diabetestalk.net

Novorapid Dosage Chart

Insulin Correction Dose Calculator -beta

Insulin Correction Dose Calculator -beta

perinatology.com Please enable JavaScript to view all features on this site. Insulin Correction Dose Calculator Select the type of insulin, enter the total daily dose of insulin used, the carbohydrate content of the meal, and press 'calculate' button to estimate the amount of insulin needed to cover the carbohydrate content of the meal. All calculations must be confirmed before use. The suggested results are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither Perinatology.com nor any other party involved in the preparation or publication of this site shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary Insulin Type Rapid acting Insulin (Humalog, Novolog) Short acting (Regular) Total Daily Dose of Insulin (TDD) units Carbohydrate Content of meal : grams Current Blood Glucose mg/dL Target Pre-Meal Blood Glucose mg/dL Carbohydrate Ratio = One unit of insulin covers grams of carbohydrate Insulin Sensitivity Factor (ISF) = One unit insulin decreases blood glucose by mg/dL Insulin required to cover carbohydrate in meal units Correction to Dose Of Insulin units Dose Of Insulin for meal units Meal related insulin boluses are calculated according to the carbohydrate content of the meal using the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) The carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) is the number of grams of carbohydrate that are covered by 1 unit of insulin. The CIR is calculated by dividing the constant 450 by the Total Daily Dose (TDD). The CIR may be different for different meals of the day. CIR-= 450 / TDD Example: TDD= 50 units insulin CIR= 450 /50 = 9 grams/unit The meal has 90 grams of carbohydrate Meal insulin bolus = carbohydrates/carbohydrate to insulin ratio CIR =90/9= 10 units If the post meal blood sugar is above the targeted blood sugar range for 2 to 3 days then consider Continue reading >>

Sliding Scale Insulin Therapy

Sliding Scale Insulin Therapy

Insulin is the foundation of treatment for many people with diabetes. If you’re a diabetic, your body either can’t produce enough insulin or can’t use insulin efficiently. People with type 1 diabetes, and some with type 2 diabetes, have to take several injections of insulin per day. The insulin keeps blood sugar in a normal range and prevents high blood sugar levels. This can help prevent complications. The amount of insulin you should take can be determined in several different ways: Fixed-Dose Insulin With this method, you take a certain set amount of insulin units at each meal. For example, you may take 6 units at breakfast and 8 at dinner. The numbers don’t change based on your blood sugar readings or the amount of food you eat. While this may be easier for people just starting insulin, it doesn’t account for pre-meal blood sugar levels. It also doesn’t factor in the varying amounts of carbohydrates in a given meal. Carbohydrate to Insulin Ratio In this method, you take a certain amount of insulin for a certain amount of carbohydrates. For example, if your breakfast carb to insulin ratio is 10:1 and you eat 30 grams of carbohydrates, you would take 3 units before breakfast to cover your meal. This method also includes a “correction factor” that accounts for your pre-meal blood sugar. For example, let’s say you want your blood sugar to be under 150 mg/dL before meals, but it’s at 170. If you’ve been told to take 1 unit of insulin for every 50 you’re over, you would take 1 additional unit of insulin before your meal. While this takes a lot of practice and knowledge, people who can manage this method can keep better control of their post-meal blood sugar levels. Sliding-Scale Insulin Therapy (SSI) In the sliding-scale method, the dose is based o Continue reading >>

What’s A Correction Factor? An Insulin Sensitivity? A Ratio?

What’s A Correction Factor? An Insulin Sensitivity? A Ratio?

Share: A Correction Factor (sometimes called insulin sensitivity), is how much 1 unit of rapid acting insulin will generally lower your blood glucose over 2 to 4 hours when you are in a fasting or pre-meal state. However, you should keep in mind: this is an estimate it may need to change as your baseline dose changes expect variations - sometimes 1 unit will lower it by more, and other times 1unit will lower it by less! calculating how much 1 unit of insulin will drop your blood sugar is a trial and error process, and sensitivity to insulin varies with the individual To get your total daily dose, add up all your usual meal time insulin and basal insulin. For example, Tom wants to calculate his correction factor: daily insulin dose: 8 units at breakfast, 6 units at lunch,10 at dinner and N/NPH 8 units at breakfast and 18 units at 10 pm Total Daily Dose (TDD) = 8 + 8 + 6+ 10 + 18 = 50 Correction Factor (CF) = 100/50 = 2 Therefore, one unit of rapid acting insulin would lower Tom’s blood sugar by 2 mmol/L over the next 2 to 4 hours. The average adult needs approximately 1 unit of insulin for every 2 mmol increase in blood sugar, but this can vary a lot between individuals: some people need 1 unit of insulin for every 1 mmol/L increase in blood sugar others need 1 unit of insulin for every 3 -5 mmol/L increase in blood sugar Using your CF before meal doses Before meal means there has been about 4 hours or more since you last ate or took an insulin dose for carbohydrate containing food or beverage. The correction factor or insulin sensitivity can be used to make a scale for pre meal insulin doses. BG Breakfast Lunch Dinner Bed Basal < 3.9 -2 -2 -2 Snack 4.0 - 5.9 Baseline Baseline Baseline Baseline Baseline 6.0 - 7.9 Baseline Baseline Baseline Baseline Baseline 8.0 – 9.9 Continue reading >>

Basal Bolus Regimes

Basal Bolus Regimes

Diabetes Service Adjusting Your Insulin Doses Basal Bolus Regimes This leaflet contains some general guidelines on how to adjust your insulin doses safely. Aim to keep your blood glucose levels between 4-8 mmols before meals. There may be a number of reasons why your blood glucose is unusually high or low on an occasion. Reasons why your blood glucose may be HIGH: ï‚· You have forgotten to take your insulin injection. ï‚· You have taken a smaller dose of insulin than usual. ï‚· You have eaten a larger amount of carbohydrate containing food than usual. ï‚· Stress/anxiety. ï‚· Illness or an infection. ï‚· Poor rotation of injection sites. ï‚· You did not undertake your usual routine e.g. exercise, holidays, weekend. ï‚· Faulty pen device. ï‚· Out of date test strips. Reasons why your blood glucose may be LOW: ï‚· You have taken a larger dose of insulin than usual. ï‚· Forgetting a meal or being late with a meal. ï‚· You have left a long gap between your insulin injection and meal (particularly if your insulin is Humalog or Novorapid). ï‚· You have only eaten a small amount of carbohydrate food. ï‚· Very hot or cold weather. ï‚· Physical exercise which can also have a delayed effect on blood glucose levels following exercise. ï‚· Alcohol, which could be from many hours before. ï‚· Long needle length. ï‚· Injecting into muscle by accident. ï‚· You are unaware that your blood glucose levels are dropping (hypoglycaemic unawareness). If your blood glucose level is consistently too high or too low at a particular time of day on at least 3 occasions then you should consider adjusting your insulin doses. Increasing the dose of insulin will lower your blood glucose levels Insulin  = Blood Glucose ï Continue reading >>

Interactive Dosing Calculator

Interactive Dosing Calculator

Lantus® is a long-acting insulin analog indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lantus® should be administered once a day at the same time every day. Limitations of Use: Lantus® is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Contraindications Lantus® is contraindicated during episodes of hypoglycemia and in patients hypersensitive to insulin glargine or one of its excipients. Warnings and Precautions Insulin pens, needles, or syringes must never be shared between patients. Do NOT reuse needles. Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Modify insulin regimen cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in insulin dose or an adjustment in concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment. Do not dilute or mix Lantus® with any other insulin or solution. If mixed or diluted, the solution may become cloudy, and the onset of action/time to peak effect may be altered in an unpredictable manner. Do not administer Lantus® via an insulin pump or intravenously because severe hypoglycemia can occur. Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin therapy, including Lantus®, and may be life-threatening. Medication errors, such as accidental mix-ups between basal insulin products and other insulins, particularly rapid-acting insulins, have been reported. Patients should be instructed to always verify the insulin label before each injection. Severe life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur. Discontinue Lantus®, treat and monitor until symptoms resolve. A reduction in the Lantus® dose may be re Continue reading >>

Lantus Dosing

Lantus Dosing

Well, I never thought I’d say this, but it’s a great week to be a person with Type 1 diabetes. With all of the bad news surrounding the Type 2 drug Avandia (rosiglitazone), it’s a relief to know I don’t have to worry about it. I recommended you read my colleague Tara’s blog entry (“Type 2 Drug Avandia Linked to Increased Risk of Heart Attacks”) for the full story. That’s one of the first times in my life I’ve referred to someone as a colleague. What can I say? It’s just not a word in my describe-a-friend/coworker vocabulary. While all of the controversy surrounds Avandia, I’m way over in Type 1 land contemplating whether or not to lower my daily dose of Lantus (insulin glargine). I’ve just started a brand new bottle of Lantus and I’ve been taking my normal 15 units in the morning and then eating a rather normal breakfast and lunch, but I’m still going low in the midmorning and early afternoon. This happened Monday after eating Brussels sprouts and whole-wheat pasta for lunch and only taking one unit of rapid-acting NovoLog (insulin aspart) to help out the Lantus. I’ve known for a while that my body is sensitive to insulin, but lately it’s been a little more sensitive than usual. I took 13 units of Lantus yesterday and my blood glucose was 86 mg/dl before lunch. I often wonder how much of an adjustment two units of Lantus is. While I’m very much locked in on an insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio with my NovoLog, it’s a bit tricky to judge how much the longer-lasting insulins affect your blood glucose. Is there a chart for your Lantus dose? I seem to remember something from when I was diagnosed. I wonder what Google will tell me to do. I realize that Lantus doesn’t have a true peak the way some of the other insulins do, but sometimes it su Continue reading >>

Novorapid Penfill 3 Ml

Novorapid Penfill 3 Ml

Consumer medicine information (CMI) leaflet Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using NovoRapid Penfill 3 mL. This leaflet answers some common questions about NovoRapid Penfill. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor, diabetes education nurse or pharmacist. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you using NovoRapid Penfill against the benefits they expect it will have for you. If you have any concerns about using this medicine, ask your doctor, diabetes education nurse or pharmacist. The insulin aspart, or NovoRapid, in NovoRapid Penfill is a rapid-acting insulin used to treat diabetes mellitus in adults and children. Diabetes mellitus is a condition where your pancreas does not produce enough insulin to control your blood sugar (glucose) level. Extra insulin is therefore needed. There are two types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetes - also called juvenile onset diabetes Type 2 diabetes - also called maturity onset diabetes Patients with type 1 diabetes always require insulin to control their blood sugar levels. Some patients with type 2 diabetes may also require insulin after initial treatment with diet, exercise and tablets. NovoRapid lowers your blood sugar level after injection. When injected under your skin, NovoRapid has a faster onset of action than soluble human insulin. It takes effect within 10 to 20 minutes. Usually, the maximum effect will occur between 1-3 hours after injection and the effect may last for up to 5 hours. As with all insulins, the duration of action will vary according to the dose, injection site, blood flow, temperature and level of physical activity. Due to its shorter duration of action, NovoRapid has a lower risk of ca Continue reading >>

Adjustable Dosing

Adjustable Dosing

Adjustable Dosing NovoLog® stays in step with your activities and mealtimes. Your health care provider will teach you how to adjust your NovoLog® dose to your eating, activity, and blood sugar levels. NovoLog® is designed to closely mimic your body's insulin patterns at mealtime. It is changed slightly so that it acts more quickly than regular human insulin. That is why it is called analog insulin. Keep in mind, you will need to eat a meal within 5 to 10 minutes after taking NovoLog®. For information on food labels and carb counting, click here. You and your diabetes care team will also have to see how your physical activity affects your insulin dosage and adjust it as needed. For example, when you are very physically active, you have to decide whether to eat more or take less insulin, since both physical activity and insulin decrease the amount of sugar in the blood. Checking your blood sugar often when you are physically active will help you figure out how each type of physical activity you do affects your blood sugar. NovoLog® Dosing Tool Your diabetes care team can help you learn how to fine-tune your NovoLog® doses throughout the day. While you are figuring out how to adjust your insulin dose, you will want to stay in close touch with your diabetes care team. If you are using NovoLog® FlexPen®, you can select doses from 1 to 60 units in 1-unit steps. NovoPen Echo® provides precise half-unit dosing from 0.5 units up to 30 units. It also records the insulin dose and time passed since the last injection. If you have type 2 diabetes, ask your diabetes care team if the NovoLog® Dosing Tool might be right for you. This tool was created to help with adding and adjusting your mealtime insulin dose. If you’ve been taking NovoLog® for a while and your A1C is not Continue reading >>

Insulin Aspart (rx)

Insulin Aspart (rx)

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Improvement of glycemic control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus May administer 0.2-0.6 unit/kg/day in divided doses; conservative doses of 0.2-0.4 unit/kg/day often recommended to reduce risk of hypoglycemia Total maintenance daily insulin requirement may vary; it is usually between 0.5 and 1 unit/kg/day; nonobese may require 0.4-0.6 unit/kg/day; obese may require 0.6-1.2 units/kg/day Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes inadequately controlled by diet, weight reduction, exercise, or oral medication 10 units/day SC (or 0.1-0.2 units/kg/day) in evening or divided q12hr of an intermediate (eg, NPH) or long-acting insulin at bedtime recommended; conversely, regular insulin or rapid-acting insulin (aspart insulin) before meals also recommended Dosing Considerations When used in a meal-related SC injection treatment regimen, 50-75% of total insulin requirements may be provided by an intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin; the remainder is divided and provided before or at mealtimes as a rapid-acting insulin, such as insulin aspart Because of insulin aspart’s comparatively rapid onset and short duration of glucose-lowering activity, some patients may require more basal insulin and more total insulin to prevent premeal hyperglycemia than they would need when using human regular insulin Dosage must be individualized; blood and urine glucose monitoring is essential in all patients receiving insulin therapy Insulin requirements may be altered during stress or major illness or with changes in exercise, meal patterns, or coadministered drugs Dosage Modifications Patients with hepatic and renal impairment may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia and may require more frequent dose adjustment and more frequent blood glucose monitoring Continue reading >>

Calculating Insulin Dose

Calculating Insulin Dose

You'll need to calculate some of your insulin doses. You'll also need to know some basic things about insulin. For example, 40-50% of the total daily insulin dose is to replace insulin overnight. Your provider will prescribe an insulin dose regimen for you; however, you still need to calculate some of your insulin doses. Your insulin dose regimen provides formulas that allow you to calculate how much bolus insulin to take at meals and snacks, or to correct high blood sugars. In this section, you will find: First, some basic things to know about insulin: Approximately 40-50% of the total daily insulin dose is to replace insulin overnight, when you are fasting and between meals. This is called background or basal insulin replacement. The basal or background insulin dose usually is constant from day to day. The other 50-60% of the total daily insulin dose is for carbohydrate coverage (food) and high blood sugar correction. This is called the bolus insulin replacement. Bolus – Carbohydrate coverage The bolus dose for food coverage is prescribed as an insulin to carbohydrate ratio. The insulin to carbohydrate ratio represents how many grams of carbohydrate are covered or disposed of by 1 unit of insulin. Generally, one unit of rapid-acting insulin will dispose of 12-15 grams of carbohydrate. This range can vary from 6-30 grams or more of carbohydrate depending on an individual’s sensitivity to insulin. Insulin sensitivity can vary according to the time of day, from person to person, and is affected by physical activity and stress. Bolus – High blood sugar correction (also known as insulin sensitivity factor) The bolus dose for high blood sugar correction is defined as how much one unit of rapid-acting insulin will drop the blood sugar. Generally, to correct a high bloo Continue reading >>

Lantus (insulin Glargine) Side Effects

Lantus (insulin Glargine) Side Effects

What Is Lantus (Insulin Glargine)? Lantus is the brand name of insulin glargine, a long-acting insulin used to treat adults and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus to control high blood sugar. Lantus replaces the insulin that your body no longer produces. Insulin is a natural substance that allows your body to convert dietary sugar into energy and helps store energy for later use. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, your body does not produce enough insulin, or the insulin produced is not used properly, causing a rise in blood sugar. Like other types of insulin, Lantus is used to normalize blood sugar levels. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual dysfunction. Proper control of diabetes has also been shown to reduce your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Lantus is meant to be used alongside a proper diet and exercise program recommended by your doctor. Lantus is manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis. It was approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000 as the first long-acting human insulin administered once a day with a 24-hour sugar-lowering effect. Lantus Warnings You will be taught how to properly inject this medication since that is the only way to use it. Do not inject cold insulin because this can be painful. Always wash your hands before measuring and injecting insulin. Lantus is always clear and colorless; look for cloudy solution or clumps in the container before injecting it. Do not use Lantus to treat diabetic ketoacidosis. A short-acting insulin is used to treat this condition. It is recommended that you take a diabetes education program to learn more about diabetes and how to manage it. Other medical problems may affect the use of this Continue reading >>

How To Interpret Blood Glucose Monitoring Charts And Adjust Insulin Doses

How To Interpret Blood Glucose Monitoring Charts And Adjust Insulin Doses

Interpreting blood glucose results and being able to adjust insulin doses are useful skills for pharmacists to possess.The key to acquiring these skills is in understanding: The insulin regimen and the onset, peak and duration of action for the insulins used The glucose levels to aim for How to titrate insulin doses How all of the above relates to patients’ lifestyles and eating habits Understanding the regimen Insulin may be given alone or, for those with type 2 diabetes, with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), often metformin. Although this article focuses on adjusting insulin doses, readers should bear in mind that oral doses may also need to be adjusted. The three most commonly used insulin regimens are: Once daily intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin — normally given at bedtime or during the day, usually with an OAD Twice-daily pre-mixed insulin — one injection before breakfast, one before the evening meal (pre-mixed insulins contain fixed ratios of short- and long-acting insulins) Basal-bolus insulin — three daily injections of rapid- or short-acting insulin with meals and one or two injections of intermediate- or long-acting (basal) insulin The onset, peak and duration profiles of insulin products currentlyavailable in the UK are in the table. These should be used wheninterpreting a blood glucose result, to determine which insulin wasexerting its effect at the time of glucose measurement. Insulin preparations and their onset, peak and duration of action Preparation Onset (hr) Peak (hr) Duration (hr) Soluble insulin Human Actrapid 0.5 2–5 8 Humulin S 0.5 1–3 5–7 Hypurin Bovine Neutral 0.5/1 2–5 6–8 Apidra (Insulin glulisine) 0.25 1 3–4 Humalog (Insulin lispro) 0.25 1–1.5 2–5 Novorapid (Insulin aspart) 0.25 1–3 3–5 Hypurin Porcine Neu Continue reading >>

Insulin-to-carb Ratios Made Easy

Insulin-to-carb Ratios Made Easy

For those who take rapid-acting insulin at mealtimes and want any degree of meal planning flexibility, it is necessary to apply something known as insulin-to-carb (I:C) ratios. Now, if the mere thought of having to do math at every meal sends shivers up your spine, don’t despair. This is something that even the “mathematically challenged” can master in no time. The Method Behind the Mathematics One of the basic assumptions we make in the use of I:C ratios is that dietary carbohydrates, which include sugars, starches and fiber, are responsible for raising blood sugar levels after meals. Fiber, however, is usually not counted since it does not break down completely and does not raise blood sugar levels. And fat and protein have minimal short-term effects, particularly when consumed as part of a carbohydrate-containing meal. The rapid-acting insulin that we give at mealtimes is designed to offset the blood sugar rise induced by the carbohydrates. In most cases, insulin analogs such as aspart (Novolog/Novorapid), lispro (Humalog) or glulisine (Apidra) are used at meals. However, Regular insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R) may be used, but it tends to be less effective because of its slower action. Whichever insulin is used, success comes from matching the dose to the amounts of carbohydrate eaten. This is where I:C ratios come in. The I:C ratio specifies how many grams of carbohydrate are “covered” by each unit of insulin. For example, a 1-unit-per-10-grams-of-carb (1:10) ratio means that one unit of insulin covers 10 grams of carbohydrate. A 1:20 ratio means that each unit covers 20 grams. Calculating a meal or snack dose becomes simple when you know your I:C ratio: Simply divide your carbs by your ratio. If each unit covers 10g and you have a modest 20g meal, you wil Continue reading >>

Guide To Starting And Adjusting Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes

Guide To Starting And Adjusting Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes

Adapted from Guide to Starting and Adjusting Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes, ©2008 International Diabetes Center, Minneapolis, MN. All rights reserved. Many people with type 2 diabetes need insulin therapy. A variety of regimens are available. Here are some tips when discussing insulin therapy:1 Discuss insulin early to change negative perceptions (e.g., how diabetes changes over time; insulin therapy as a normal part of treatment progression). To encourage patient buy-in, it may be more strategic initially to begin with a regimen that will be the most acceptable to the patient even if it may not be the clinician's first choice (e.g., pre-mixed instead of basal-bolus regimen).2 Provide information on benefits (e.g., more “natural” versus pills, dosing flexibility). Consider suggesting a “trial” (e.g., for one month). Compare the relative ease of using newer insulin devices (e.g., pen, smaller needle) versus syringe or vial. Ensure patient is comfortable with loading and working a pen (or syringe). Link patient to community support (e.g., Certified Diabetes Educator [CDE] for education on injections and monitoring; nutrition and physical activity counselling). Show support — ask about and address concerns.2 Consider initiating insulin if…3 Oral agents alone are not enough to achieve glycemic control or Presence of symptomatic hyperglycemia with metabolic decompensation or A1C at diagnosis is ≥ 9%. Timely adjustments to and/or additions of antihyperglycemic agents should be made to attain target A1C within 6 to 12 months.3 Standard target blood glucose (BG) goals for type 2 diabetes:3 Before meals 4 to 7 mmol/L Two (2) hours after meals 5 to 10 mmol/L (5 to 8 mmol/L, if A1C targets are not being met) A1C ≤ 7% (Less stringent A1C goals are appropriate for som Continue reading >>

Insulin Aspart Dosage

Insulin Aspart Dosage

Applies to the following strengths: 100 units/mL The information at Drugs.com is not a substitute for medical advice. Always consult your doctor or pharmacist. Usual Adult Dose for: Usual Pediatric Dose for: Additional dosage information: Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 1 Individualize dose based on metabolic needs, blood glucose monitoring results, and glycemic goal -Total daily insulin requirements are generally between 0.5 to 1 unit/kg/day; 50% to 70% of total daily requirements are generally provided by prandial insulin with the remainder provided by intermediate-acting or long-acting basal insulin -Use HbA1c values to guide therapy; consult current guidelines for optimal target ranges Multiple-daily injection (MDI): -Insulin aspart (Novolog[R]): Administer subcutaneously within 5 to 10 minutes before a meal OR -Insulin aspart with nicotinamide (Fiasp[R]): Administer at the start of a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal -Match prandial insulin dose to carbohydrate intake, pre-meal blood glucose, and anticipated activity -Use in combination with an intermediate-acting or long-acting basal insulin Intravenous Administration: -Insulin aspart (Novolog[R]): Dilute to a concentration of 0.05 to 1 unit/mL in an infusion system using polypropylene infusion bags -Insulin aspart with nicotinamide (Fiasp[R]): Dilute to a concentration of 0.5 to 1 unit/mL in infusion system using polypropylene infusion bags -Closely monitor blood glucose and serum potassium during administration Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion (Insulin Pump): -Initial programming should be based on the total daily insulin dose of previous MDI regimen; check with pump labeling to ensure the pump has been evaluated with this insulin -While there is significant interpatient variability, approximate Continue reading >>

More in insulin