1c measures the percentage of glycated hemoglobin in one’s blood. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be below 5.6%,1 yet more than one in five people we tested had a reading over 6%. Gaining early access to this kind of data can spare aging humans the ravages of degenerative illness. Armed with this knowledge, Foundation members can slash their risk of cancer, vascular occlusion, and other complications before frank diabetes is diagnosed. This article will describe the dangers of elevated fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c, our recent analysis of member blood tests, and a novel way to protect against glycemic overload. What Is Insulin Supposed to Do? Insulin is a hormone that regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism.2 Insulin enables liver and muscle cells to take up blood sugar (glucose) for energy production or storage.2 Insulin also facilitates the packing of glucose into fat cells as triglycerides.2 A burst of insulin is released in response to food ingestion. Once glucose has been safely shuttled into energy producing cells or stored, insulin levels should drop below 5 µIU/mL.3 Only a tiny amount of residual insulin should b Continue reading >>

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