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Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Diet

Effects Of Diet And Exercise Interventions On Control And Quality Of Life In Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Effects Of Diet And Exercise Interventions On Control And Quality Of Life In Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

, Volume 2, Issue4 , pp 220228 | Cite as Effects of diet and exercise interventions on control and quality of life in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Evidence suggests that diet and exercise are associated with improved glucose tolerance for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Seventy-six volunteer adult patients with NIDDM were each assigned to one of four programs: 1) diet, 2) exercise, 3) diet plus exercise, or 4) education (control). Each program required ten weekly meetings. Detailed evaluations were completed prior to the program and after three, six, 12, and 18 months. Evaluations included various psychosocial measures, measures of the quality of life, and fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and relative weight determinations. Of the 76 original participants, 70 completed the 18-month follow-up study. At 18 months, the combination diet-and-exercise group had achieved the greatest reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin measures. In addition, this group showed significant improvements on a general quality of life measure. These improvements were largely uncorrelated with changes in weight. The authors conclude that the combination of dietary change and physical conditioning benefits NIDDM patients, and that the benefits may be independent of substantial weight loss. dietexercisenon-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Supported by Grants R01 AM 27901 and K04 HL 00809 from the National Institutes of Health to R. M. Kaplan. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. University Group Diabetes Program: Effects of hypoglycemic agents on vascular complications in patients with adult-onset diabetes. VIII: Evaluation of insulin therapy: final report. Diabet Continue reading >>

Diet And Exercise In Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Implications For Dietitians From The Nih Consensus Development Conference.

Diet And Exercise In Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Implications For Dietitians From The Nih Consensus Development Conference.

Abstract Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a major health problem, highly correlated with obesity and, therefore, overeating. Diet continues as the cornerstone of therapy, with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin added, if needed, to maintain normal blood glucose values. The diet prescription should be implemented in stages, with caloric restriction the first priority, as weight loss itself diminishes hyperglycemia to or toward normal. Combinations of foods and even different processing or cooking of the same food may produce different glucose responses. These factors minimize the role of the glycemic index in overall diabetes management. Foods with high soluble fiber content may diminish glucose elevations after meals; however, high-fiber foods appear to be less important for the obese diabetic person than adhering to a calorie-restricted diet and achieving weight loss. Attempts should be made to alter life-style within an acceptable degree for any given patient to encourage weight reduction. For example, although exercise may have a small but transient direct effect in lowering blood glucose and insulin resistance, it can be considered an adjunct to decreased calorie diets for weight reduction. Finally, it appears prudent to prevent or reverse obesity, especially in individuals with a family history of diabetes, in the hope that the onset of diabetes may be prevented or postponed. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Diet - Natural Living Center

Diabetic Diet - Natural Living Center

A diabetic diet follows a specific set of dietary guidelines that have been developed by the American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association to improve the management of diabetes. The goal of this diet is weight management through the reduction of calories, daily intake of dietary fat (specifically saturated fat) and individualization of carbohydrate intake based on the type of diabetes a person has and the level of control over blood sugar levels. There are two primary types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) formerly called juvenile-onset diabetes. This type usually starts in children, whereby the pancreas does not produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) formerly known as adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes cases. In this type, the pancreas will produce insulin, however, the body's tissues do not respond well to the insulin signal to metabolize glucose properly, a condition called insulin resistance. The nutritional goals for type 1 and type 2 diabetes are different. Type 1 diabetes focuses mostly on matching food intake to insulin. With type 1 diabetes, studies show that total carbohydrates have the most effect on the amount of insulin needed to maintain blood sugar control. There is a delicate balance of carbohydrate intake, insulin, and physical activity that is necessary for optimal blood levels of a sugar. If these components are not in balance, there can be wide fluctuations in blood glucose levels. For those with type 1 diabetes, on a fixed dose of insulin, the carbohydrate content of meals and snacks should be consistent from day to day. With type 2 diabetes, the main focus is on weight control, Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

All About Physical And Mental Health

All About Physical And Mental Health

It delays carbohydrate absorption, slows down the rise of blood sugar and so reduces the drug requirement An intake of about 40 g dietary fibre is beneficial for diabetics. Some high fiber foods are whole cereals like buck wheat (kootu), barley, ragey and oats, leafy vegetables, beans, whole pulses and legumes. Refined foods like Maida, Suji, Arrowroot, Sago, Juices etc are low in fibre and should therefore be avoided Fenugreek Seeds contain an alkaloid called trigonelline which has been shown to lower blood sugar and prevent diabetes induced cataract. It also lowers cholesterol and triglycerides. Bitter gourd (Karela) juice is a popular remedy for the diabetics in the tropics.50 ml raw karela juice daily improves blood glucose tolerance in non insulin dependent diabetics. Glycemic Index or the blood glucose response of certain foods is important in deciding whether to include them or not in the meals of a person with diabetes. Foods with high glycemic index must be avoided in the diets of diabetic individuals. Foods cooked by dry and short time methods like roasting have lesser glycemic effect as compared to foods cooked by boiling and long cooking processes which reduce particle size. Preparations like roasted chanas, chapattis, sprouted dals, and whole fruits are more suitable than boiled rice, khichri, washed dals and fruit juices. Glycemic Index of certain foods Defeat Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by the decreased ability or complete inability of the tissues to utilize carbohydrates, accompanied by changes in the metabolism of fat, protein, water and electrolytes. The disorder is due to a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of the hormone insulin. There are two common types of diabetes mellitus: Insulin dependent diabetes mell Continue reading >>

The Role Of Dietary Fiber In The Etiology Of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study - Sciencedirect

The Role Of Dietary Fiber In The Etiology Of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study - Sciencedirect

Get rights and content To investigate the hypothesis that a low intake o f dietary fiber could increase the risk o f developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we ascertained prior dietary intake of 242 persons with known diabetes and 460 persons without a prior diagnosis of diabetes among 20- to 74-year-old residents of two counties in southern Colorado from 1984 to 1986. When persons with diabetes were compared to nondiabetic controls, a higher reported fiber intake prior to diagnosis was found among persons with diabetes. A decrease in fiber of 10 g/d was associated with a decrease in risk of NIDDM of 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59 to 0.96), rather than an increase as hypothesized. However, when the diabetic group was limited to those with diabetes for less than 5 years, this association was no longer present. Two further analyses were carried out on 1317 persons without a prior diagnosis of diabetes seen between 1984 and 1988. Among these persons, current fiber intake was inversely associated with fasting plasma insulin concentration. However, fiber explained less than 1 % of the variation in fasting insulin levels. When persons with previously undiagnosed NIDDM were compared to normal controls, the odds ratio relating a decrease in fiber consumption of 10 g/d to NIDDM was 1.21(95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 2.10) adjusting for calorie and carbohydrate intake. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index. The inconsistent findings reported here do not support the hypothesis that increasing dietary fiber intake could reduce the future occurrence of NIDDM. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:1826. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan: List Of Foods To Eat And Avoid

Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan: List Of Foods To Eat And Avoid

Currently, there are nine drug classes of oral diabetes medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas, for example, glimepiride (Amaryl) and glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) Meglitinides, for example, nateglinide (Starlix) and repaglinide (Prandin) Thiazolidinediones, for example, pioglitazone (Actos) DPP-4 inhibitors, for example, sitagliptin (Januvia) and linagliptin (Tradjenta) What types of foods are recommended for a type 2 diabetes meal plan? A diabetes meal plan can follow a number of different patterns and have a variable ratio of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The carbohydrates consumed should be low glycemic load and come primarily from vegetables. The fat and proteins consumed should primarily come from plant sources. What type of carbohydrates are recommended for a type 2 diabetic diet plan? Carbohydrates (carbs) are the primary food that raises blood sugar. Glycemic index and glycemic load are scientific terms used to measure the impact of a carbohydrate on blood sugar. Foods with low glycemic load (index) raise blood sugar modestly and thus are better choices for people with diabetes. The main factors that determine a food's (or meal's) glycemic load are the amount of fiber, fat, and protein it contains. The difference between glycemic index and glycemic load is that glycemic index is a standardized measurement and glycemic load accounts for a real-life portion size. For example, the glycemic index of a bowl of peas is 68 (per 100 grams) but its glycemic load is just 16 (lower the better). If you just referred to the glycemic index, you'd think peas were a bad choice, but in reality, you wouldn't eat 100 grams of peas. With a normal portion size, peas have a healthy glycemic load as well as being an excellent source of pro Continue reading >>

24 Diabetes Mellitus | Diet And Health: Implications For Reducing Chronic Disease Risk | The National Academies Press

24 Diabetes Mellitus | Diet And Health: Implications For Reducing Chronic Disease Risk | The National Academies Press

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels and defective carbohydrate utilization due to a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin. As described in Chapter 5, there are two distinct primary forms of diabetes mellitus: type I, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and type II, or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This classification replaces the older terminologyjuvenile-onset and adult-onset diabetes. IDDM usually results from destruction of the insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. It is believed to be linked to the immune system, i.e., there is an increased risk of IDDM in subjects with certain genes associated with the histocompatibility immune response (HLA) genes. In the United States, approximately 5 to 10% of the people with diabetes have IDDM. NIDDM is much more common; it is associated with unknown genetic factors and aging and is closely linked to the insulin resistance associated with adiposity (see Chapter 21). The very high concordance of the incidence of NIDDM in many identical twin pairs (Barnett et al., 1981) suggests that genes play a very important role in this disease. Little is known about gene-environment interactions in the etiology of NIDDM. Diabetes (IDDM and NIDDM) is diagnosed by the presence of classical symptoms and elevated glucose levels (Callaway and Rossini, 1987). The disease has been diagnosed in approximately 6 million people in the United States, and an additional 4 million to 5 million individuals are believed to have undiagnosed diabetes (National Diabetes Data Group, 1985). Each year, approximately 500,000 new cases are diagnosed. IDDM afflicts about 0.3% of the population after age 20. NIDDM has been diagnosed in approximately 2.4% Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Diabetic Diet - Everything Natural Under The Sun

Diabetic Diet - Everything Natural Under The Sun

A diabetic diet follows a specific set of dietary guidelines that have been developed by the American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association to improve the management of diabetes. The goal of this diet is weight management through the reduction of calories, daily intake of dietary fat (specifically saturated fat) and individualization of carbohydrate intake based on the type of diabetes a person has and the level of control over blood sugar levels. There are two primary types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) formerly called juvenile-onset diabetes. This type usually starts in children, whereby the pancreas does not produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) formerly known as adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes cases. In this type, the pancreas will produce insulin, however, the body's tissues do not respond well to the insulin signal to metabolize glucose properly, a condition called insulin resistance. The nutritional goals for type 1 and type 2 diabetes are different. Type 1 diabetes focuses mostly on matching food intake to insulin. With type 1 diabetes, studies show that total carbohydrates have the most effect on the amount of insulin needed to maintain blood sugar control. There is a delicate balance of carbohydrate intake, insulin, and physical activity that is necessary for optimal blood levels of a sugar. If these components are not in balance, there can be wide fluctuations in blood glucose levels. For those with type 1 diabetes, on a fixed dose of insulin, the carbohydrate content of meals and snacks should be consistent from day to day. With type 2 diabetes, the main focus is on weight control, Continue reading >>

Diet Plan For Niddm | Health Blog

Diet Plan For Niddm | Health Blog

NIDDM (non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) is also known as type II diabetes mellitus. In type II diabetes the pancreatic cells (beta cells of Langerhans) which secrete insulin are not decreased significantly (generally more than 70% or cells are intact against less than 30% in type I diabetes). The defect is insulin resistance or lower responsiveness to insulin. The oral hypoglycemic drugs which are used for treatment of type II diabetes generally acts by increasing the sensitivity to insulin, so that the insulin which is produced normally can do its work. The genetic predisposition is more common in NIDDM or non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, in compare to type-1 diabetes or IDDM (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus). Genetics play a bigger role in the causation of NIDDM. The main aim of diet for diabetic is to reduce carbohydrate (especially simple sugars) consumption. By limiting carbohydrate consumption it is possible to control blood sugar level to a great extent. The following diet plan can be used by the diabetes patients who are suffering from type II diabetes: Early morning: A diabetic patient should take only tea in early morning. The tea should be preferably without sugar. Sweeteners without any carbohydrates or calorie can be used instead of sugar. There are many herbal sweetener preparations available in the market. The breakfast of a diabetic should consist of porridge without sugar (can be taken with salt), bread toast, fruits with high fiber content (e.g. guava, pears, apple etc.) and tea without sugar. The lunch should consist of food items prepared from whole wheat flour, whole grain cereals (rice should be taken in limited quantity because rice is high glycemic food), grams, limited quantity of fish or meat (white meat), mixed vegetables Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen behind the stomach and has two main functions: to produce juices that flow into the digestive system to help us digest food to produce the hormone called insulin. Insulin is the key hormone that controls the flow of glucose (sugar) in and out of the cells of the body. Type 2 diabetes is caused by: insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas a resistance to the action of insulin in the body's cells – especially in muscle, fat and liver cells. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with being overweight, but it's less clear what causes it, compared to the Type 1 disease. Term watch Type 2 diabetes used to be called 'non-insulin dependent diabetes'. This is because insulin injections were not part of its treatment. As some people with Type 2 also now require insulin, the term Type 2 is preferred. In the first few years after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes high levels of insulin circulate in the blood because the pancreas can still produce the hormone. Eventually insulin production dwindles. For reasons we don't understand, the effect of insulin is also impaired. This means it doesn't have its normal effect on the cells of the body. This is called insulin resistance. What is insulin resistance? Insulin resistance has a number of knock-on effects: it causes high blood glucose it disturbs the fat levels in the blood, making the arteries of the heart more likely to clog (coronary heart disease) The insulin-producing cells of the pancreas in people with Type 2 diabetes don't seem to come under attack from the immune system as they do in Type 1. But they are still unable to cope with the need to produce a surge of insulin after a meal. Normally, this insulin surge causes the body to store excess glucose coming in and so keeps Continue reading >>

Dietary Management Of Nursing Home Residents With Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Dietary Management Of Nursing Home Residents With Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Eighteen residents with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) from two skilled nursing facilities were monitored for glycemic control on diabetic and regular diets provided by the institution. Weekly fasting plasma glucose and 1-d dietary intake were followed for 16 wk: 4 wk on diabetic diets before and after an 8-wk regular-diet period. All residents were in good glycemic control (fasting plasma glucose 7.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) at entry into the study. During the regular-diet period, fasting plasma glucose increased an average of 0.6 mmol/L for all residents. Caloric intake increased during the regular-diet period although body weight did not change significantly. In both study periods nutrient intake of the residents met or exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances for the age group. These results indicate that the short-term substitution of regular for diabetic diets did not result in gross deterioration of glycemic control in patients with NIDDM confined to chronic-care facilities. Do you want to read the rest of this article? ... Secondly, because of the improved health care systems there is an increase in average life expectancy of the Emirati population. Hence, in very elderly and frail the anti-diabetic treatment should be adjusted to keep a higher HbA1c and also they should not be prescribed a diabetic diet since this would be of no benefit for glycemic control and impinge on the quality of life . In our data set, majority of the patients are on oral hypoglycemic (60.20%) ... 16,17,19] compared the effects of a liberalized diet compared with a therapeutic diet on glycaemia in residents with type 2 diabetes, based on outcomes mean (SD) HbA1c (%) and/or mean (SD) fasting blood glucose levels (BGL, mmol/L,) as illustrated inTable 4. All three controlled tr Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes - Symptoms

Type 2 Diabetes - Symptoms

A A A Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that results from an inability of the body to properly use insulin. Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabetes, in which the body is unable to produce sufficient levels of insulin. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dl or greater on two different days establishes the diagnosis of diabetes. A number of both oral and injectable medications have been developed fo A hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c) level of 6.5% or greater indicates diabetes. Managing type 2 diabetes includes following a healthy eating plan and exercise, as well as medications in many cases. r the treatment of type 2 diabetes. A healthy eating plan and regular physical activity are important components of a type 2 diabetes treatment plan. There is no one recommended "diabetes diet" for all people with type 2 diabetes. Regular physical activity and modest weight loss can help reduce or prevent type 2 diabetes. Common complications of diabetes include cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, eye problems, and nerve damage. A A A Type 2 Diabetes (cont.) Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes, there is an elevated level of sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream due to the body's inability to properly respond to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to utilize glucose for energy. Insulin is produced by specialized cells in the pancreas. An elevated level of blood glucose is known as hyperglycemia. The excessive levels of glucose in the blood spill over into the urine, leading to the presence of glucose in the urine (glucosuria). Type 2 diabetes is an enormous public health problem. It is estimated that about 29.1 million Americans (9.1% of all Americans) have Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diet And Exercise Interventions On Control And Quality Of Life In Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Effects Of Diet And Exercise Interventions On Control And Quality Of Life In Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Evidence suggests that diet and exercise are associated with improved glucose tolerance for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Seventy-six volunteer adult patients with NIDDM were each assigned to one of four programs: diet, exercise, diet plus exercise, or education (control). Each program required ten weekly meetings. Detailed evaluations were completed prior to the program and after three, six, 12, and 18 months. Evaluations included various psychosocial measures, measures of the quality of life, and fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and relative weight determinations. Of the 76 original participants, 70 completed the 18-month follow-up study. At 18 months, the combination diet-and-exercise group had achieved the greatest reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin measures. In addition, this group showed significant improvements on a general quality of life measure. These improvements were largely uncorrelated with changes in weight. The authors conclude that the combination of dietary change and physical conditioning benefits NIDDM patients, and that the benefits may be independent of substantial weight loss. Do you want to read the rest of this article? ... However, the said programs focus only on the promotion of disease-specific knowledge and skills, and rarely involve the support of family members in delivering care. The self-management and social support preliminary studies showed that greater levels of social support correlated with better diabetes self-management (Kaplan, Hartwell, Wilson, & Wallace, 1987). In a study about the effect of a self-management program on patients with early CKD conducted in Taiwan, it was found that the CKD self-management program was effective in improving self-efficacy, self-management behav Continue reading >>

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