diabetestalk.net

Pancreas

Pancreas Anatomy, Problems, Tests, And Treatments

Pancreas Anatomy, Problems, Tests, And Treatments

The pancreas is about 6 inches long and sits across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine) through a small tube called the pancreatic duct. The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body. Diabetes, type 1 : The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the pancreas’ insulin-producing cells. Lifelong insulin injections are required to control blood sugar. Diabetes, type 2 : The pancreas loses the ability to appropriately produce and release insulin. The body also becomes resistant to insulin, and blood sugar rises. Cystic fibrosis : A genetic disorder that affects multiple body systems, usually including the lungs and the pancreas. Digestive problems and diabetes often result. Pancreatic cancer : The pancreas has many different types of cells, each of which can give rise to a different type of tumor. The most common type arises from the cells that line the pancreatic duct. Because there are usually few or no early symptoms, pancreatic cancer is often advanced by the time it’s discovered. Pancreatitis : The pancreas becomes inflamed and damaged by its own digestive chemicals. Swelling and death of tissue of the pancreas can result. Although alcohol or gallstones can contribute, sometimes a cause for pancreatitis is never found. Pancreatic pseudocyst : After a bout of pancreatitis, a fluid-filled cavity called a pseudocyst can form. Pseudocysts may resolve spontaneously, or they may need surgical drainage. Islet cell tumor : The hormone-producing cells of the pancreas multiply abnormally, creating a benign or cancerous tumor.  These tumors produce excess amounts of hormones and then rel Continue reading >>

Pancreas

Pancreas

Pancreas, compound gland that discharges digestive enzymes into the gut and secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, vital in carbohydrate (sugar) metabolism, into the bloodstream. Anatomy and exocrine and endocrine functions In humans the pancreas weighs approximately 80 grams (about 3 ounces) and is shaped like a pear. It is located in the upper abdomen, with the head lying immediately adjacent to the duodenum (the upper portion of the small intestine) and the body and tail extending across the midline nearly to the spleen. In adults, most of the pancreatic tissue is devoted to exocrine function, in which digestive enzymes are secreted via the pancreatic ducts into the duodenum. The cells in the pancreas that produce digestive enzymes are called acinar cells (from Latin acinus, meaning “grape”), so named because the cells aggregate to form bundles that resemble a cluster of grapes. Located between the clusters of acinar cells are scattered patches of another type of secretory tissue, collectively known as the islets of Langerhans, named for the 19th-century German pathologist Paul Langerhans. The islets carry out the endocrine functions of the pancreas, though they account for only 1 to 2 percent of pancreatic tissue. A large main duct, the duct of Wirsung, collects pancreatic juice and empties into the duodenum. In many individuals a smaller duct (the duct of Santorini) also empties into the duodenum. Enzymes active in the digestion of carbohydrates, fat, and protein continuously flow from the pancreas through these ducts. Their flow is controlled by the vagus nerve and by the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin, which are produced in the intestinal mucosa. When food enters the duodenum, secretin and cholecystokinin are released into the bloodstream by secre Continue reading >>

Pancreas Anatomy & Diagram | Body Maps

Pancreas Anatomy & Diagram | Body Maps

Medically reviewed by Healthline Medical Team on November 6, 2014 The pancreas is a glandular organ that produces a number of hormones essential to the body. It forms an integral part of the digestive system. The pancreas is located below and behind the stomach, in the curve of the duodenum, which is a part of the small intestine. The pancreas secretes fluids that help break down food in the small intestine, along with bile and other fluids that aid the metabolism of fats and proteins. The pancreas is also critical to the production of insulin and glucagon, which regulate glucose levels in the blood. If the pancreas stops producing insulin, this leads to diabetes and a number of associated health issues. Other problems that concern the pancreas include pancreatic cancer. This is a particularly hard cancer to spot since the tumor generally is not palpable (it cant be felt) due to the positioning of the pancreas. People with pancreatic cancer generally only start to display symptoms when the tumor becomes large enough to interfere with its neighboring organs. Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Cancer - Symptoms And Causes - Mayo Clinic

Pancreatic Cancer - Symptoms And Causes - Mayo Clinic

Pancreatic cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas an organ in your abdomen that lies horizontally behind the lower part of your stomach. Your pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help manage your blood sugar. Pancreatic cancer typically spreads rapidly to nearby organs. It is seldom detected in its early stages. But for people with pancreatic cysts or a family history of pancreatic cancer, some screening steps might help detect a problem early. One sign of pancreatic cancer is diabetes, especially when it occurs with weight loss, jaundice or pain in the upper abdomen that spreads to the back. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination of these. Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer often don't occur until the disease is advanced. They may include: Pain in the upper abdomen that radiates to your back Loss of appetite or unintended weight loss Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) See your doctor if you experience unexplained weight loss or if you have persistent fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, or other signs and symptoms that bother you. Many conditions can cause these symptoms, so your doctor may check for these conditions as well as for pancreatic cancer. It's not clear what causes pancreatic cancer in most cases. Doctors have identified factors, such as smoking, that increase your risk of developing the disease. Your pancreas is about 6 inches (15 centimeters) long and looks something like a pear lying on its side. It releases (secretes) hormones, including insulin, to help your body process sugar in the foods you eat. And it produces digestive juices to help your body digest food. Pancreatic cancer oc Continue reading >>

Pancreas Picture Image On Medicinenet.com

Pancreas Picture Image On Medicinenet.com

Pancreas: A fish-shaped spongy grayish-pink organ about 6 inches (15 cm) long that stretches across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine). The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body. The pancreas makes pancreatic juices and hormones, including insulin . The pancreatic juices are enzymes that help digest food in the small intestine. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood. As pancreatic juices are made, they flow into the main pancreatic duct. This duct joins the common bile duct, which connects the pancreas to the liver and the gallbladder. The common bile duct, which carries bile (a fluid that helps digest fat), connects to the small intestine near the stomach. The pancreas is thus a compound gland. It is "compound" in the sense that it is composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The exocrine function of the pancreas involves the synthesis and secretion of pancreatic juices. The endocrine function resides in the million or so cellular islands (the islets of Langerhans) embedded between the exocrine units of the pancreas. Beta cells of the islands secrete insulin, which helps control carbohydrate metabolism . Alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon that counters the action of insulin. Continue reading >>

What Is The Pancreas?

What Is The Pancreas?

The pancreas is a gland, about six inches long, located in the abdomen. It is shaped like a flat pear and is surrounded by the stomach, small intestine, liver, spleen and gallbladder. The wide end of the pancreas on the right side of the body is called the head. The middle sections are the neck and body. The thin end of the pancreas on the left side of the body is called the tail. The uncinate process is the part of the gland that bends backwards and underneath the head of the pancreas. Two very important blood vessels, the superior mesenteric artery and superior mesenteric vein, cross behind the neck of the pancreas and in front of the uncinate process. The pancreas is both an exocrine gland and endocrine gland and has two main functions digestion and blood sugar regulation. Exocrine cells of the pancreas produce enzymes that help with digestion. When food enters the stomach, exocrine cells release the pancreatic enzymes into a system of small ducts that lead to the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct runs the length of the pancreas and carries pancreatic enzymes and other secretions, collectively called pancreatic juice. The main pancreatic duct connects with the common bile duct, which carries bile from the gallbladder, and together they connect with the duodenum at a point called the ampulla of Vater. Here, bile and pancreatic enzymes enter the duodenum to aid with the digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. The endocrine cells of the pancreas produce hormones. Hormones are substances that control or regulate specific functions in the body. They are usually made in one part of the body and carried through the blood to take action on another part of the body. The two main pancreatic hormones are insulin and glucagon. Islet cells are endocrine cells with Continue reading >>

What Is The Pancreas?

What Is The Pancreas?

The pancreas is part of the digestive system. It does two main things. It makes pancreatic juices which contain substances called enzymes. These enzymes help to break down food so the body can absorb it. The pancreatic juices flow down a tube called the pancreatic duct, which runs the length of the pancreas and empties into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestines). The pancreas also makes hormones, including insulin, which control sugar levels in the blood. Both of these things can be affected if the pancreas isnt working properly. The pancreas is often described as having a head, body and tail. It is surrounded by several large and important organs and blood vessels. The head of the pancreas is next to the duodenum. The bile duct carries a fluid called bile from the liver. It passes through the head of the pancreas and empties into the duodenum. The blood vessels that carry blood to the liver, intestines, kidneys and lower part of the body are very close to the pancreas, and may touch it. Diagram of the pancreas and surrounding organs Diagram of the pancreas and surrounding blood vessels Continue reading >>

The Pancreas And Its Functions

The Pancreas And Its Functions

The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar. Location of the Pancreas The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the upper left abdomen. It is surrounded by other organs including the small intestine, liver, and spleen. It is spongy, about six to ten inches long, and is shaped like a flat pear or a fish extended horizontally across the abdomen. The wide part, called the head of the pancreas, is positioned toward the center of the abdomen. The head of the pancreas is located at the juncture where the stomach meets the first part of the small intestine. This is where the stomach empties partially digested food into the intestine, and the pancreas releases digestive enzymes into these contents. The central section of the pancreas is called the neck or body. The thin end is called the tail and extends to the left side. Several major blood vessels surround the pancreas, the superior mesenteric artery, the superior mesenteric vein, the portal vein and the celiac axis, supplying blood to the pancreas and other abdominal organs. Almost all of the pancreas (95%) consists of exocrine tissue that produces pancreatic enzymes for digestion. The remaining tissue consists of endocrine cells called islets of Langerhans. These clusters of cells look like grapes and produce hormones that regulate blood sugar and regulate pancreatic secretions. Functions of the Pancreas A healthy pancreas produces the correct chemicals in the proper quantities, at the right times, to digest the foods we eat. The pancreas contains exocrine glands that produce enzymes important t Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases

Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases

MORE The pancreas is an abdominal organ that is located behind the stomach and is surrounded by other organs, including the spleen, liver and small intestine. The pancreas is about 6 inches (15.24 centimeters) long, oblong and flat. The pancreas plays an important role in digestion and in regulating blood sugar. Three diseases associated with the pancreas are pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Function of the pancreas The pancreas serves two primary functions, according to Jordan Knowlton, an advanced registered nurse practitioner at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital. It makes “enzymes to digest proteins, fats, and carbs in the intestines” and produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, he said. Dr. Richard Bowen of Colorado State University’s Department of Biomedical Sciences wrote in Hypertexts for Pathophysiology: Endocrine System, “A well-known effect of insulin is to decrease the concentration of glucose in blood.” This lowers blood sugar levels and allows the body’s cells to use glucose for energy. Insulin also allows glucose to enter muscle and other tissue, works with the liver to store glucose and synthesize fatty acids, and “stimulates the uptake of amino acids,” according to Bowen. Insulin is released after eating protein and especially after eating carbohydrates, which increase glucose levels in the blood. If the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, type 1 diabetes will develop. Unlike insulin, glucagon raises blood sugar levels. According to the Johns Hopkins University Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, the combination of insulin and glucagon maintains the proper level of sugar in the blood. The pancreas’ second, exocrine function is to produce and release digestive fluids. After food enters Continue reading >>

The Pancreas: Anatomy, Function, And Disorders | Everyday Health

The Pancreas: Anatomy, Function, And Disorders | Everyday Health

The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the upper-left area of the abdomen. Your pancreas is an organ that's part of both the digestive system and the endocrine system. The digestive system, which breaks down food into tiny components that are then absorbed into the body, is made up of numerous organs in addition to the pancreas, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. The endocrine system is a collection of many different endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland , testes, and pituitary gland, which secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Your pancreas is located in the upper left area of your abdomen, behind your stomach and near your duodenum, the first section of your small intestine. The organ measures about 6 inches long and weighs about one-fifth of a pound. Looking somewhat like a sweet potato, the pancreas is made up of a bulbous head and neck, a tubular body, and a narrow, pointy tail. The pancreas contains a tubelike structure called the main pancreatic duct, which runs from the tail to the head of the organ. The gallbladder's bile duct enters at the top of the pancreas's head to connect to the main pancreatic duct. The joined ducts exit from the pancreas's head and connect to the duodenum. Some people also have an additional pancreatic duct, sometimes known as the duct of Santorini, which connects to another part of the duodenum. RELATED: 9 Common Digestive Conditions From Top to Bottom Your pancreas has two main responsibilities: It helps the body digest food, and it helps regulate blood sugar. More than 95 percent of the pancreas's mass is made up of cells and tissues that produce pancreatic juices containing digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, elastase, and nucleases. ( 1 ) Each of these enzymes bre Continue reading >>

The Puzzle Of Pancreatic Cancer: How Steve Jobs Did Not Beat The Oddsbut Nobel Winner Ralph Steinman Did

The Puzzle Of Pancreatic Cancer: How Steve Jobs Did Not Beat The Oddsbut Nobel Winner Ralph Steinman Did

The Puzzle of Pancreatic Cancer: How Steve Jobs Did Not Beat the Oddsbut Nobel Winner Ralph Steinman Did Despite having the same name, the diseases that killed Apple co-founder Steve Jobs and 2011 Nobel laureate Ralph Steinman are different kinds of cancer. Researchers are looking for new ways to diagnose and treat both Apple CEO Steve Jobs holds up the new iPhone that was introduced at Macworld on January 9, 2007 in San Francisco, California. Credit: David Paul Morris Stringer, Getty Images Editors note (1/10/17): Ten years ago, on January 9, 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the world to the iPhone. In honor of the smart phones game-changing impact on personal electronics and communications, we are republishing the following story about Jobs'battle with cancer, published shortly after his death in 2011. Steve Jobs was a rare case, right down to his death. Announced Wednesday, Jobs's death from "complications of pancreatic cancer" only hints at the vast complexity of the disease to which he succumbed at the age of 56. Jobs joined recently announced Nobel Prize winner Ralph Steinman , actor Patrick Swayze and football great Gene Upshaw as the latest bold-faced name to die from this aggressive diseaseone that even he, with his vast fortune, and Steinman, with his use of experimental immunological treatments, could not forestall indefinitely. Most pancreatic cancers (53 percent) are diagnosed after they have spreadand those have an exceedingly low survival rate, with just 1.8 percent of patients living for more than five years after diagnosis. (For all types of the cancer, the average five-year survival rate when diagnosed is only slightly higher at 3.3 percent.) So how did Jobs, who was diagnosed in the fall of 2003and who revealed it publicly in 2004manage to survive for eig Continue reading >>

Definition Of Pancreas

Definition Of Pancreas

home / digestion center / medterms medical dictionary a-z list / pancreas definition Pancreas: A spongy, tube-shaped organ that is about 6 inches long and is located in the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen. It is connected to the upper end of the small intestine. The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body. The pancreas makes pancreatic juices and hormones, including insulin and secretin. Pancreatic juices contain enzymes that help digest food in the small intestine. Both pancreatic enzymes and hormones are needed to keep the body working correctly. As pancreatic juices are made, they flow into the main pancreatic duct, which joins to the common bile duct, which connects the pancreas to the liver and the gallbladder and carries bile to the small intestine near the stomach. The pancreas is thus a compound gland in the sense that it is composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The exocrine function of the pancreas involves the synthesis and secretion of pancreatic juices. The endocrine function resides in the million or so cellular islands (the islets of Langerhans) that are embedded between the exocrine units of the pancreas. Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans secrete insulin, which helps control carbohydrate metabolism. Alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans secrete glucagon , which counters the action of insulin. Continue reading >>

Pancreas - National Library Of Medicine - Pubmed Health

Pancreas - National Library Of Medicine - Pubmed Health

The pancreas and nearby organs National Institutes of Health The pancreas is 12 to 18 centimeters (about 4.7 to 7.1 inches) long and weighs about 70 to 80 grams. This gland is located across the upper abdomen behind the stomach . It plays an important role in digestion and in regulating blood sugar levels. To do this it produces enzymes , which break down foods in the intestine , as well as hormones such as insulin , which maintain a constant blood sugar level. The pancreas is made up of a head, a body and a pointy tail. Inside of the pancreas there are many small glandular cells . Over 99% of these glandular cells produce digestive juices about 1.5 to 2 liters per day. This clear, colorless "pancreatic juice" is then released into the intestine . It is mainly made up of water and also has salt, sodium bicarbonate and digestive enzymes in it. Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes the acidic gastric ( stomach ) juice in the mass of semi-digested food, ensuring that... Read more about the Pancreas Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Functions And Possible Problems

Pancreas: Functions And Possible Problems

The pancreas is a gland organ. It is located in the abdomen. It is part of the digestive system and produces insulin and other important enzymes and hormones that help break down foods. The pancreas has an endocrine function because it releases juices directly into the bloodstream, and it has an exocrine function because it releases juices into ducts. Enzymes, or digestive juices, are secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. There, it continues breaking down food that has left the stomach. The pancreas also produces the hormone insulin and secretes it into the bloodstream, where it regulates the body's glucose or sugar level. Problems with insulin control can lead to diabetes. Here are some key points about the pancreas. More detail is in the main article. The pancreas is a gland organ with a key role in digestion and glucose control. A healthful diet can contribute to maintaining a healthy pancreas. Features of the pancreas The pancreas is an organ 6 to 8 inches long. It extends horizontally across the abdomen. The largest part lays on the right side of the abdomen where the stomach attaches to the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. At this point, the partially digested food passes from the stomach into the small intestine, and it mixes with the secretions from the pancreas. The narrow part of the pancreas extends to the left side of the abdomen next to the spleen. A duct runs the length of the pancreas, and it is joined by several small branches from the glandular tissue. The end of this duct is connected to a similar duct that comes from the liver, which delivers bile to the duodenum. Around 95 percent of the pancreas is exocrine tissue. It produces pancreatic enzymes to aid digestion. A healthy pancreas makes about 2.2 pints (1 liter) of thes Continue reading >>

What Is The Pancreas?

What Is The Pancreas?

The pancreas is a long flattened gland located deep in the belly (abdomen). Because the pancreas isnt seen or felt in our day to day lives, most people don't know as much about the pancreas as they do about other parts of their bodies. The pancreas is, however, a vital part of the digestive system and a critical controller of blood sugar levels. The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen. Part of the pancreas is sandwiched between the stomach and the spine. The other part is nestled in the curve of the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). To visualize the position of the pancreas, try this: touch your right thumb and right "pinkie" fingers together, keeping the other three fingers together and straight. Then, place your hand in the center of your belly just below your lower ribs with your fingers pointing to your left. Your hand will be the approximate shape and at the approximate level of your pancreas. Because of the deep location of the pancreas, tumors of the pancreas are rarely palpable (able to be felt by pressing on the abdomen). This explains why most symptoms of pancreatic cancer do not appear until the tumor has grown large enough to interfere with the function of the pancreas or other nearby organs such as the stomach, duodenum, liver, or gallbladder. Continue reading >>

More in insulin