diabetestalk.net

Oral Antidiabetic Drugs Contain A Special Type Of Insulin That Can Be Taken Orally

Diabetes Wellness Program

Diabetes Wellness Program

Care Plan: 3 Taking Medicine Following your meal plan and staying active often are not enough to keep your blood sugar in check. Medicine is almost always necessary. If your blood sugar levels are above your recommended goal range or your A1C is higher than desired with meal planning and physical activity alone, then you might need medicine for your diabetes. There are many types of effective medicines to treat diabetes. Diabetes medicines help the body work better to keep blood sugar levels in the right range. Diabetes pills (OADs) There are non-insulin diabetes medicines you can take by mouth. There are many types of diabetes pills. These pills are also called oral antidiabetic drugs, or OADs for short. Diabetes pills work best when you also follow a meal plan and get regular physical activity. They work in different ways to lower blood sugar levels. Some OADs help the body release more insulin Some OADs lower the amount of sugar the liver makes Some OADs help insulin work better in muscle and fat Some OADs slow the breakdown of food into sugar Some OADs help your body make more insulin when it’s needed (after you eat, for example) Some OADs help the body get rid of extra sugar through the urine Because they work in different ways, 2 or more of these drugs may be used together. Each of these medicines works in 1 or more of the following ways: Some pills help the body release more insulin Some pills reduce the amount of sugar the liver releases Some pills help insulin work better in muscle and fat Some medicines slow the breakdown of food into sugar Some pills help the body get rid of extra sugar through the urine Non-insulin injectable medicines In addition to the diabetes medicines taken by mouth, there is a non-insulin medicine that is taken by using a special pre Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

A A A Insulin Reaction An insulin reaction occurs when a person with diabetes becomes confused or even unconscious because of hypoglycemia (hypo=low + glycol = sugar + emia = in the blood) caused by insulin or oral diabetic medications. (Please note that for this article blood sugar and blood glucose mean the same thing and the terms may be used interchangeably.) The terms insulin reaction, insulin shock, and hypoglycemia (when associated with a person with diabetes) are often used interchangeably. In normal physiology, the body is able to balance the glucose (sugar levels) in the bloodstream. When a person eats, and glucose levels start to rise, the body signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin "unlocks the door" to cells in the body so that the glucose can be used for energy. When blood sugar levels drop, insulin production decreases and the liver begins producing glucose. In people with diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the body's demand. Treatment may include medications taken by mouth (oral hypoglycemics), insulin, or both. The balance of food intake and medication is not automatic, and a person with diabetes needs to be aware that too much medication or too little food may cause blood sugar levels to drop. Interestingly, brain cells do not need insulin to access the glucose in the blood stream. Brain cells also cannot store excess glucose, so when blood sugar levels drop, brain function is one of the first parts of the body to become affected. In an insulin reaction, the blood sugar levels are usually below 50 mg/dL (or 2.78 mmol/L in SI units). Continue Reading A A A Insulin Reaction (cont.) Insulin reactions occur when there is an imbalance of food intake and the amount of insulin in the body. The oral hypoglycemic mediat Continue reading >>

Anti-diabetic Medication

Anti-diabetic Medication

Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of Insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents. There are different classes of anti-diabetic drugs, and their selection depends on the nature of the diabetes, age and situation of the person, as well as other factors. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a disease caused by the lack of insulin. Insulin must be used in Type I, which must be injected. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease of insulin resistance by cells. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes. Treatments include (1) agents that increase the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas, (2) agents that increase the sensitivity of target organs to insulin, and (3) agents that decrease the rate at which glucose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Several groups of drugs, mostly given by mouth, are effective in Type II, often in combination. The therapeutic combination in Type II may include insulin, not necessarily because oral agents have failed completely, but in search of a desired combination of effects. The great advantage of injected insulin in Type II is that a well-educated patient can adjust the dose, or even take additional doses, when blood glucose levels measured by the patient, usually with a simple meter, as needed by the measured amount of sugar in the blood. Insulin[edit] Main article: insulin (medication) Insulin is usually given subcutaneously, either by injections or by an insulin pump. Research of other routes of administration is underway. In acute-care settings, insulin may also be given intravenously. In general, there are three types of insulin, Continue reading >>

Oral Anti Diabetic Drugs

Oral Anti Diabetic Drugs

Mainly act by causing increased secretion of insulin from beta cells of pancreas by binding receptors on surface of beta cells. Also cause increased sensitivity of tissues to insulin Also cause decrease in release of glucagon. Ineffective in type I diabetes mellitus, requiring up to 30% of beta cells to be intact for action. Cause a decrease in conductance of ATP sensitive potassium channels decreased conductance leads to increase in positivity inside cells leading to depolarization resulting in increased entry of calcium through calcium channels increased release of insulin from beta cells. Extensively bound to plasma proteins, maximum is for Glibenclamide, while Chlorpropamide has the least. Half life varies. 1st generation drugs have short half life (4-7 hours) and short duration of action. Chlorpropamide has long half life of 36 hours (longest in 1st generation). Acetohexamide has active metabolite having same half life (4-7 hours) Second generation compounds have shorter half life of 1.5-5 hours, but have longer duration of action than 1st generation compounds, which may be due to active metabolites formed. Since more potent, usually given once daily. Most drugs are metabolized in liver and excreted in urine. Chlorpropamide is 20% excreted unchanged in urine. Glipizide and Tolbutamide are mainly excreted through bile and less through urine. More with drugs with longer half life including Chlorpropamide and Glibenclamide, in renal insufficiency, especially in elderly. Treatment is same: Have same mechanism of action and effects as sulfonyl ureas, but differ from others in: Are metabolized in liver, excreted in bile, thus can be given in renal insufficiency Cause less incidence of hypoglycemia as compared with sulfonyl ureas (shorter duration of action). Nateglinide Continue reading >>

Anti-diabetic Drugs

Anti-diabetic Drugs

Tweet Antidiabetic drugs are medicines developed to stabilise and control blood glucose levels amongst people with diabetes. Antidiabetic drugs are commonly used to manage diabetes. There are a number of different types of antidiabetic drug including: Insulin Pramlintide (Amylin) GLP-1 receptor agonists (such as Byetta and Victoza) Oral hypoglycemics (tablets) Antidiabetic drugs for type 1 diabetes For people with type 1 diabetes, daily insulin injections are essential to maintain health. Type 1 diabetics must also eat properly, keep blood glucose levels from going too low or too high, and monitor blood sugar levels. In America, pramlintide, marketed as Amylin, is used in addition to insulin by some people with type 1 diabetes to further help control their diabetes. Amylin is not currently prescribed in the UK. Antidiabetic drugs for type 2 diabetes For people with type 2 diabetes, diet and exercise may be enough to control blood glucose levels in some. However, when diet and exercise is no longer efficient, anti-diabetic drugs may be prescribed. Medication will either be taken orally in the form of tablets (oral hypoglycemics), or be injected (insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonists). Read more about oral hypoglycemics Antidiabetic treatment considerations for type 2 diabetes Biguanides, such as Metformin, are commonly prescribed as a first antidiabetic medication. If biguanides are not effective on their own you may be given alternative medication either instead of, or in addition to, biguanides. The type of medication you are offered could depend on a variety of factors as different medication have different advantages and disadvantages. Some common factors that your doctor will consider are as follows: How effective is the medication for reducing blood sugar levels? Wil Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 2 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas (an organ in the abdomen) produces insufficient amounts of the hormone insulin and/or the body's tissues become resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin. This causes high blood glucose (sugar) levels, which can lead to a number of complications if untreated. People with type 2 diabetes require regular monitoring and ongoing treatment to maintain normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Treatment includes lifestyle adjustments, self-care measures, and medications, which can minimize the risk of diabetes-related and cardiovascular complications (eg, heart attacks and strokes). Learning to manage diabetes is a process that continues over a lifetime. The diagnosis of diabetes can be overwhelming at the beginning; however, most people are able to lead normal lives, and many patients become experts in their own care. This topic review discusses the role of insulin in blood sugar control for patients with type 2 diabetes. Separate topic reviews about other aspects of type 2 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Alcohol, exercise, and medical care (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Preventing complications in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL IN TYPE 2 DIABETES Keeping blood sugar levels in control is one way to decrease the risk of complications related to type 2 diabetes. The most common complication of type 2 diabetes is heart d Continue reading >>

Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs

Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs

Oral hypoglycemic drugs are used only in the treatment of type 2 diabetes which is a disorder involving resistance to secreted insulin. Type 1 diabetes involves a lack of insulin and requires insulin for treatment. There are now four classes of hypoglycemic drugs: Sulfonylureas Metformin Thiazolidinediones Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These drugs are approved for use only in patients with type 2 diabetes and are used in patients who have not responded to diet, weight reduction, and exercise. They are not approved for the treatment of women who are pregnant with diabetes. SULFONYLUREAS – Sulfonylureas are the most widely used drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and appear to function by stimulating insulin secretion. The net effect is increased responsiveness of ß-cells (insulin secreting cells located in the pancreas) to both glucose and non-glucose secretagogues, resulting in more insulin being released at all blood glucose concentrations. Sulfonylureas may also have extra-pancreatic effects, one of which is to increase tissue sensitivity to insulin, but the clinical importance of these effects is minimal. Pharmacokinetics – Sulfonylureas differ mainly in their potency & their duration of action. Glipizide, glyburide (glibenclamide), and glimepiride are so-called second-generation sulfonylureas. They have a potency that allows them to be given in much lower doses. Those drugs with longer half-lives (particularly chlorpropamide, glyburide, and glimepiride) can be given once daily. This benefit may be counterbalanced by a substantially increased risk of hypoglycemia. Side effects – Sulfonylureas are usually well tolerated. Hypoglycemia is the most common side effect and is more common with long-acting sulfonylureas. Patients recently discharged from hospit Continue reading >>

Medications For Type 2 Diabetes

Medications For Type 2 Diabetes

The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included. Ask your doctor if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications only as recommended by your doctor, and according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor. Some people are able to manage type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise alone. But, in many cases, medications are added to this treatment plan to help you control your blood glucose (sugar) levels. Anti-diabetes medications that are taken by mouth, often referred to as oral agents, are used to treat type 2 diabetes. They lower blood glucose levels in a variety of ways. Since each class works differently, these medications may be used in combination. All of these drugs work best when they are part of a total treatment program that includes healthy eating and regular exercise. Despite diet, exercise, and oral medications, some people with long-standing type 2 diabetes may need to take insulin or other medications to control their glucose levels. Prescription Medications Biguanides Sulfonylurea drugs Meglitinides Thiazolidinediones Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists Pramlintide Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors Bile acid binders Dopamine agonist Insulin Biguanides Metformin Metformin works in the liver to make it produce less glucose and make your body more sensitive to insulin. Metformin can also lower blood fat levels and possibly lead to minor weight loss, which can ultimately help with blood glucose control. Metformin is usually taken 1-2 times a day with meals. Metformin d Continue reading >>

What Are Oral Hypoglycemic Agents?

What Are Oral Hypoglycemic Agents?

Oral hypoglycemic agents are pills used to reduce blood glucose levels, but they are not insulin pills. Insulin is a hormone that can’t be taken orally, because it would be destroyed by the enzymes involved in our digestion, being reduced into simple substances or amino acids, which would not affect blood glucose levels. The most common types of oral medications for Diabetes are called Sulfonylureas and Metformin, which have been used for over 30 years. Sulfonylureas reduce blood glucose levels because they: Stimulate the pancreas to segregate more insulin. Make body cells more sensitive to the insulin produced. In order to make oral hypoglycemics work, the person has to produce some insulin. For most people with Type 2 Diabetes, oral medications are extremely effective. Occasionally, the medication can lose its effectiveness after a few years of use, in that case, it’s generally recommended to begin treatment with insulin. When are the oral hypoglycemic agents recommended? Diet and regular exercise are the mainstay treatment for Type 2 Diabetes. Because being overweight is one of the main causes of Type 2 Diabetes, a strict diet and exercise program are the first treatment alternatives a doctor will try to implement. Weight loss and exercise help the body’s cells use insulin more efficiently, which is why in many cases, people with Type 2 Diabetes can keep their blood glucose levels within normal values, without any additional treatment. If blood glucose levels remain high after making these “lifestyle” changes (diet and exercise), the next step will be to include the use of pills or oral medications into the treatment, in some cases, the person may even need insulin or other injectable drugs such as Exenatide. More about … Oral Medication Continue reading >>

Pharmacology Chapter 14

Pharmacology Chapter 14

Sort Non - Insulin - dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) Adult - onset diabetes mellitus Middle age Obesity, heredity Diabetic diet, weight control, exercise, antidiabetic drugs, sometimes insulin Type 2 Sulfonylurea Oral Antidiabetic Drugs First type of antidiabetic drugs that could be given orally. Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) Glimepiride (Amaryl) Glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) Glyburide (DiaBeta, Micronase) Tolazamide Tolbutamide (Orinase) Stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to produce more insulin. Combination Oral Antidiabetic Drugs ActoPlus Met (metformin, pioglitazone) Advandamet (metformin, rosiglitazone) Avandaryl (glimepiride, rosiglitazone) Duetact (glimepiride, pioglitazone) Glucovance (metformin, glyburide) Janumet (metformin, sitagliptin) Metaglip (metformin, glipizide) PrandiMet (metformin, repaglinide) Continue reading >>

Pharmacology

Pharmacology

New evidence shows that _in _ Americans born in 2000 will develop diabetes sometime during their lifetime. Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets Diabetes Question Answer New evidence shows that _in _ Americans born in 2000 will develop diabetes sometime during their lifetime. 1 in 3 Type 2 prevalence by ethnicity.. which population is hit the hardest? coushatta indian tribe, %80 what was the estimated economic cost of diabetes in 2007? $174 billion ______ ______ is a group of metabolicdiseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion,insulin action, or both. Diabetes mellitus Which type of diabetes involves....(ß-cell destruction, absolute insulin deficiency) Type 1 Which type of diabetes involves.... (Progressive insulin secretory defect + insulin resistance) Type 2 Impaired Fasting Glucose,Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Gestational Diabetes are all grouped into the category of _______? pre-diabetes intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors of diabetes all lead to ________ - a condition of excess blood glucose hyperglycemia normal fasting blood glucose = 70 - 100 mg/dl diagnostic lab values for diabetes; 8hr fasting plasma glucose (FPG)= > or = to 126 mg/dl diagnostic lab values for diabetes; casual plasma glucose .. done anytime = > or = to 200 mg/dl with symptoms diagnostic lab values for diabetes; 2 hour plasma glucose.. no exercise before taking = > or = to 200 mg/dl during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) patients with a casual plasma glucose test > 200 mg/dl may have diabetes symptoms such as... polyuria - urination, polydipsia - thirst, polyphagia - hunger, blurred vision,and unexplained weight loss Additional signs & symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes Treatment

Treatment of diabetes depends on which type of diabetes a patient has, either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce insulin, so replacement insulin must be delivered by injection, pump, or inhalation. People who have type 1 diabetes need to carefully plan and follow meals, timing of meals, and activity to keep their blood glucose (sugar) in check. It's important to measure blood sugar levels as low blood sugar can be dangerous, too. Type 2 diabetes occurs when either the body makes too little insulin or the cells do not respond to insulin that is produced ("insulin resistance"). Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes may be able to control their blood sugar levels by following a diet, exercise program and losing excess weight. If this first-line treatment does not control blood sugar levels effectively, an oral medication, often metformin first with other medications if needed, can be added to the treatment plan. Patients with type 2 diabetes may also need injected insulin, and in some circumstances it may be used as the first medication. Patients and/or family members must learn to inject insulin if it is prescribed. In addition, patients with diabetes must learn to check and follow their blood sugar levels. In addition to medications to control glucose, many patients with diabetes also need to take medicines to lower their blood pressure and cholesterol levels. When diet and exercise aren't satisfactory, weight loss medications such as Belviq, Contrave, Xenical, or Qsymia can also be used to help with the management of obesity. Statins, such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), rosuvastatin (Crestor), or pravastatin (Pravachol) are typically first-line prescription treatment for high cholesterol, also along with diet and Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Insulin injections are the preferred method of managing diabetes in cats. Figure 1: To administer an injection, pull the loose skin between the shoulder blades with one hand. With the other hand, insert the needle directly into the indentation made by holding up the skin, draw back on the plunger slightly, and if no blood appears in the syringe, inject gently. Tips for Treatment 1. You can do it! Treating your cat may sound difficult, but for most owners it soon becomes routine. 2. Work very closely with your veterinarian to get the best results for your cat. 3. Once your cat has been diagnosed, it's best to start insulin therapy as soon as possible. 4. Home glucose monitoring can be very helpful. 5. Tracking your cat's water intake, activity level, appetite, and weight can be beneficial. 6. A low carbohydrate diet helps diabetic cats maintain proper glucose levels. 7. With careful treatment, your cat's diabetes may well go into remission. 8. If your cat shows signs of hypoglycemia (lethargy, weakness, tremors, seizures, vomiting) apply honey, a glucose solution, or dextrose gel to the gums and immediately contact a veterinarian. Possible Complications Insulin therapy lowers blood glucose, possibly to dangerously low levels. Signs of hypoglycemia include weakness, lethargy, vomiting, lack of coordination, seizures, and coma. Hypoglycemia can be fatal if left untreated, so any diabetic cat that shows any of these signs should be offered its regular food immediately. If the cat does not eat voluntarily, it should be given oral glucose in the form of honey, corn syrup, or proprietary dextrose gels (available at most pharmacies) and brought to a veterinarian immediately. It is important, however, that owners not attempt to force fingers, food, or fluids into the mouth of a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medication

Diabetes Medication

There are different types of medications available for diabetes mellitus with each having their own mechanism of action and side effects. The best drug should be chosen by a doctor assessing the condition of the patient – please note all these are prescription medicines and need to be taken properly, under medical-supervision and with correct dosage and at the right timings. You must, at all times, follow instructions from your doctor. Never self-medicate. Basically, anti-diabetic drugs can be categorized into two classes: A. Oral anti-diabetic drugs: This includes the following classes: Insulin secretagogues: sulphonylureas and non-sulphonylureas(Glinides/Meglitinide) Biguanides Thiazolidinediones a-glucosidase inhibitors Di-peptydyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors/gliptins Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors B. Injectable anti-diabetic drugs: Insulin preparations Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) agonists According to A consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, a tier system is used to prescribe medicines depending on how validated (tested) the medication is. The tier is divided into steps depending on the stage of diabetes and how the patient responds to the lifestyle changes and medicines. Tier 1: This includes the best established, most-effective and most cost effective therapeutic strategies to control blood sugar. This is also the most preferred strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The tier is divided into 3 steps. Step 1: These are prescribed at when someone is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Apart from a lifestyle change, a mild medication that is well tested, has low and less severe side-effects and is cheap is prescribed. Step 2: A second medication is added when step 1 Continue reading >>

Medications For Type 2 Diabetes

Medications For Type 2 Diabetes

The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included. Ask your doctor if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications only as recommended by your doctor, and according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor. Some people are able to manage type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise alone. But, in many cases, medications are added to this treatment plan to help you control your blood glucose (sugar) levels. Anti-diabetes medications that are taken by mouth, often referred to as oral agents, are used to treat type 2 diabetes. They lower blood glucose levels in a variety of ways. Since each class works differently, these medications may be used in combination. All of these drugs work best when they are part of a total treatment program that includes healthy eating and regular exercise. Despite diet, exercise, and oral medications, some people with long-standing type 2 diabetes may need to take insulin or other medications to control their glucose levels. Prescription Medications Biguanides Sulfonylurea drugs Meglitinides Thiazolidinediones Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists Pramlintide Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors Bile acid binders Dopamine agonist Insulin Biguanides Metformin Metformin works in the liver to make it produce less glucose and make your body more sensitive to insulin. Metformin can also lower blood fat levels and possibly lead to minor weight loss, which can ultimately help with blood glucose control. Metformin is usually taken 1-2 times a day with meals. Metformin d Continue reading >>

More in insulin