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Postprandial Plasma Glucose Level Less Than The Fasting Level

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Two-hour Postprandial Glucose

Does this test have other names? Glucose, postprandial; glucose, two-hour postprandial; two-hour PPG; two-hour postprandial blood sugar What is this test? This is a blood test to check for diabetes. If you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin to keep your blood sugar in check. This means your blood sugar levels are too high, and over time this can lead to serious health problems including nerve and eye damage. This test is done to see how your body responds to sugar and starch after you eat a meal. As you digest the food in your stomach, blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels rise sharply. In response, your pancreas releases insulin to help move these sugars from the blood into the cells of muscles and other tissues to be used for fuel. Within two hours of eating, your insulin and blood glucose levels should return to normal. If your blood glucose levels remain high, you may have diabetes. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if your healthcare provider wants to see if you have diabetes or another insulin-related disorder, especially if you have symptoms such as: Frequent urination Unusual thirst Blurred vision Tiredness Repeated infections Sores that heal slowly If you're pregnant, you may have this test to screen for gestational diabetes, diabetes that can develop during pregnancy. Treating gestational diabetes reduces the risk for health problems for you and your baby. What other tests might I have with this test? Your healthcare provider may order other tests to confirm or evaluate whether you have diabetes. These may include: Fasting blood glucose test. This measures the amount of sugar in your blood. A1C (glycosylated hemoglobin) test. This measures your average blood sugar level over the last 2 to 3 months. Glucose tolerance test. This m Continue reading >>

Why Are Fasting Blood Glucose Numbers High?

Why Are Fasting Blood Glucose Numbers High?

Stumped by high fasting blood glucose results? Join the club. "It just doesn't compute. When I snack before bed, my fastings are lower than when I limit my night nibbles," says Pete Hyatt, 59, PWD type 2. "It's logical for people to point the finger for high fasting blood sugar numbers at what they eat between dinner and bed, but surprisingly food isn't the lead villain," says Robert Chilton, M.D., a cardiologist and professor of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The true culprit is compromised hormonal control of blood glucose levels. The Essential Hormones During the years (up to a decade) that type 2 diabetes develops, the hormonal control of blood glucose breaks down. Four hormones are involved in glucose control: Insulin, made in the beta cells of the pancreas, helps the body use glucose from food by enabling glucose to move into the body's cells for energy. People with type 2 diabetes have slowly dwindling insulin reserves. Amylin, secreted from the beta cells, slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream after eating by slowing stomach-emptying and increasing the feeling of fullness. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are amylin-deficient. Incretins, a group of hormones secreted from the intestines that includes glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), enhance the body's release of insulin after eating. This in turn slows stomach-emptying, promotes fullness, delays the release of glucose into the bloodstream, and prevents the pancreas from releasing glucagon, putting less glucose into the blood. Glucagon, made in the alpha cells of the pancreas, breaks down glucose stored in the liver and muscles and releases it to provide energy when glucose from food isn't available. {C} How the Essential Hormones Work in the Body When d Continue reading >>

Eur J Endocrinol | Mobile

Eur J Endocrinol | Mobile

Objective: Type-2 diabetes is a progressive disease. However, little is known about whether decreased fasting or postprandial pancreatic -cell responsiveness is more prominent with increased duration of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between insulin secretion both during fasting and 2 h postprandial, and the duration of diabetes in type-2 diabetic patients. Design: Cross-sectional clinical investigation. Methods: We conducted a meal tolerance test in 1466 type-2 diabetic patients and calculated fasting (M0) and postprandial (M1) -cell responsiveness. Results: The fasting C-peptide, postprandial C-peptide, M0, and M1 values were lower, but HbA1c values were higher, in patients with diabetes duration > 10 years than those in other groups. There was no difference in the HbA1c levels according to the tertiles of their fasting C-peptide level. However, in a group of patients with highest postprandial C-peptide tertile, the HbA1c values were significantly lower than those in other groups. After adjustment of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), the duration of diabetes was found to be negatively correlated with fasting C-peptide ( = 0.102), postprandial C-peptide ( = 0.356), M0 ( = 0.263), and M1 ( = 0.315; P < 0.01 respectively). After adjustment of age, sex, and BMI, HbA1c was found to be negatively correlated with postprandial C-peptide ( = 0.264), M0 ( = 0.379), and M1 ( = 0.522), however, positively correlated with fasting C-peptide ( = 0.105; P < 0.01 respectively). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, M0, M1, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) emerged as predictors of HbAlc after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI (R2 = 0.272, 0.080, and 0.056 respectively). Conclusions: With increasing duration of di Continue reading >>

Why Are Fasting Blood Sugars Higher Than Postprandial?

Why Are Fasting Blood Sugars Higher Than Postprandial?

Whether you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes or simply monitor your blood sugar levels to track your health, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels are frequently measured. Since your fasting blood sugar is taken before eating a meal and your postprandial blood sugar is taken after the meal, your fasting level should be lower than your postprandial level. But if the numbers are reversed and your fasting blood sugar levels are higher than your postprandial levels, it could indicate a serious health problem. Know the Norms The American Diabetes Association, or ADA, recommends specific pre-meal and post-meal blood sugar ranges for healthy adults. According to the ADA, fasting blood sugar should fall between 70 to 130 milligrams per deciliter of blood. After you eat, this number should increase as your body absorbs sugar molecules from food. However, the ADA recommends that the postprandial blood glucose level stays at or below 180 milligrams per deciliter. Dawn Phenomenon The dawn phenomenon is a medical condition characterized by a blood sugar spike that occurs early in the morning, reports MayoClinic.com. The sugar surge could be related to an inadequate dose of insulin the night before or eating too many carbs before bed. But the spike might also be related to natural body fluctuations that occur during sleep. During the night, newly released hormones might increase your body’s resistance to insulin, which ultimately impacts your body’s ability to absorb sugar into the cells, resulting in high sugar levels in the blood. Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is a daily problem for people with diabetes. Insulin is responsible for pushing sugar out of the bloodstream and into the cells to be used as energy. But when the cells are resistant to insulin’s action Continue reading >>

Postprandial Blood Glucose Is A Stronger Predictor Of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly In Women: Lessons From The San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study

Postprandial Blood Glucose Is A Stronger Predictor Of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly In Women: Lessons From The San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study

Objective: The influence of postprandial blood glucose on diabetes complications is intensively debated. We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of both fasting and postprandial blood glucose on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes and the influence of gender. Methods: In a population of 529 (284 men and 245 women) consecutive type 2 diabetic patients attending our diabetes clinic, we evaluated the relationships, corrected for cardiovascular risk factors and type of treatment, between cardiovascular events in a 5-yr follow-up and baseline values of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood glucose measured: 1) after an overnight fast, 2) after breakfast, 3) after lunch, and 4) before dinner. Continuous variables were categorized into tertiles. Results: We recorded cardiovascular events in 77 subjects: 54 of 284 men (19%) and 23 of 245 women (9.4%). Univariate analysis indicated that cardiovascular events were associated with increasing age, longer diabetes duration, and higher HbA1c and fibrinogen in men, and higher systolic blood pressure, albumin excretion rate, HbA1c, and all blood glucose values in women. Smoking was more frequent in subjects with events. When all blood glucose values and HbA1c were introduced simultaneously in the models, only blood glucose after lunch predicted cardiovascular events, with hazard ratio of the third tertile vs. the first and the second tertiles greater in women (5.54; confidence interval, 1.45–21.20) than in men (2.12; confidence interval, 1.04–4.32; P < 0.01). Conclusions: Postprandial, but not fasting, blood glucose is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes, with a stronger predictive power in women than in men, suggesting that more attention should be paid to postprandial hyperglycemia, particular Continue reading >>

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

Slideshow: A Visual Guide To Type 2 Diabetes

If you experience symptoms of severe increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger, tingling of your hands or feet -- your doctor may run a test for diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 29 million children and adults in the U.S., or over 9% of the population, have diabetes today. Yet, millions of Americans are unaware that they have diabetes, because there may be no warning signs. To confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, your doctor will order a fasting plasma glucose test or a casual plasma glucose. The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes, because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests, according to the American Diabetes Association. Before taking the blood glucose test, you will not be allowed to eat anything for at least eight hours. During a blood glucose test, blood will be drawn and sent to a lab for analysis. Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL. However, if you have normal fasting blood sugar, but you have risk factors for diabetes or symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may decide to do a glucose tolerance test (see below) to be sure that you do not have diabetes. Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose tolerance. If their blood sugar levels are high enough, they may be diagnosed with diabetes. Continue reading >>

Point: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are A Clinically Important Treatment Target

Point: Postprandial Glucose Levels Are A Clinically Important Treatment Target

The results of the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial have been recently reported (1–2). Nateglinide, a member of the meglitinide class, which has been shown to lower postprandial hyperglycemia by increasing the first phase of insulin secretion, was not effective in decreasing both the new cases of diabetes and the new cardiovascular events in a population at high risk (1). Valsartan, an angiotensin (AT-1) blocker, was ineffective on cardiovascular events but significantly—even marginally—reduced the onset of new diabetes (2). The negative results of nateglinide immediately raised the concern about the possibility that postprandial hyperglycemia could be considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether its treatment may give any advantage in the management of diabetes (3). Diabetologists have long debated whether the lack of insulin action (insulin resistance) or impaired insulin secretion represents the primary pathological mechanism underlying type 2 diabetes. Recent analyses confirm that impaired pancreatic β-cell glucose sensitivity and whole-body insulin sensitivity are strong predictors of a progression to hyperglycemia (4). Conversely, numerous studies have shown that acute insulin secretion defects represent a powerful early predictor of diabetes progression. During the progression from normal glucose tolerance to increasingly severe type 2 diabetes, first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS) is an early casualty. Prior to the diagnosis of diabetes, insulin response to mealtime glucose becomes delayed and blunted; eventually, it is lost (5). In a landmark study, Polonsky et al. (5) showed that FPIS responses were more sluggish and less dramatic in diabetic individuals. In Continue reading >>

Postprandial Glucose Levels May Be High Despite Normal Hba1c Levels

Postprandial Glucose Levels May Be High Despite Normal Hba1c Levels

Postprandial Glucose Levels May be High Despite Normal HbA1c Levels Abstract & Commentary Synopsis: Postmeal glucose levels may be seriously elevated despite a normal fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels of less than 7%. Source: Bonora E, et al. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:2023-2029. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the plasma glucose excursions with meals, the relations between levels at different times of the day, and these findings with their relationship to the level of the HbA1c in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetics. The UK Prospective Diabetes study made their therapeutic decisions based on the fasting glucose levels possibly assuming that good control in the fasting state would be associated with good control throughout the day. Bonora and colleagues wanted to know how frequently diabetic patients experience broad glucose excursions with meals. How much does fasting plasma glucose influence subsequent glucose levels during the day? How strongly are plasma glucose levels during the day interrelated? And, finally, is the HbA1c influenced more strongly by the fasting or nonfasting glucose? They assessed 3 groups of patients: 1) outpatients at their clinic (n = 371; 1 daily plasma glucose profile, which consisted of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c, plasma glucose levels 2 hours post breakfast and lunch, and a before dinner plasma glucose); 2) patients at home (n = 30; 5 daily glucose profiles, as in the first group on nonconsecutive days over 1 month); as well as 3) inpatients (n = 455; profiles of plasma glucose on the day of admission) were examined. Subjects had plasma/blood glucose assessment before and 2-3 hours after breakfast, lunch, and dinner. HbA1c was measured in all the patients. After meals many subjects had glucose le Continue reading >>

Serum Post Prandial Glucose Level Less Than Fasting Glucose!?

Serum Post Prandial Glucose Level Less Than Fasting Glucose!?

Abstract Blood glucose estimation is the most common investigation in the medical practice in all disciplines. Altered values of blood glucose are very common in laboratory but here we are reporting the fasting blood glucose (FBG) more than the post prandial blood glucose(PPBG).This type of results are confusing for the consultants to make relevant diagnosis and treatment. Blood glucose estimation was done using Glucose oxidase method and tabulated the reports of 24 subjects with FBG more than PPBG in the period of 3 months along with estimation of Glyco-Hb for mean comparison in semi auto analyzer A-15.Here we are trying to explain the various factors which may contribute to the development of FBG more than the PPBG, methodology of evaluation of these subjects. Continue reading >>

Post Prandial Plasma Glucose Level Less Than The Fasting Level In Otherwise Healthy Individuals During Routine Screening

Post Prandial Plasma Glucose Level Less Than The Fasting Level In Otherwise Healthy Individuals During Routine Screening

Post prandial plasma glucose level less than the fasting level in otherwise healthy individuals during routine screening During routine screening, some otherwise healthy individuals who showed remarkably lower post prandial (at 2 hour) plasma glucose without any symptom were subjected to extended glucose tolerance test and a few of them to extended post meal tolerance test as well. It was observed that post prandial (at 2 hour) plasma glucose after glucose administration was significantly lower than the fasting level (p<0.05p<0.001). However, post prandial plasma glucose at 2 hour after their usual meal exhibited a significantly higher level than the fasting and post glucose level (p<0.05p<0.001). Glucose appears to be a stronger agent than the more natural mixed meal in these individuals in causing post prandial lowering of plasma glucose. Hence, these individuals are to be evaluated with their usual meals before considering further investigations. Like upper limit, there is the need to have a consensus lower limit of reference interval of blood glucose level. Plasma glucoseIdiopathic reactive hypoglycemiaExtended glucose tolerance testExtended meal tolerance test This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Charles, M.A., Hofeldt, F., Shackelford, A., Waldeck, N., Dodson, L.E., Bunker, J.D., Coggins, J.T. and Eichner, H. (1981) Comparison of oral glucose tolerance tests and mixed meals in patients with apparent idiopathic postabsorptive hypoglycaemiaabsence of hypoglycaemia after meals. Diabetes. 30, 465470 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Hogan, M.J., Service, F.J., Sharbrough, F.W. and Gerich, J.E. (1983) Oral glucose tolerance test compared with mixed meal in the diagnosis of reactive hypoglycaemia. A caveat on stimulation. Mayo Clin. Proc. 1983 Continue reading >>

Postprandial Blood Glucose Is A Stronger Predictor Of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly In Women: Lessons From The San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study

Postprandial Blood Glucose Is A Stronger Predictor Of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly In Women: Lessons From The San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study

Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (F.C., M.Tra., K.B., E.F., M.C., G.A., M.Tro.), 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy Search for other works by this author on: Department of Public Health, University of Turin (A.P., G.C.), 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy Search for other works by this author on: Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (F.C., M.Tra., K.B., E.F., M.C., G.A., M.Tro.), 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy Search for other works by this author on: Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (F.C., M.Tra., K.B., E.F., M.C., G.A., M.Tro.), 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy Search for other works by this author on: Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (F.C., M.Tra., K.B., E.F., M.C., G.A., M.Tro.), 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy Search for other works by this author on: Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (F.C., M.Tra., K.B., E.F., M.C., G.A., M.Tro.), 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy Search for other works by this author on: Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (F.C., M.Tra., K.B., E.F., M.C., G.A., M.Tro.), 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy Search for other works by this author on: Department of Public Health, University of Turin (A.P., G.C.), 10043 Orba Continue reading >>

Post Prandial Plasma Glucose Level Less Than The Fasting Level In Otherwise Healthy Individuals During Routine Screening

Post Prandial Plasma Glucose Level Less Than The Fasting Level In Otherwise Healthy Individuals During Routine Screening

Abstract During routine screening, some otherwise healthy individuals who showed remarkably lower post prandial (at 2 hour) plasma glucose without any symptom were subjected to extended glucose tolerance test and a few of them to extended post meal tolerance test as well. It was observed that post prandial (at 2 hour) plasma glucose after glucose administration was significantly lower than the fasting level (p<0.05-p<0.001). However, post prandial plasma glucose at 2 hour after their usual meal exhibited a significantly higher level than the fasting and post glucose level (p<0.05-p<0.001). Glucose appears to be a stronger agent than the more natural mixed meal in these individuals in causing post prandial lowering of plasma glucose. Hence, these individuals are to be evaluated with their usual meals before considering further investigations. Like upper limit, there is the need to have a consensus lower limit of reference interval of blood glucose level. Continue reading >>

Q. My Mother's Fasting Sugar Is Higher Than The Post Prandial Sugar. Why Is This Happening?

Q. My Mother's Fasting Sugar Is Higher Than The Post Prandial Sugar. Why Is This Happening?

Hello doctor, My mother's fasting sugar is higher than the post prandial sugar (130 and 115 respectively). She had normal diet only. And also, 2 hours after taking 75 grams of glucose, without any work, the sugar level is 260. Why is this happening? Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose | Michigan Medicine

Blood Glucose | Michigan Medicine

A blood glucose test measures the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in your blood. Glucose comes from carbohydrate foods . It is the main source of energy used by the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body's cells use the glucose. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released into the blood when the amount of glucose in the blood rises. Normally, your blood glucose levels increase slightly after you eat. This increase causes your pancreas to release insulin so that your blood glucose levels do not get too high. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage your eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. There are several different types of blood glucose tests. Fasting blood sugar (FBS). This test measures blood glucose after you have not eaten for at least 8 hours. It is often the first test done to check for prediabetes and diabetes . 2-hour postprandial blood sugar. This test measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after you start eating a meal. This is not a test used to diagnose diabetes. This test is used to see if someone with diabetes is taking the right amount of insulin with meals. Random blood sugar (RBS). It measures blood glucose regardless of when you last ate. Several random measurements may be taken throughout the day. Random testing is useful because glucose levels in healthy people do not vary widely throughout the day. Blood glucose levels that vary widely may mean a problem. This test is also called a casual blood glucose test. Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test is a series of blood glucose measurements taken after you drink a sweet liquid that contains glucose. This test is commonly used to diagnose diabetes that occurs during pregnancy ( Continue reading >>

Post Prandial Plasma Glucose Level Less Than The Fasting Level In Otherwise Healthy Individuals During Routine Screening

Post Prandial Plasma Glucose Level Less Than The Fasting Level In Otherwise Healthy Individuals During Routine Screening

During routine screening, some otherwise healthy individuals who showed remarkably lower post prandial (at 2 hour) plasma glucose without any symptom were subjected to extended glucose tolerance test and a few of them to extended post meal tolerance test as well. It was observed that post prandial (at 2 hour) plasma glucose after glucose administration was significantly lower than the fasting level (p<0.05−p<0.001). However, post prandial plasma glucose at 2 hour after their usual meal exhibited a significantly higher level than the fasting and post glucose level (p<0.05−p<0.001). Glucose appears to be a stronger agent than the more natural mixed meal in these individuals in causing post prandial lowering of plasma glucose. Hence, these individuals are to be evaluated with their usual meals before considering further investigations. Like upper limit, there is the need to have a consensus lower limit of reference interval of blood glucose level. Key words: Plasma glucose, Idiopathic reactive hypoglycemia, Extended glucose tolerance test, Extended meal tolerance test Full Text Selected References These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Continue reading >>

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