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Moderate Alcohol Intake Increases Insulin Resistance

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies.

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This reduced risk might be explained by improved insulin sensitivity or improved glycemic status, but results of intervention studies on this relation are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched up to August 2014. Intervention studies on the effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers of insulin sensitivity or glycemic status of at least 2 weeks' duration were included. Investigators extracted data on study characteristics, outcome measures, and methodological quality. RESULTS: Fourteen intervention studies were included in a meta-analysis of six glycemic end points. Alcohol consumption did not influence estimated insulin sensitivity (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.08 [-0.09 to 0.24]) or fasting glucose (SMD 0.07 [-0.11 to 0.24]) but reduced HbA1c (SMD -0.62 [-1.01 to -0.23]) and fasting insulin concentrations (SMD -0.19 [-0.35 to -0.02]) compared with the control condition. Alcohol consumption among women reduced fasting insulin (SMD -0.23 [-0.41 to -0.04]) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (SMD 0.16 [-0.04 to 0.37]) but not among men. Results were similar after excluding studies with high alcohol dosages (>40 g/day) and were not influenced by dosage and duration of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Although the studies had small sample sizes and were of short duration, the current evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may decrease fasting insulin and HbA1c concentrations among nondiabetic subjects. Alcohol co Continue reading >>

Effects Of Moderate Alcohol Intake On Fasting Insulin And Glucose Concentrations And Insulin Sensitivity In Postmenopausal Womena Randomized Controlled Trial

Effects Of Moderate Alcohol Intake On Fasting Insulin And Glucose Concentrations And Insulin Sensitivity In Postmenopausal Womena Randomized Controlled Trial

Context Epidemiologic data demonstrate that moderate alcohol intake is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic individuals. No controlled-diet studies have addressed the effects of daily moderate alcohol consumption on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine whether daily consumption of low to moderate amounts of alcohol influences fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled crossover trial of 63 healthy postmenopausal women, conducted at a clinical research center in Maryland between 1998 and 1999. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to consume 0, 15, or 30 g/d of alcohol for 8 weeks each as part of a controlled diet. All foods and beverages were provided during the intervention. An isocaloric beverage was provided in the 0-g/d arm. Energy intake was adjusted to maintain constant body weight. Main Outcome Measures Fasting insulin, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations, measured at the end of each dietary period; insulin sensitivity, estimated with a published index of glucose disposal rate corrected for fat-free mass based on fasting insulin and fasting triglyceride concentrations, compared among treatments with a mixed-model analysis of variance. Results A complete set of plasma samples was collected and analyzed for 51 women who completed all diet treatments. Consumption of 30 g/d of alcohol compared with 0 g/d reduced fasting insulin concentration by 19.2% (P = .004) and triglyceride concentration by 10.3% (P = .001), and increased insulin sensitivity by 7.2% (P = .002). Normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals responded similarly. Only fasting triglyceride Continue reading >>

Does Alcohol And Tobacco Use Increase The Risk Of Diabetes?

Does Alcohol And Tobacco Use Increase The Risk Of Diabetes?

Yes, alcohol and tobacco use may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Alcohol Although studies show that drinking moderate amounts of alcohol may actually lower the risk of diabetes, the opposite is true for people who drink greater amounts of alcohol. Moderate alcohol use is defined as one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger. Too much alcohol may cause chronic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), which can impair its ability to secrete insulin and potentially lead to diabetes. Tobacco Tobacco use can increase blood sugar levels and lead to insulin resistance. The more you smoke, the greater your risk of diabetes. People who smoke heavily — more than 20 cigarettes a day — have almost double the risk of developing diabetes compared with people who don’t smoke. Continue reading >>

Effect Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption On Adipokines And Insulin Sensitivity In Lean And Overweight Men: A Diet Intervention Study

Effect Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption On Adipokines And Insulin Sensitivity In Lean And Overweight Men: A Diet Intervention Study

Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: a diet intervention study European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 62, pages 10981105 (2008) Contributors: JWJB had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design:JWJB, FJK, GS, HFJH. Acquisition of data: JWJB, HFJH. Analysis and interpretation of the data:JWJB, ECdZ, FJK, GS, HFJH. Drafting of the manuscript: JWJB, ECdZ. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: JWJB, ECdZ, FJK, GS, HFJH. Statistical analysis: JWJB, ECdZ. Study supervision: HFJH. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.525 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight (BMI>27 kg/m2; n=9) men (1825 years). Three cans of beer (40 g alcohol) or alcohol-free beer daily during 3 weeks. Adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations increased (P<0.01) by 11 and 8%, while acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) concentrations decreased by 12% (P=0.04) after moderate alcohol consumption. Concentrations of leptin and resistin remained unchanged. Insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was not affected by moderate alcohol consumption, but 2 h glucose concentrations were lower (P=0.01) after beer (4.50.1 mmol/l) than alcohol-free beer (4.90.1 mmol/l). Both free fatty acids and glucagon concentrations showed a stronger increase (P<0.01) after 90 min during OGTT after beer than alcohol-free beer. Changes of adiponectin were positively correlated (r=0.69, P<0.001), and changes o Continue reading >>

Alcohol's Effect On Insulin Level

Alcohol's Effect On Insulin Level

Nondiabetic postmenopausal women who drink moderate amounts of alcohol can reduce insulin concentrations and improve insulin sensitivity, according to an article in the May 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Michael J. Davies, PhD, and David J. Baer, PhD, of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Beltsville, MD, and colleagues conducted a study to determine whether daily consumption of low to moderate amounts of alcohol influences fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in healthy, nondiabetic, postmenopausal women. The researchers conducted a randomized controlled trial of 63 healthy postmenopausal women at a clinical research center in Maryland between 1998 and 1999. Participants were randomly assigned to consume 0, 15 g/day (one drink), or 30 g/day (two drinks) of alcohol as part of a controlled diet. Each woman received each amount of alcohol for eight weeks, followed by a two- to five-week washout period between each treatment sequence. All foods and beverages were provided during the intervention. A complete set of blood samples was collected and analyzed for 51 women who completed all diet treatments. The researchers found that consumption of 30 g/day of alcohol compared with 0 g/day reduced fasting insulin concentration by 19.2 percent and triglyceride concentration by 10.3 percent, and increased insulin sensitivity by 7.2 percent. Normal weight, overweight, and obese individuals responded similarly. Only fasting triglyceride concentration was significantly reduced when comparing 0 and 15 g/day alcohol, and no difference was found between consumption of 15 and 30 g/day of alcohol. Fasting glucose concentrations were not different across treatments. This study i Continue reading >>

Effect Of Moderate Alcoholic Beverage Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity In Insulin-resistant, Nondiabetic Individuals.

Effect Of Moderate Alcoholic Beverage Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity In Insulin-resistant, Nondiabetic Individuals.

Abstract Although moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a decrease in plasma insulin concentrations, relatively few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of alcohol on insulin sensitivity, particularly in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals. Because enhanced insulin sensitivity could contribute to the reported association between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of heart disease and diabetes, we believed it is important to address this issue. Consequently, we evaluated the ability of moderate alcohol consumption to improve insulin sensitivity, as measured by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test, in 20 nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals. Measurements were made of SSPG, glucose, insulin, and lipoprotein concentrations before and after consuming 30 g of alcohol for 8 weeks, either as vodka (n = 9) or red wine (n = 11). The SSPG concentrations (insulin resistance) decreased by approximately 8% in the total group (P = .08), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration increased by a mean of 0.09 mmol/L (P = .02). Trends were similar in individuals who consumed vodka or red wine. Men tended to have greater decline in SSPG and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with women. There were no other metabolic changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations. These data demonstrate that 8 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption had minimal impact on enhancing insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals, raising questions as to the role, if any, of improved insulin sensitivity in the purported clinical benefits associated with moderate alcohol consumption. Continue reading >>

Low Ethanol Consumption Increases Insulin Sensitivity In Wistar Rats

Low Ethanol Consumption Increases Insulin Sensitivity In Wistar Rats

D.T. Furuya, R. Binsack and U.F. Machado Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control) or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v) for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05). In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05), despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved. Key words: Insulin sensitivity, Ethanol, Liver glycogen, Low ethanol consumption Epidemiological evidence from many studies indicates that light-to-moderate drinking of any kind of alcoholic beverage is associated with a reduction in mortality, due p Continue reading >>

Alcohol Consumption And Its Effects On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status

Alcohol Consumption And Its Effects On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status

Study finds type 2 risk in nondiabetic patients decreased… Moderate alcohol consumption can reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes as compared to heavy drinking, and the risk reduction differs between men and women. In a previous study, alcohol consumption of 24 g alcohol/day reduces type 2 diabetes risk by 40% in women compared to 13% in men with 22 g alcohol/day consumption. The effects of alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes includes increased insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammatory effects, or effects of adiponectin. These pathways have been closely studied in the past. For example, Brien et al showed alcohol consumption increased adiponectin, but no effects on inflammation, and no quantitative result on insulin sensitivity. Some studies suggest a positive correlation between alcohol consumption and insulin sensitivity, but the data were inconsistent or showed no effects. The aim is to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity using meta-analysis of intervention studies. PubMed and Embase were used to search for articles published up to August 2014. References and related citation were also screened for relevant articles. The primary outcome was the relationship between insulin sensitivity and alcohol consumption. Inclusion criteria included randomized trials, trials with an alcohol intervention, trials with an alcohol-free control group, relevant outcome measures as previously described, intervention period of at least 2 weeks, and articles written in English or Dutch. Exclusion criteria included patients with a history of alcoholism or heavy drinkers and animal studies. Data on study characteristics, outcome measures, and methodological quality were extracted and analyzed. A total of 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The s Continue reading >>

Effects Of Body Weight And Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity

Effects Of Body Weight And Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity

Abstract Obesity is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, which can eventually lead to type-2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption is a protective factor against insulin resistance, and thus protects against the development of type-2 diabetes. The mechanism by which alcohol protects against the development of type-2 diabetes is not well known. To determine the mechanism by which alcohol improves insulin sensitivity, we fed water or alcohol to lean, control, and obese mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol consumption and body weights affect overlapping metabolic pathways and to identify specific target genes that are regulated in these pathways. Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with the development of type-2 diabetes. We assessed possible gene expression alterations in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained WAT from mice fed a calorie restricted (CR), low fat (LF Control) or high fat (HF) diets and either water or 20% ethanol in the drinking water. We screened the expression of genes related to the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin regulation using a gene array composed of 384 genes. Obesity induced insulin resistance and calorie restriction and alcohol improved insulin sensitivity. The insulin resistance in obese mice was associated with the increased expression of inflammatory markers Cd68, Il-6 and Il-1α; in contrast, most of these genes were down-regulated in CR mice. Anti-inflammatory factors such as Il-10 and adrenergic beta receptor kinase 1 (Adrbk1) were decreased in obese mice and increased by CR and alcohol. Also, we report a direct correlation between body weight and the expression of the following genes: Kcnj11 (potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11), Lpin2 (lipin Continue reading >>

Can Brief Periods Of Alcohol Abstinence Really Improve Insulin Resistance?

Can Brief Periods Of Alcohol Abstinence Really Improve Insulin Resistance?

With commentary by Joel Zonszein, MD, professor of clinical medicine and director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center, the Bronx. Abstaining from alcohol on a short-term basis improved insulin resistance, according to new research by scientists in the U.K. However, a U.S. expert says the findings are counter to other research and to traditional advice that moderate alcohol intake may benefit those with diabetes. The U.K. researchers, who presented their data at the Liver Meeting 2015 in December in San Francisco, evaluated 102 men and women who were enrolled in the UK's "Dry January" campaign. Those who participated were moderate drinkers who agreed to abstain for a month. The researchers measured changes in insulin resistance (when the body's cells are resistant to the effects of insulin), and also looked at markers of a condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) after a month of the men and women being ''on the wagon." They found reduced insulin resistance, reduced liver stiffness and better blood pressure. The improvements held even after they adjusted for such factors as age, gender, exercise, smoking and diet changes. The researchers can't say how durable the benefits might be, as they only looked at the one-month window. The researchers concluded that the risk of NAFLD increases with more alcohol intake. NAFLD is an extra buildup of fat cells in the liver, but not believed to be caused by alcohol, according to the Liver Foundation. Those who are overweight or have diabetes are more at risk, experts know. Alcohol & diabetes: another view The findings run counter to what would be expected, says Joel Zonszein, MD, professor of clinical medicine and director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center, the Bron Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Alcohol On Insulin Resistance

The Effect Of Alcohol On Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance and diabetes are not the same thing, but these medical issues are closely related. With insulin resistance, the body stops responding normally to the hormone insulin. This leads to a buildup of blood sugar. If left unchecked, insulin resistance commonly leads to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Some people, with a condition called prediabetes, are insulin resistant but are not yet diabetic. Research suggests that alcohol has an effect on insulin resistance. This effect seems to be variable, however, depending on the amount of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. A person's sex, race and body mass index also seem to influence the effect of alcohol on insulin resistance. Video of the Day Past studies suggested that moderate drinking might reduce insulin resistance and protect against T2DM. More current studies, however, call this into question. A September 2015 "Diabetes Care" article reported on pooled results from 38 studies that evaluated the relationship between alcohol intake and T2DM risk. The researchers found that overall, people who drank 1 standard alcoholic beverage daily were 18 percent less likely to develop T2DM compared to nondrinkers. However, when the researchers analyzed the results further, they found the protective effect was only experienced by certain groups of people. Influence of Gender In examining the results of the 2015 "Diabetes Care" study by the sex of the participants, a reduced T2DM risk associated with alcohol consumption was seen only in women. The greatest level of reduced risk was seen with moderate drinking among women, approximately 2 standard drinks per day. Female study participants who drank heavily -- approximately 5 or more drinks per day -- did not experience a reduced risk for T2DM. Among men, drinking was fo Continue reading >>

Moderate Alcohol Consumption Increases Insulin Sensitivity And Adipoq Expression In Postmenopausal Women: A Randomised, Crossover Trial

Moderate Alcohol Consumption Increases Insulin Sensitivity And Adipoq Expression In Postmenopausal Women: A Randomised, Crossover Trial

Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: a randomised, crossover trial 1Business Unit Biosciences, TNO Quality of Life, P. O. Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, the Netherlands 2Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands 1Business Unit Biosciences, TNO Quality of Life, P. O. Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, the Netherlands 2Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands 1Business Unit Biosciences, TNO Quality of Life, P. O. Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, the Netherlands 2Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands M. M. Joosten, Email: [email protected] , Email: [email protected] . Received 2008 Mar 7; Accepted 2008 Apr 7. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. To determine whether 6 weeks of daily, moderate alcohol consumption increases expression of the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and plasma levels of the protein, and improves insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial conducted in the Netherlands, 36 apparently healthy postmenopausal women who were habitual alcohol consumers, received 250ml white wine (25g alcohol/day) or 250ml of white grape juice (control) daily during dinner for 6weeks. Randomisation to treatment allocation occurred according to BMI. Insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ mRNA and plasma adiponectin levels were measured at the end of both periods. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Levels of ADIPOQ mRNA in subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by RT-PCR. All subjects completed the study. Six weeks of white wine consumption reduced fasting insulin (mean SEM 40.0 Continue reading >>

Alcohol Consumption And The Incidence Of Type Ii Diabetes

Alcohol Consumption And The Incidence Of Type Ii Diabetes

Abstract Background: This study examines the relation between alcohol and type II diabetes and the possible mediating effects of HDL-cholesterol and serum insulin. Methods: Prospective study of 5221 men aged 40–59 years with no history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, or stroke drawn from general practices in 18 British towns. Results: During the mean follow up of 16.8 years there were 198 incident cases of type II diabetes. Occasional drinkers were the reference group. A non-linear relation was seen between alcohol intake and age adjusted risk of diabetes, with risk lowest in light and moderate drinkers and highest in heavy drinkers (quadratic trend p=0.03). Further adjustment for body mass index decreased risk in heavy drinkers. After additional adjustment for physical activity, smoking, and (undiagnosed) pre-existing coronary heart disease, only moderate drinkers showed significantly lower risk than occasional drinkers (RR=0.66 95% CI 0.44 to 0.99). Alcohol intake was inversely associated with serum insulin and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol. Adjustment for these factors reduced the “protective” effect in moderate drinkers (adjusted RR=0.73 95% CI 0.48 to 1.10) but the quadratic trend remained significant (p=0.02). Conclusion: There is a non-linear relation between alcohol intake and the risk of type II diabetes. Serum insulin and HDL-cholesterol explained a small amount (20%) of the reduction in risk of type II diabetes associated with moderate drinking. The adverse effect of heavy drinking seemed to be partially mediated through its effect on body weight. Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies

OBJECTIVE Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This reduced risk might be explained by improved insulin sensitivity or improved glycemic status, but results of intervention studies on this relation are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed and Embase were searched up to August 2014. Intervention studies on the effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers of insulin sensitivity or glycemic status of at least 2 weeks' duration were included. Investigators extracted data on study characteristics, outcome measures, and methodological quality. RESULTS Fourteen intervention studies were included in a meta-analysis of six glycemic end points. Alcohol consumption did not influence estimated insulin sensitivity (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.08 [−0.09 to 0.24]) or fasting glucose (SMD 0.07 [−0.11 to 0.24]) but reduced HbA1c (SMD −0.62 [−1.01 to −0.23]) and fasting insulin concentrations (SMD −0.19 [−0.35 to −0.02]) compared with the control condition. Alcohol consumption among women reduced fasting insulin (SMD −0.23 [−0.41 to −0.04]) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (SMD 0.16 [−0.04 to 0.37]) but not among men. Results were similar after excluding studies with high alcohol dosages (>40 g/day) and were not influenced by dosage and duration of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS Although the studies had small sample sizes and were of short duration, the current evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may decrease fasting insulin and HbA1c concentrations among nondiabetic subjects. Continue reading >>

Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Associated With Improved Insulin Sensitivity, Reduced Basal Insulin Secretion Rate And Lower Fasting Glucagon Concentration In Healthy Women

Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Associated With Improved Insulin Sensitivity, Reduced Basal Insulin Secretion Rate And Lower Fasting Glucagon Concentration In Healthy Women

Abstract Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration. One-thousand two-hundred and seventy-six non-diabetic individuals from the RISC (relationship between insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease) study without high alcohol consumption were studied; all had a euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp and an OGTT with assessment of insulin sensitivity, secretion and clearance. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with insulin sensitivity in women (β = 0.15, p trend = 0.005) and in men (β = 0.07, p trend = 0.07) after controlling for age, centre, waist, smoking and physical activity. In women, this association persisted after adjustment for adiponectin but was attenuated after controlling for HDL-cholesterol, suggesting that part of the protection is related to a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower basal insulin secretion in women only (β = −0.10, p trend = 0.004) and this association persisted after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In men, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with enhanced insulin clearance and increased fasting NEFA concentrations, independently of insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucagon decreased with increasing alcohol in women only (abstainers 9.2 ± 4.4; <28 g/week 8.6 ± 4.0; 28–64 g/week 8.1 ± 3.7; >64 g/week 7.5 ± 3.1 pmol/l; p trend = 0.01). Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was associated in healthy women with enhanced insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting plasma glucag Continue reading >>

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