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Physiology Of Exocrine Pancreas

Physiological And Reproductional Aspects Of Animal Production

Physiological And Reproductional Aspects Of Animal Production

PHYSIOLOGICAL and REPRODUCTIONAL ASPECTS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION Physiology of the small intestine, exocrine pancreas and liver Physiology of the small intestine, exocrine pancreas and liver The small intestine is the primary site of chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients. The exocrine secretions of the pancreas contain most of the enzymes for chemical digestion in the lumen of the small intestine, but the epithelial cells that line the small intestine (enterocytes) also have in their cell membranes enzymes that participate in the final steps of chemical digestion. The primary digestive function of the liver is to provide bile salts, which facilitate the enzymatic digestion of lipids. The liver is not a source of digestive enzymes. Small intestine secretion and motility Intestinal juice is derived from intestinal glands in the wall of the small intestine. These include crypts or crypts of Lieberkuhn, scattered throughout the entire intestinal small intestine, and duodenal glands, which contribute mucus and are found only in the duodenum. The intestinal juice contains salts and water derived from blood capillaries in the wall of the intestine. The function of the secreted salts is unclear, but the water dilutes the chyme (intestinal content), which is usually hypertonic. Food in the intestine stimulates secretion by these intestinal crypt glands. The two primary types of movement by small intestine are segmentation and peristalsis. Segmentation movements, which occur when food is in the small intestine, are characterized by alternating local areas of contraction and relaxation. These movements mix the digesta with juice and digestive enzymes and increase the contact between digesta and the epithelial surface of the small intestine. Segmentation contractions are ini Continue reading >>

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the location and structure of the pancreas, and the morphology and function of the pancreatic islets Compare and contrast the functions of insulin and glucagon The pancreas is a long, slender organ, most of which is located posterior to the bottom half of the stomach (Figure 1). Although it is primarily an exocrine gland, secreting a variety of digestive enzymes, the pancreas has an endocrine function. Its pancreatic islets—clusters of cells formerly known as the islets of Langerhans—secrete the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Figure 1. Pancreas. The pancreatic exocrine function involves the acinar cells secreting digestive enzymes that are transported into the small intestine by the pancreatic duct. Its endocrine function involves the secretion of insulin (produced by beta cells) and glucagon (produced by alpha cells) within the pancreatic islets. These two hormones regulate the rate of glucose metabolism in the body. The micrograph reveals pancreatic islets. LM × 760. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012) View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. Cells and Secretions of the Pancreatic Islets The pancreatic islets each contain four varieties of cells: The alpha cell produces the hormone glucagon and makes up approximately 20 percent of each islet. Glucagon plays an important role in blood glucose regulation; low blood glucose levels stimulate its release. The beta cell produces the hormone insulin and makes up approximately 75 percent of each islet. Elevated Continue reading >>

New Advances In Cell Physiology And Pathophysiology Of The Exocrine Pancreas

New Advances In Cell Physiology And Pathophysiology Of The Exocrine Pancreas

New Advances in Cell Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Exocrine Pancreas I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount! If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in . Save over 20% compared to the individual article price. Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use * The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules. For additional information: This review provides some aspects on the physiology of stimulation and inhibition of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion and the pathophysiology of pancreatic acinar cell function leading to pancreatitis. Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates both directly via CCK-A receptors on acinar cells and indirectly via CCK-B receptors on nerves, followed by acetylcholine release, pancreatic enzyme secretion. It is still not known whether CCK-A receptors exist in human acinar cells, in contrast to acinar cells of rodents where CCK-A receptors have been well described. CCK has numerous actions both in the periphery and in the central nervous systems. CCK inhibits gastric motility and regulates satiety. Another major function of CCK is stimulation of gallbladder contraction. This function enables that bile acids act simultaneously with pancreatic lipolytic enzymes. Secretin is a major stimulator of bicarbonate secretion. Trypsinogen is activated by the gut mucosal enzyme enterokinase. The other pancreatic proenzymes are activated by trypsin. Termination of enzyme secretio Continue reading >>

Chapter 15. Disorders Of The Exocrine Pancreas

Chapter 15. Disorders Of The Exocrine Pancreas

Chapter 15. Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas Christopher J. Sonnenday, MD, MHS; Diane M. Simeone, MD; Stephen J. McPhee, MD Sonnenday CJ, Simeone DM, McPhee SJ. Sonnenday C.J., Simeone D.M., McPhee S.J. Sonnenday, Christopher J., et al.Chapter 15. Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas. In: McPhee SJ, Hammer GD. McPhee S.J., Hammer G.D. Eds. Stephen J. McPhee, and Gary D. Hammer.eds. Pathophysiology of Disease, 6e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2010. Accessed April 27, 2018. Sonnenday CJ, Simeone DM, McPhee SJ. Sonnenday C.J., Simeone D.M., McPhee S.J. Sonnenday, Christopher J., et al.. "Chapter 15. Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas." Pathophysiology of Disease, 6e McPhee SJ, Hammer GD. McPhee S.J., Hammer G.D. Eds. Stephen J. McPhee, and Gary D. Hammer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2010, The pancreas is a gland with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine pancreas contains acini, which secrete pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic ducts ( Figure 151 ). Pancreatic juice contains a number of enzymes, some of which are initially made in an inactive form. Once activated, these enzymes help to digest food and prepare it for absorption in the intestine. Disorders interfering with normal pancreatic enzyme activity (pancreatic insufficiency) cause maldigestion of fat and steatorrhea (fatty stools). Dysfunction of the exocrine pancreas results from inflammation (acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis), neoplasm (ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, and other pancreatic neoplasms), or duct obstruction by stones or abnormally viscid mucus (cystic fibrosis). View Full Size | Favorite Figure | Download Slide (.ppt) Anatomy of the pancreas. (Courtesy of W. Silen.) (Redrawn, with permission, from Way LW [editor]. Current Surgical Diagnosis & Treat Continue reading >>

The Exocrine Pancreas

The Exocrine Pancreas

The pancreas is an abdominal organ located deep in the retroperitoneum. It is a gland with mixed function: both exocrine and endocrine. In this article, we will consider just the exocrine functions of the pancreas, the synthesis of pancreatic enzymes and the regulation of enzyme secretion. Finally, we will consider the clinical relevance of the pancreatic exocrine functions. When we consider the functions of the pancreas, it is simpler to view it as a mix of two glands. We can divide the pancreas into an exocrine gland, containing the acinar and duct tissue, and the endocrine gland containing the islets of Langerhans. The majority of the pancreas is made up of the exocrine portion (85% by mass) and secretes digestive enzymes, water and bicarbonate to assist in digestion. The bicarbonate helps in neutralising the stomach acid. This is a vital part of digestion as the small intestine is not specialised to withstand the strong acids from the stomach. This is because the small intestine, unlike the stomach, lacks a thick protective mucous layer. Additionally, the digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas reach their optimum function at a basic pH. This is achieved by the bicarbonate secretions of the pancreas. The functional unit of the exocrine pancreas includes the acinus and its duct system. The word acinus is from the Latin term for berry in a cluster. These acinar cells are specialised in enzyme synthesis, storage and secretion. The duct system modifies the aqueous secretions. This mechanism is stimulated by the parasympathetic system and inhibited by the sympathetic system. The acinar cells produce digestive enzymes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. They are then moved to the Golgi complex where they form condensing vacuoles. These condensing vacuoles are then con Continue reading >>

Exocrine Pancreas: Physiology

Exocrine Pancreas: Physiology

insulin (endocrine) leaves the pancreas via the blood stream and NOT through the pancreatic ducts Pancreatic enzymes important for digestion -proteolytic enzymes: all secreted in an inactive form -all other enzymes are secreted as an active form -trypsin inhibitor is there just in case the trypsinogen gets activated in the pancreas 1. enzymes which attack membranes are synthesized as inactive zymogens; enzymes secrete in active forms (i.e. amylase, lipase) no not attack membranes 2. enzymes are segregated within membrane-bound compartments 3. pancreas contains intracellular trypsin inhibitor 4. the activating enzyme (enterokinase) is geographically separated from the pancreas -The bulk of protein digestion is due to the pancreatic proteases. --When proteases enter the lumen of the small intestine, they must be converted into their active forms. Trypsinogen is activated by the enzyme enterokinase to trypsin and trypsin activates all of the secreted proteases. -Proteins are cleaved into large peptides Not amino acids. A major component of dietary fat are triglycerides. A triglyceride molecule cannot be directly absorbed across the intestinal mucosa. It must first be digested into a 2-monoglyceride and two free fatty acids. -The major dietary carbohydrate for humans is starch, a storage form of glucose in plants. Alpha-amylase is the enzyme that hydrolyses starch to simple sugars. -Cellulose is a linear polymer of beta-D-glucose molecules in which adjacent glucose molecules are joined covalently through beta (1-4) glycosidic bonds. No vertebrate cell has been identified that produces an enzyme that hydrolyzes celluloses. Therefore, dietary fiber is indigestible and passes through the small intestine essentially intact. 1.Cephalic (Reflex) Phase: Begins prior to food entry Continue reading >>

The Pancreas And Its Functions

The Pancreas And Its Functions

The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar. Location of the Pancreas The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the upper left abdomen. It is surrounded by other organs including the small intestine, liver, and spleen. It is spongy, about six to ten inches long, and is shaped like a flat pear or a fish extended horizontally across the abdomen. The wide part, called the head of the pancreas, is positioned toward the center of the abdomen. The head of the pancreas is located at the juncture where the stomach meets the first part of the small intestine. This is where the stomach empties partially digested food into the intestine, and the pancreas releases digestive enzymes into these contents. The central section of the pancreas is called the neck or body. The thin end is called the tail and extends to the left side. Several major blood vessels surround the pancreas, the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein, the portal vein and the celiac axis, supplying blood to the pancreas and other abdominal organs. Almost all of the pancreas (95%) consists of exocrine tissue that produces pancreatic enzymes for digestion. The remaining tissue consists of endocrine cells called islets of Langerhans. These clusters of cells look like grapes and produce hormones that regulate blood sugar and regulate pancreatic secretions. Functions of the Pancreas A healthy pancreas produces the correct chemicals in the proper quantities, at the right times, to digest the foods we eat. The pancreas contains exocrine glands that produce enzymes important t Continue reading >>

Exocrine Pancreas - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Exocrine Pancreas - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

The exocrine pancreas is an accessory digestive organ which, under complex neuroendocrine control, secretes fluid containing digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate into the intestinal lumen, resulting in digestion of food and neutralization of HCl of gastric origin. Matthew A. Wallig1, John M. Sullivan2, in Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition) , 2013 The exocrine pancreas is strategically located in the anterior abdominal cavity adjacent to the stomach, duodenum, and liver to enable secretion of digestive enzymes into the small intestine, and to convert ingesta into absorbable proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Additionally, it provides a scaffold, or foundation, and microenvironment for pancreatic islet cells, which provide the embedded endocrine function of the pancreas that enables hepatic and peripheral tissue modulation of blood glucose, among other functions. In spite of its close proximity to the small intestine and potentially toxic ingesta, its unique function in producing digestive enzymes, and proximity to the common bile duct containing bile salts and acids, it is seldom a prominent target of toxicity studies. Individual case reports in humans and animals, in concert with epidemiologic studies published in medical journals, provide insight into risks of pancreatic toxicity as either idiosyncratic events with few subsequent reports, or consistent reproducible mechanisms of action that closely link exposure to drugs or xenobiotics to both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiologically, pancreatic injury has been associated with a range of environmental pollutants and with consumption of mycotoxins, and has longstanding links to alcoholism and smoking tobacco. These examples highlight the need for biomarkers that are Continue reading >>

Physiology Of The Exocrine Pancreas

Physiology Of The Exocrine Pancreas

Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD) The pancreas is an organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine pancreas plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients through the secretion into the proximal duodenum of digestive enzymes and bicarbonates. The endocrine pancreas, on the other hand, releases hormones that regulate metabolism and the distribution of the breakdown products of food within the body. These combined exocrine and endocrine functions make the pancreas one of the most important organs involved in the assimilation of food. Acinar CellVasoactive Intestinal PolypeptidePancreatic JuicePancreatic SecretionPancreatic Polypeptide These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Anasgnostides A, Chadwick V, Seiden AC, Maton PN (1984) Sham feeding and pancreatic secretion. Gastroenterology 87:109114 Google Scholar Andrews CJH, Andrews WHH (1971) Receptors activated by acid in the duodenal wall of rabbits. QJ Exp Physiol 56:221230 Google Scholar Andrews PLR, Grundy D, Scratcherd T (1980) Vagal afferent discharge from mechanoreceptors in different regions of the ferret stomach. J Physio (Lond) 298: 513524 Google Scholar Baca I, Feurle GE, Hass M, Nernitz T (1983) Interaction of neurotensin, cholecystokinin and secretin in the stimulation of pancreas exocrine in the dog. Gastroenterology 84:556561 PubMed Google Scholar Basso N, Gini S, Improta G, et al. (1975) External pancreatic secretion after bombesin infusion in man. Gut 16:994998 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Beglinger C, Fried M, Whitehou Continue reading >>

The Exocrine Pancreas: Current Concepts Of Health And Disease

The Exocrine Pancreas: Current Concepts Of Health And Disease

The Exocrine Pancreas: Current Concepts of Health and Disease The Exocrine Pancreas: Current Concepts of Health and Disease Development of the Pancreas - Chris Pin, University of Western Ontario Receptors for Secretagogues and other Regulatory Molecules - John A Williams, University of Michigan Bioenergetics of Exocrine Pancreas - David Cridle and Alexi Tepikin, University of Liverpool Ca2+ Signaling in Pancreatic Acinar Cells - David I Yule, University of Rochester Intracellular Pathways for Digestive Enzyme synthesis and Secretion - Guy Groblewski, University of Wisconsin and Fred Gorelick, Yale University Biosynthesis and Structure of Zymogen Granules - Xuequn Chen Regulation of Pancreatic Gene Expression in response to Diet and Hormones Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme Synthesis and its Translational Control Pancreatic Regeneration Models, Mechanisms, and Inconsistencies - Farzad Esni, University of Pittsburgh Pancreatic Proteases and Protein Digestion - Miklos Sahin-Toth, Boston University Pancreatic Lipases and Fat Digestion - Frederic Carriere, CNRS, Marseille Pancreatic Amylase and Carbohydrate Digestion Secretion of Insulin in Response to Diet and Hormones - Elizabeth Mann and Melena Bellin, University of Minnesota Regulation of Pancreatic Exocrine Function by Islet Hormones Secretion of the Human Exocrine Pancreas in Health and Disease - Philip A Hart and Darwin L Conwell, Ohio State University Regulation of Pancreatic Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion - Hiroshi Ishiguro, Satoro Naruse and Martin Steward Molecular Mechanisms of Pancreatic Bicarbonate Secretion - Min Goo Lee and Shmeul Muallem Ion Channels in Pancreatic Duct Physiology - Peter Hegyi, Hungary Structure-Function Relationships of CFTR in Health and Disease: The Pancreas Story - Mohamad Bouhamdan, Xie Yo Continue reading >>

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

Author: Samer Al-Kaade, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by deficiency of the exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in the inability to digest food properly, or maldigestion. The etiology of this deficiency includes both pancreatic and nonpancreatic causes (see Etiology). [ 1 ] The exocrine pancreas produces 3 main types of enzymes: amylase, protease, and lipase. [ 2 ] Under normal physiologic conditions, the enzymes (specifically, lipase) break undigested triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides, which are then solubilized by bile salts (see Pathophysiology). Because the exocrine pancreas retains a large reserve capacity for enzyme secretion, fat digestion is not clearly impaired until lipase output decreases to below 10% of the normal level. [ 3 ] The diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is largely clinical. [ 4 ] It may go undetected because the signs and symptoms are similar to those of other GI diseases [ 5 ] or because the signs and symptoms are not always evident, due to dietary restrictions (see Presentation and Differential Diagnosis). A complete laboratory evaluation (including pancreatic function testing) is required not only to diagnose EPI but also to determine the extent of the malabsorption and assess the manifestations of the underlying disease, if present (see Workup). Management of EPI is based primarily on pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) but may also include lifestyle modifications and vitamin supplementation as appropriate (see Treatment). The pancreas , named for the Greek words pan (all) and kreas (flesh), is a soft, lobulated, retroperitoneal organ that is 12-15 cm long and roughly J-shaped (like a hockey stick). It Continue reading >>

Exocrine Secretions Of The Pancreas

Exocrine Secretions Of The Pancreas

Pancreatic juice is composed of two secretory products critical to proper digestion: digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The enzymes are synthesized and secreted from the exocrine acinar cells, whereas bicarbonate is secreted from the epithelial cells lining small pancreatic ducts. Digestive Enzymes The pancreas secretes a magnificent battery of enzymes that collectively have the capacity to reduce virtually all digestible macromolecules into forms that are capable of, or nearly capable of being absorbed. Three major groups of enzymes are critical to efficient digestion: 1. Proteases Digestion of proteins is initiated by pepsin in the stomach, but the bulk of protein digestion is due to the pancreatic proteases. Several proteases are synthesized in the pancreas and secreted into the lumen of the small intestine. The two major pancreatic proteases are trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are synthesized and packaged into secretory vesicles as an the inactive proenzymes trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. As you might anticipate, proteases are rather dangerous enzymes to have in cells, and packaging of an inactive precursor is a way for the cells to safely handle these enzymes. The secretory vesicles also contain a trypsin inhibitor which serves as an additional safeguard should some of the trypsinogen be activated to trypsin; following exocytosis this inhibitor is diluted out and becomes ineffective - the pin is out of the grenade. Once trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen are released into the lumen of the small intestine, they must be converted into their active forms in order to digest proteins. Trypsinogen is activated by the enzyme enterokinase, which is embedded in the intestinal mucosa. Once trypsin is formed it activates chymotrypsinogen, as well as additional molecules of t Continue reading >>

Pancreas - Anatomy & Physiology

Pancreas - Anatomy & Physiology

The pancreas is a tubuloalveolar gland and has exocrine and endocrine tissues. The exocrine is the larger of the two parts and secretes pancreatic juice; a solution containing enzymes for carbohydrate, protein and triacylglycerol digestion. Pancreatic juice drains into the small intestine where it is functional. The endocrine part secretes hormones for the regulation of blood glucose concentration, including insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. The functional units of the endocrine part are the islets of Langerhans. The pancreas develops from endoderm, except for the connective tissue which develops from splanchnic mesoderm. Development begins with evaginations of the digestive tube caudal to the stomach. Two pancreatic buds form, one in the dorsal mesogastrium and one in the ventral mesogastrium. Some epithelial cells lose their connections to the developing duct system of the exocrine pancreas and develop into the islets of Langerhans of the endocrine pancreas. As the stomach rotates, the ventral bud moves to become more dorsal. The two buds then fuse; the left lobe is derived from the dorsal bud and the right lobe from the ventral bud. The duct of the ventral lobe (pancreatic duct) joins with the bile duct to form the common bile duct which opens into the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla. The duct of the dorsal lobe (accessory duct) enters the duodenum at the minor duodenal papilla. There is species variation in the persistence of each duct. The pancreas is located in the craniodorsal part of the abdomen in close association with the duodenum. It can be divided into three parts; a body and left and right lobes. The lobes are loosely united by interlobular connective tissue. Connective tissue contains blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics. Generally, the portal ve Continue reading >>

The Exocrine Pancreas

The Exocrine Pancreas

For more information, see the Bookshelf Copyright Notice . The secretions of the exocrine pancreas provide for digestion of a meal into components that are then available for processing and absorption by the intestinal epithelium. Without the exocrine pancreas, malabsorption and malnutrition result. This chapter describes the cellular participants responsible for the secretion of digestive enzymes and fluid that in combination provide a pancreatic secretion that accomplishes the digestive functions of the gland. Key cellular participants, the acinar cell and the duct cell, are responsible for digestive enzyme and fluid secretion, respectively, of the exocrine pancreas. This chapter describes the neurohumoral pathways that mediate the pancreatic response to a meal as well as details of the cellular mechanisms that are necessary for the organ responses, including protein synthesis and transport and ion transports, and the regulation of these responses by intracellular signaling systems. Examples of pancreatic diseases resulting from dysfunction in cellular mechanisms provide emphasis of the importance of the normal physiologic mechanisms. The role of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system in acinar digestive enzyme secretion and in acute pancreatitis. Tsang SW, Cheng CH, Leung PS. Regul Pept. 2004 Jul 15; 119(3):213-9. Review The role of protein synthesis and digestive enzymes in acinar cell injury. Logsdon CD, Ji B. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jun; 10(6):362-70. Epub 2013 Mar 19. Review [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Organic and functional deficiencies]. Zarazaga A, Garca de Lorenzo A, Culebras JM. Nutr Hosp. 1992 Mar-Apr; 7(2):93-107. Neurohumoral control of exocrine pancreatic secretion. Pandol SJ. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep; 20(5):435-8. Review [ Continue reading >>

Pancreas

Pancreas

For other uses, see Pancreas (disambiguation). This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology. The pancreas /ˈpæŋkriəs/ is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, all of which circulate in the blood.[2] The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme moving in from the stomach, as well as digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme. The pancreas is known as a mixed gland. Structure[edit] 1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common bile duct, 7. Ampulla of Vater, 8. Major duodenal papilla 9. Gallbladder, 10–11. Right and left lobes of liver. 12. Spleen. 13. Esophagus. 14. Stomach. 15. Pancreas: 16. Accessory pancreatic duct, 17. Pancreatic duct. 18. Small intestine: 19. Duodenum, 20. Jejunum 21–22. Right and left kidneys. The front border of the liver has been lifted up (brown arrow).[3] The pancreas is an endocrine and digestive organ that, in humans, lies in the upper left part of the abdomen. It is found behind the stomach.[4] The pancreas is about 15 cm (6 in) long.[5] Anatomically, the pancreas is divided into the head of pancreas, the neck of pancreas, the body of pancreas, and the tail of pancreas.[2] The head is surrounded by the duodenum in its concavity. The head surrounds two blood ves Continue reading >>

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