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Pathophysiology Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Diagram

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (t2dm) Have Similar Pathophysiologies Of Impaired Compensation Of Insulin Secretion In The Face Of Increased Insulin Resistance. Gdm Women Have Increased Familial Clustering Of T2dm And Are At High Risk Of Developing T2dm. Using Genetic Association Studies, It Has Been Shown That Gdm And T2dm Share Similar Genetic Backgrounds, At Least In Part.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (t2dm) Have Similar Pathophysiologies Of Impaired Compensation Of Insulin Secretion In The Face Of Increased Insulin Resistance. Gdm Women Have Increased Familial Clustering Of T2dm And Are At High Risk Of Developing T2dm. Using Genetic Association Studies, It Has Been Shown That Gdm And T2dm Share Similar Genetic Backgrounds, At Least In Part.

Aims: Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or high genetic susceptibility are prone to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether a lifestyle intervention modified the genetic effect on changes in glycemic markers among women with prior GDM.Research design and methods: This study included 560 women with prior GDM from a randomized controlled trial, the Tianjin Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Program, who were assigned into an intervention arm (improved physical activity and healthy dietary intakes) or a control arm. We assessed associations of GDM related genetic variants in/near the CDKAL1 (rs7754840) and MTNR1B (rs10830962) genes with changes in fasting levels of glucose and insulin, -cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at 1 year and 2 years after the baseline.Results: We found significant interactions between CDKAL1 variant rs7754840 and lifestyle intervention on changes in fasting insulin and HOMA-IR at 1 year (P for interactions = 0.008 and 0.006, respectively). The GDM-increasing C allele was associated with a 0.07-unit greater increase in fasting insulin (P = 0.048) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.045) in the control group, while opposite-directional associations were observed in the intervention group; women with the C allele seemed to decrease more in these glycemic markers than the non-C-carriers (both P 0.06). The interactions between the CDKAL1 genetic variant and lifestyle intervention on changes in fasting insulin (P = 0.035) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.024) remained significant over the 2-year period, even though the effects of lifestyle intervention were attenuated at 2-year. The MTNR1B variant rs10830962 did not show interaction with lifestyle intervention on changes in the glycemic markers.Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Table 1. Plasma Glucose Values for Screening and Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus [ 1 ] Appendix A. Appendix A. American Diabetes Association recommendations for medical nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus [ 17 ] Appendix B. Appendix B. Curriculum for education about diabetes self-management [ 27 ] Defining the Diabetes Disease Process and Treatment Options Insulin resistance and its role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) should be defined for the patient. GDM should be differentiated from types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment options should be discussed. Incorporating Nutritional Management Into Lifestyle An individualized meal plan should be devised by a licensed dietitian or another qualified health care professional. Energy needs, the composition of meals, and meal patterns should be discussed. Incorporating Physical Activity Into Lifestyle The importance of exercise should be stressed, but patients should be reminded to start slowly and work up to a personalized goal. Monitoring Blood Glucose and Using the Findings to Improve Blood Glucose Control Patients should be taught to monitor blood glucose four times daily (while fasting and two hours after meals) and when they have symptoms of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. The goal fasting blood glucose concentration is 70-105 mg/dL and the two-hour postprandial goal is 80-120 mg/dL.[ 1 ] Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Acute and Chronic Complications All potential complications to mother and fetus, present and future, should be discussed with the patient, and the importance of compliance with medical nutritional therapy, exercise, and prescribed medications should be stressed. Goal Setting for Health and Problem Solving for Daily Living The patient's support system and ability to Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology Schematic Diagram Bracelet Med

Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology Schematic Diagram Bracelet Med

Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology Schematic Diagram Bracelet Med Weekly Cancer Newsletter. CAN HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE CAUSE DIABETES ] Can High Blood Pressure diabetes foundation orlando calorie diet high Cause Diabetes Type 2 The body makes a Von Willeand Factor to get abnormal. Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology Schematic Diagram Bracelet Med humalog peaks at about 75 minutes (Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999 May;55(3):199-203). Diabetic neuropathy may be categorised as follows: Focal neuropathy can affect any nerve in the body but usually occurs in the torso leg or head. [Acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus (ketoacidosis hypoglycemia hyperosmolarity lactic acidosis). What Are Symptoms Of Diabetes Bleeding In Eye gestational diabetes care plan diabetes management system just diabetic supplies. Simple Walking Plan; DASH Diet; Eating Away From Home; Find tasty and diabetes-friendly recipes for every meal. Diabetes Educator Jobs Diabetes Educator Jobs Read More; Diabetes Treatment diabetes late night snack ideas guide gestational restaurant Algorithm 2016 Diabetes Treatment Algorithm 2016 Read More; Foot Infection Diabetes * A practical guide to tasty and healthy low sugar recipes diabetic recipes and sugar-free cooking * Sugar-Free Buttermilk Oat Cake . These low-sugar smoothie recipes turn getting all your nutrients into an irresistible sippable treat. There are diabetic toenail fungus problems insipidus statistically significant differences between certain risk factors of coronary heart disease in women with type 2 diabetes compared with those without diabetes. However type 2 diabetics who have poor control of their blood sugars may need to compensate for their bodys lack of efficiency by injecting Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology Schematic Diagram Bracelet ed s Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Pathophysiology

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Pathophysiology

To review the physiology of glucose and lipid metabolism, weight and energy regulation To appreciate the magnitude of the prevalence of diabetes and its effect on morbidity and mortality To understand the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes To be able to distinguish among diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance states and to become familiar with the Metabolic Syndrome 2. Learning Objectives Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal fuel metabolism resulting chiefly in hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Diabetes is a common chronic disease affecting more than 1 in 10 adults in the US. It is more common in people who are older and socioeconomically disadvantaged. Diabetes is a serious disease associated with acute (due to hyperglycemia) and chronic (due to vascular damage) complications. Diabetes is clinically diagnosed if a fasting plasma glucose is ≥ 126 mg/dl more than once or when an individual has symptoms of diabetes and her casual plasma glucose is ≥ 200 mg/dl. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance define intermediate dysmetabolic states (pre diabetes) with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and death. Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas due to an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental modifiers. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form of diabetes, is characterized by a combination of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and increased risk for cardiovascular and disease death. Gestational diabetes develops secondary to the insulin resistant state of pregnancy and may be associated wit Continue reading >>

[pathophysiology Of Gestational Diabetes].

[pathophysiology Of Gestational Diabetes].

[Pathophysiology of gestational diabetes]. Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabtologie, Clinique Marc-Linquette, CHRU, Lille, France. During pregnancy, a number of maternal metabolic changes occur early and continue throughout pregnancy which help optimize the transfer of nutrients to the fetus. During normal pregnancy, there are a decrease in insulin sensibility which is physiological, progressive and reverse. For glucose tolerance to be maintained in pregnancy it is necessary for maternal insulin secretion to increase sufficiently to counteract the fall in insulin sensitivity. The metabolic characteristic of women with gestational diabetes is insufficient insulin secretion to counteract the pregnancy related fall in insulin sensitivity. There are a lot of factors that could explain the mechanism of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity during normal pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus. Although glucose tolerance normalizes shortly after pregnancy with gestational diabetes in the majority of women, the risk of developing overt diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes is markedly increased. The mechanisms which could explain gestational diabetes are the same as type 2 diabetes mellitus. We could speculate that these two diseases are identical for alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, but at different stages. Continue reading >>

Pathogenesis Of Gestational Dm

Pathogenesis Of Gestational Dm

Gestational diabetes (GDM) describes a heterogeneous group of hyperglycemic metabolic disorders detected in pregnancy. The majority of women with GDM are overweight or obese, and many have latent metabolic syndrome, a genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes, a physically inactive lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits prior to pregnancy. The risk factors for GDM are similar to those of type 2 diabetes: increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary syndrome, increasing age, family history of diabetes and ethnicity (Asian, Hispanic). Prenatal programming may also contribute to GDM whereby nutritional stress induced by both maternal undernutrition and overnutrition or maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy persistently alter metabolism of the offspring. A minority of women develop type 1 diabetes in pregnancy, and clinicians should be alert to this possibility, but GDM may in general be regarded as pre-type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes first detected in pregnancy [1] [2] . Although type 1 diabetes is more likely to develop in pregnancy, the great majority of women have pre-type 2 diabetes, and many will go on to develop permanent diabetes later in life. If type 1 diabetes is suspected during pregnancy or after delivery, autoimmunity should be confirmed by measurement of antibodies against islet cell antigens (antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase [GADA], islet antigen-2 [IA-2A]). MODY may also present in pregnancy, and genetic testing is recommended when family history suggests that this phenotype may be present. However, in general GDM can be regarded as pre-Type 2 diabetes. Pregnancy is a state of physiological insulin resistance, and thereforerepresents a physiological model of beta-cell stress [3] [4] . Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: Pathogenesis And Consequences To Mother And Offspring

Gestational Diabetes: Pathogenesis And Consequences To Mother And Offspring

Gestational Diabetes: Pathogenesis and Consequences to Mother and Offspring 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori, Finland 2Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori, Finland 2Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Address correspondence to: Risto Kaaja, e-mail: [email protected] Received 2009 Feb 1; Revised 2009 Feb 27; Accepted 2009 Feb 28. Copyright 2008, SBDR - Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Data from Western countries suggest that the prevalence of GDM is increasing, being almost 10% of pregnancies and probably reflecting the global obesity epidemic. The majority of women with GDM seem to have -cell dysfunction that appears on a background of chronic insulin resistance already present before pregnancy. In less than 10% of GDM patients, defects of -cell function can be due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic -cells, as in type 1 diabetes, or caused by monogenic mutations, as in several MODY subtypes. Diagnostic criteria for GDM vary worldwide and there are no clear-cut plasma glucose cut-off values for identifying women at a higher risk of developing macrosomia or other fetal complications. Because the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is restricted to high risk individuals, 40% of GDM cases are left undiagnosed. Therefore, in high risk populations almost universal screening is recommended; on Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is a common disease where there is too much sugar (glucose) floating around in your blood. This occurs because either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or the cells in your body have become resistant to insulin. When you eat food, the amount of glucose in your blood skyrockets. That’s because the food you eat is converted into glucose (usable energy for your cells) and enters your blood to be transported to your cells around the body. Special cells in your pancreas sense the increase of glucose and release insulin into your blood. Insulin has a lot of different jobs, but one of its main tasks is to help decrease blood glucose levels. It does this by activating a system which transports glucose from your blood into your cells. It also decreases blood glucose by stimulating an enzyme called glycogen synthase in the liver. This molecule is responsible for making glycogen, a long string of glucose, which is then stored in the liver and used in the future when there is a period of low blood glucose. As insulin works on your body, the amount of glucose in the blood slowly returns to the same level it was before you ate.. This glucose level when you haven’t eaten recently (called fasting glucose) sits around 3.5-6 mmol/L (70-110 mg/dL). Just after a meal, your blood glucose can jump as high as 7.8mmol/L (140 mg/dL) depending on how much and what you ate. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. In both types, your body has trouble transporting sugar from your blood into your cells. This leads to high levels of glucose in your blood and a deficiency of glucose in your cells. The main difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the underlying mechanisms that cause your blood sugar to stray from the normal range. T Continue reading >>

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

University of Gondar, Ethopia *Corresponding Author: Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes Lecturer Clinical Chemistry University of Gondar, Gondar Amhara 196, Ethiopia Tel: +251910818289 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Baynes HW (2015) Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 6:541. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000541 Copyright: © 2015 Baynes HW. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia either immune-mediated (Type 1 diabetes), insulin resistance (Type 2), gestational or others (environment, genetic defects, infections, and certain drugs). According to International Diabetes Federation Report of 2011 an estimated 366 million people had DM, by 2030 this number is estimated to almost around 552 million. There are different approaches to diagnose diabetes among individuals, The 1997 ADA recommendations for diagnosis of DM focus on fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), while WHO focuses on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). This is importance for regular follow-up of diabetic patients with the health care provider is of great significance in averting any long term complications. Keywords Diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Diagnosis; Glycemic management Abbreviations DM: Diabetes Mellitus; FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose; GAD: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase; GDM: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; HDL-cholesterol: High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol; HLA: Human Leucoid Antigen; IDD Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Pathophysiology

Gestational Diabetes Pathophysiology

The exact pathophysiology of gestational diabetes is unknown. One main aspect of the underlying pathology is insulin resistance, where the bodys cells fail to respond to the hormone insulin in the usual way. Several pregnancy hormones are thought to disrupt the usual action of insulin as it binds to its receptor, most probably by interfering with cell signalling pathways. Insulin is the primary hormone produced in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is key in the regulation of the bodys blood glucose level. Insulin stimulates cells in the skeletal muscle and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. In the presence of insulin resistance, this uptake of blood glucose is prevented and the blood sugar level remains high. The body then compensates by producing more insulin to overcome the resistance and in gestational diabetes, the insulin production can be up to 1.5 or 2 times that seen in a normal pregnancy. Western diet during pregnancy may increase obesity risk in offspring The glucose present in the blood crosses the placenta via the GLUT1 carrier to reach the fetus. If gestational diabetes is left untreated, the fetus is exposed to an excess of glucose, which leads to an increase in the amount of insulin produced by the fetus. As insulin stimulates growth, this means the baby then develops a larger body than is normal for their gestational age. Once the baby is born, the exposure to excess glucose is removed. However, the newborn still has increased insulin production, meaning they are susceptible to low blood glucose levels. Some of the symptoms of gestational diabetes include: Recurrent infections including thrush or yeast infection Gestational diabetes raises the risk of birth complications and future health conditions. Som Continue reading >>

Diabetes Pathophysiology & Diseases Process (diagram)

Diabetes Pathophysiology & Diseases Process (diagram)

Home Pathophysiology Diabetes Pathophysiology & Diseases Process (Diagram) Diabetes Pathophysiology & Diseases Process (Diagram) Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency or resistance. It is characterized by disturbances in carbohydrate, protein, or fat metabolism. It is classified as Type 1 (Insulin dependent or juvenile- onset diabetes) and Type 2 (Non- insulin dependent or also called as insulin- resistant disease). Insulin, a hormone released in the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. When a person eats or drinks, food is broken down into materials, including glucose that acts as fuel in the body. Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin acts as a key for the glucose to enter the cells. Once inside the cells, glucose is converted to energy, which is either used immediately or stored until it is needed. If the body does not produce enough insulin to move the glucose into the cells, the resulting high levels of sugar or glucose in the blood and the inadequate amount of glucose in the cells together produce the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus usually develops in childhood or today it can still be diagnosed with patients aging below 30 years old. Current research implicates cell destruction and absence or severe lack of insulin as the cause of IDDM. The combination of environmental, stress, genetic, and immunologic factors is believed to cause Type 1 diabetes which is thought to be triggered by viruses. However, the cause of the idiopathic form is not yet known because patients with this form exhibit no evidence of an autoimmune process. On the other hand, Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes and a Continue reading >>

Connections Between The Human Gut Microbiome And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Connections Between The Human Gut Microbiome And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

The human gut microbiome can modulate metabolic health and affect insulin resistance, and it may play an important role in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 43 GDM patients and 81 healthy pregnant women via whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of their fecal samples, collected at 21–29 weeks, to explore associations between GDM and the composition of microbial taxonomic units and functional genes. A metagenome-wide association study identified 154 837 genes, which clustered into 129 metagenome linkage groups (MLGs) for species description, with significant relative abundance differences between the 2 cohorts. Parabacteroides distasonis, Klebsiella variicola, etc., were enriched in GDM patients, whereas Methanobrevibacter smithii, Alistipes spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium spp. were enriched in controls. The ratios of the gross abundances of GDM-enriched MLGs to control-enriched MLGs were positively correlated with blood glucose levels. A random forest model shows that fecal MLGs have excellent discriminatory power to predict GDM status. Our study discovered novel relationships between the gut microbiome and GDM status and suggests that changes in microbial composition may potentially be used to identify individuals at risk for GDM. Larval stage zebrafish are an increasingly popular model for neurobiological studies. With a brain that contains an estimated 105 neurons, larvae are similar in complexity to adult Drosophila, another established neuroscience model. In both systems, researchers can deploy a wide range of genetic tools in efforts to decode patterns of neural structure and connectivity. In larval zebrafish, optical transparency and constrained physical dimensions (fitting within a Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology And Management-a Review

Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology And Management-a Review

Anees A Siddiqui1*, Shadab A Siddiqui2, Suhail Ahmad, Seemi Siddiqui3, Iftikhar Ahsan1, Kapendra Sahu1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi (INDIA)-110062. School of Pharmacy, KIET, Ghaziabad U.P. SGC college of Pharmacy, Baghpat(UP) Corresponding Author:Anees A Siddiqui E-mail: [email protected] Received: 20 February 2011 Accepted: 02 May 2011 Citation: Anees A Siddiqui, Shadab A Siddiqui, Suhail Ahmad, Seemi Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahsan, Kapendra Sahu “Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology and Management-A Review” Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., April-June 2013, 5(2): 1-23. Copyright: © 2013 IJDDR, Anees A Siddiqui et al. This is an open access paper distributed under the copyright agreement with Serials Publication, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Drug Development and Research The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. Over the last three decades, the status of diabetes has been changed, earlier it was considered as a mild disorder of the elderly people. Now it becomes a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting the youth and middle aged people. According to the Diabetes Atlas 2006 published by the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people with diabetes in India currently around 40.9 million is expected to rise to 69.9 million by 2025 unless urgent preventive steps are taken. The main force of the epidemic of diabetes is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity a Continue reading >>

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