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Menopause And Insulin Resistance

Diabetes & Menopause: What To Expect And How To Cope

Diabetes & Menopause: What To Expect And How To Cope

Diabetes & Menopause: What to Expect and How to Cope by Pat Dougherty, C.N.M., M.S.N., and Joyce Green Pastors, M.S., R.D., C.D.E, for Diabetes Self-Management For most women, menopausethe cessation of menstrual periodsis a normal, natural occurrence. The average age at menopause is 51, although any time after 40 is considered normal. The years leading up to the menopausal transitiona time known as the perimenopausemay be characterized by changes in the menstrual period, hot flashes (a sudden feeling of warmth, sometimes accompanied by sweating), emotional ups and downs, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. Some of these symptoms may continue after menopause. The severity of symptoms varies dramatically from person to person, ranging from barely noticeable menstrual changes to an experience described as debilitating. Women who experience menopause abruptly because of the surgical removal of their ovaries (called surgical menopause) typically have much more severe symptoms than women who experience a natural menopause. Both the perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods may present additional challenges for women who have diabetes. For one thing, the hormonal fluctuations that are common to perimenopause can affect blood glucose levels. For another, some symptoms of menopause are the same as or easily confused with the symptoms of high or low blood glucose levels, so the cause must be determined before corrective action can be taken. In addition, both diabetes and menopause raise a womans risk of osteoporosis, so women with diabetes must be proactive about taking steps to keep their bones strong. Lack of sleep, whether related to menopause, stress, or something else, can disrupt diabetes control. And menopause is often associated with weight gain, which can make bloo Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance In The Menopause

Insulin Resistance In The Menopause

The menopause is accompanied by a transition from a gynoid to an android pattern of body fat distribution and an increase in total body fat without a significant change in total percent body fat1. Increases are seen in both truncal and subcutaneous abdominal fat mass, with the greatest change seen in intra-abdominal fat mass. This has been reported to increase by as much as 20% to 44%1, 2. The accumulation of central abdominal fat in women at this time is associated with a decline in circulating adiponectin. Adiponectin, an adipokine produced by fat, increases insulin sensitivity by promoting fat oxidation distally in liver and muscle. Low serum adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and the metabolic syndrome such that the decline in adiponectin with intra-abdominal weight gain at menopause is believed to have an important role in the development of IR after menopause. Whether these metabolic changes are due to the abrupt decline in oestrogen production at menopause or a direct consequence of ageing merits consideration. In rodents, oophorectomy increases food intake and body and fat mass, and these effects are reversed by oestrogen therapy. Mice rendered oestrogen deficient by a targeted mutation in the aromatase gene, which is required for oestrogen biosynthesis, are obese and insulin resistant. Similarly, the rare event of a mutation in the aromatase gene, and hence inability to biosynthesize oestrogen, results in IR, T2DM, acanthosis nigricans, hepatic steatosis and signs of precocious atherogenesis3. A key observation has been that treatment of a man with an aromatase gene mutation with oestradiol resulted in an improvement of his acanthosis nigricans and hepatic steatosis, improved glycaemic control and the resolution of carotid plaques3. Continue reading >>

How To Reverse Insulin Resistance At Midlife

How To Reverse Insulin Resistance At Midlife

Insulin resistance has become a huge problem in our culture and it can lead to many of the chronic health problems we see today, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It is also linked to high blood pressure, high cholesterol, thyroid problems, muscle loss, fat gain, fatty liver, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and other cancers as well. And, insulin resistance has even been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, did you know that insulin resistance can also cause many of the symptoms most women attribute to menopause? It’s true. Insulin has a cascading effect on all of your hormones, including estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. When insulin isn’t doing its job, it’s nearly impossible to reduce the symptoms of menopause, including hot flashes and night sweats. It also makes weight loss very difficult. Jason Fung, M.D. – who you can listen to on my radio show, Flourish – has done much research in the area of insulin control. His work shows that getting insulin in balance can be the key to getting your hormones and your health back in balance. What is Insulin and How Does It Work? Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. Its main job is to manage how your body uses glucose for energy. When blood sugar levels rise after a meal, your pancreas releases insulin to help your body’s cells — especially cells in the liver and muscles — absorb glucose. Your liver converts stored glucose to glycogen for future use. When blood sugar levels are too low, your pancreas releases a hormone called glucagon. Glucagon forces the liver to convert glycogen back to glucose, which causes your blood sugar to rise. You always have low levels of insulin circulating in your body. When insulin is out of balance, the result is abnormal blood sugar Continue reading >>

Energy Times - Health, Vitamins, Supplements And Nutrition

Energy Times - Health, Vitamins, Supplements And Nutrition

Hormonal fluctuations at midlife cause more than just hot flashes and night sweatsthey can lead to weight gain, too. When Cathy Hofer, 56, of LaPorte, Indiana, entered her menopausal years, she was surprised to find a muffin top peeking out over her waistband. She couldnt understand whythe high school choir teacher rarely snacked and worked out four or five times a week in her home gym. Wasnt that enough to stay in shape? Despite those efforts, I watched myself gain weight, Hofer says. What Hofer didnt know is that menopause itself can actually lead to weight gain. Nutritionist Mickey Harpaz, PhD, says, Many women dont realize the importance and consequences of their bodies gradually burning fewer calories as they age, and of the decreasing estrogen levels that cause the body to deposit fat cells at a higher rate than before menopause. The North American Menopause Society estimates that 6,000 American women reach menopause every day. Harpaz, who practices in Redding, Connecticut and is the author of Menopause Reset (Rodale Books), says nine out of ten will add pounds, generally around the midsection. Insulin resistance is a crucial reason women gain weight as they pass through menopauseeven if their caloric intake hasnt changed, says Florida weight management specialist Caroline J. Cederquist, MD. In this condition, insulinthe bodys chief blood-sugar control hormonehas a difficult time moving glucose into cells to be burned as fuel. The resulting energy deficiency stresses the body so that further hormones are released, signaling the body to both store more fat and to increase appetite. The result is weight gain, Cederquist explains. Hofer believes a hormonal imbalance contributed to her struggle with belly bulge. Heres why: As estrogen production from ovaries decrease Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: The Real Reason Why You Aren’t Losing Weight

Insulin Resistance: The Real Reason Why You Aren’t Losing Weight

Many people have weight loss as one of their key resolutions. Sadly, 35 percent of people also give up on that goal before the month even ends. It’s not necessarily lack of time or willpower that causes you to struggle with weight loss year after year. The real reason that you may have struggled to lose weight is insulin resistance, or a condition I call metabolism dysfunction. So you may be thinking, “Why is it so hard for me to lose weight?” I’m doing “everything right,” and yet still weight loss is difficult. Perhaps (like many of my patients) you’re already following a strict diet and working out several times a week, but to no avail. The weight still won’t come off — or, worse, you are gaining weight for seemingly no reason at all! You have become resigned to being overweight. Weight problems aren’t a permanent and immovable fixture for the rest of your life. If you’re finding that weight is easy to gain and hard to lose, it’s not your fault! Weight problems aren’t just about overeating or under exercising — they’re about metabolic changes (The MD Factor Diet, 2015) that are collectively known as insulin resistance. Lab tests conducted in my practice have confirmed that over 89 percent of my patients have this real and often undiagnosed issue. So the good news is that the right combination of diet, exercise, and will to succeed you can reverse your MD factor and finally find success in losing weight and keeping it off for good. In a nutshell, insulin resistance is the inability of your body to properly convert the food that you eat into energy to fuel your cells. People with the MD Factor have difficulty regulating their blood sugar, which is often due to insulin resistance or even diabetes. In both instances, their bodies are unable t Continue reading >>

Menopause, Central Body Fatness, And Insulin Resistance: Effects Of Hormone-replacement Therapy.

Menopause, Central Body Fatness, And Insulin Resistance: Effects Of Hormone-replacement Therapy.

Menopause, central body fatness, and insulin resistance: effects of hormone-replacement therapy. Clinical Pharmacology and Metabolic Research Unit, University of Vermont, Burlington 05405, USA. In addition to being associated with termination of reproductive life in women, the menopause coincides with an increase in several comorbidities including cardiovascular disease. This increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the postmenopausal years has been partially attributed to adverse effects of estrogen deficiency on plasma lipid-lipoprotein levels and on the cardiovascular system, although other factors are contributing. Central body fatness and insulin resistance are components of a cluster of metabolic abnormalities which also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes studies that have examined the effects of the menopause transition and of estrogen-replacement therapy on central body fatness and insulin resistance. Review of cross-sectional studies suggests that the menopause transition is associated with an increase in abdominal and visceral adipose tissue accumulation, as measured either with dual X-ray absorptiometry or computed tomography. These results appear to be independent of the aging process and total body fatness. In general, cross-sectional studies using circumference measurements did not find any significant effect of the menopause. Longitudinal studies also support that accumulation of central body fatness accelerates with menopause. The effects of the menopause on insulin resistance appear to be moderate, if any, although available studies are clearly insufficient to draw firm conclusions. The majority of interventional studies support the notion that hormone-replacement therapy attenuates the accumulation of c Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: Hormonal Changes With Menopause

Insulin Resistance: Hormonal Changes With Menopause

Insulin Resistance: Hormonal Changes with Menopause Aging and hormonal changes are another important cause and contributor to insulin resistance. All of us become less insulin sensitive and more insulin resistant as we age. That is why young, physically active men and women can eat a large percentage of their calories from carbohydrate without weight gain. With age, declining hormone levels and other factors contribute to this declining insulin sensitivity whereby some people feel if they eat more than a limited amount of carbohydrate daily, they immediately gain weight. Studies with laboratory rats show that when ovaries are surgically removed, the animal immediately develops insulin resistance and gains weight despite not being given more food. As a direct result of surgical menopause the animals developed insulin resistance, and gained weight! Many women will experience significant weight gain over a short period of time after a surgical menopause. Women who have natural menopause with more slowly declining hormone levels will also experience significant weight gain, usually thirty pounds on average. To learn more about how insulin resistance and menopause can cause weight gain, please call our office at 239-593-0663. Join the Health Discussion. Become a Fan on Facebook, Follow us on Twitter, or Watch Dr Cederquist on YouTube. Continue reading >>

Menopause And Insulin Resistance

Menopause And Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the insulin produced by the pancreas becomes less effective at lowering blood sugar levels. It is a defining feature of metabolic syndrome, along with obesity, hypertension and high cholesterol. Insulin resistance is also a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and a risk factor for heart disease. The female hormone estrogen may play a role in protecting against insulin resistance and diabetes. Scientific studies are investigating the estrogen-mediated regulation of glucose levels. Insulin is a hormone produced by beta-cells, a specialized kind of cell in the pancreas. Insulin released from the beta-cells helps other cells in the body take up and utilize blood glucose, which is produced by the breakdown of food by digestion. In insulin resistance, muscle, liver and fat cells fail to respond to the insulin secreted by the beta-cells. The body needs higher amounts of insulin in order to take up and use glucose. Persistent insulin resistance, marked by high levels of glucose and insulin in the blood, eventually leads to diabetes. Estrogen is a steroid hormone produced primarily in the ovaries, and to a much lesser extent in other cells, like fat tissue. Small amounts of estrogen are also produced in men. Estrogen production from the ovaries declines around and after menopause. The decrease in insulin sensitivity with menopause suggests that estrogen generally protects against insulin resistance in women. Moreover, loss of estrogen function has been shown to cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the male as well. Estrogen acts directly on beta-cells to make them resistant to apoptosis a kind of cell death and increase insulin production. This mechanism is thought to assist the pancreatic cells to adapt to high Continue reading >>

The Guide To Managing Menopausal Symptoms

The Guide To Managing Menopausal Symptoms

The Guide To Managing Menopausal Symptoms Menopause, aka the change (BTW: who thought of calling it that, anyway?!), brings up a host of new symptoms for women like hot flashes, the return of some old ones like pimples, and a whole new fat loss challenge: the dreaded middle fluff. This change can be a graceful end to a womans fertile years, or it can be total hell. A few things will determine if you have an easier or harder time with menopausal symptoms. For those of you not there yet, this article will talk about prevention. For those of you already in the throes of it, this article will also cover some tactics to manage the symptoms. First, lets talk about the two stages of this so-called change: The peri-menopausal time is the time of fluctuating hormone levels (overall: high estrogen, low progesterone) and the time of symptoms like hot flashes, night sweats, irregular cycles and what feels to most women like never ending PMS (complete with totally erratic moods). This can last for several years for some women. When this time of hormone fluctuation is over and theres been no period for 12 months, were officially in menopause and hormone decline (overall: low estrogen, low progesterone, low testosterone). Factors That Play Into An Easier Menopause As sex hormone production from the ovaries wanes, the adrenals play back-up to make estrogen and progesterone. Women with weaker adrenals will have more symptoms of estrogen and progesterone deficiency: mood swings, water retention, hot flashes, etc. Also, metabolic issues from high cortisol and insulin resistance due to falling estrogen and progesterone will be worse the more stressed a woman experiences as she goes into menopause. Lean mass (muscle) is not only crucial for bone health and strength as women age, it is also Continue reading >>

Lady Doc: Menopause-associated Weight Gain

Lady Doc: Menopause-associated Weight Gain

Lady Doc: Menopause-Associated Weight Gain How to talk to patients about combating insulin resistance and weight gain. When I started practicing medicine, I was ignorant about weight gain. When patients said they didn't understand how they gained 20 pounds, I would think to myself, "Yeah, right." But after 20 years in ob/gyn, and becoming a certified menopause specialist through the North American Menopause Society , I finally get it. Anyone can experience an inadvertent 5 to 8 pounds of weight gain. A week of vacation eating and drinking, a sprained ankle that prohibits exercise for a couple of weeks, or care-taking for a sick parent or kid can throw anyone off of their healthy habits and, boom, 5 pounds up, no problem. For some women, once that initial 5 to 10 pounds is added, especially if it's belly fat, another 20 pounds can be gained so quickly it actually takes people by surprise. This rapid, sequelae occurs most often in women who were overweight as teens, women who had gestational diabetes, women who have a family history of diabetes, women who are in perimenopause or menopause, women with pre-diabetes, and women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD). The common denominator here is insulin resistance. Getting patients to understand insulin resistance will help them make sense of this type of weight gain and empower both the healthcare provider's treatment plan and the patient's desire to comply. Any one of us could become insulin resistant if we were to gain enough weight, but everyone is different in how much weight it takes to become insulin-resistant. I have patients who weigh over 250 pounds, but are not insulin-resistant, or pre-diabetic. I also have patients who look thin, but are insulin-resistant with an HbA1c of 5.7, or pre-diabetic. Genetics plays a Continue reading >>

A Major Cause Of Menopause Symptoms: Insulin Resistance

A Major Cause Of Menopause Symptoms: Insulin Resistance

Menopause is this giant thing to confront for women, a transition that holds extraordinary significance in terms of its physical, mental and emotional ramifications. Add into that mix insulin resistance, a major cause of menopause symptoms, and the whole thing can become beyond overwhelming. Like many of the women in my community you may have already been transition with peri-menopause or maybe have already ben thru it. Either way this blog is for you as it may hold the key to many of your questions. The Hormonal Piece of the Puzzle Menopause is a time in a women’s life when her hormones are naturally changing in a big way. Interestingly, insulin is powerful hormone itself, is just one that is part of a complex system of communication that makes everything work in your body during the transition towards menopause. Think of your hormonal system as email system, one that facilitates communication and balance in body. Hormones command the actions that organs, the body’s systems and the various parts of the body need to take in order to keep the body in balance. Menopause & insulin can drive something no women like tor have: weight gain! Let’s explore how. Insulin’s Role in the Body The message that insulin in particular is sending is that there needs to be a reduction in the amount of glucose in the blood. We take in glucose (sugar in the blood) and load it up to send to muscle and other cells so that we can move our bodies and fuel our organs, including the brain. We also store a selected amount of glucose in the liver for use as needed. The body can handle around five teaspoons of glucose at any one time in the blood. The pancreas produced insulin that travels throughout the body, ordering the cells to take up the glucose, thus lowering the level of sugar in the Continue reading >>

Menopause And Diabetes: Does Menopause Cause Diabetes?

Menopause And Diabetes: Does Menopause Cause Diabetes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United States has the highest rate of diabetes cases in the developing world and it is still increasing in an alarm rate. In 2016, it is estimated that 1 in 10 US individuals have type 2 diabetes (the increase rate of type 1 diabetes is much smaller). By 2050, it is estimated that 1 in 3 individuals will suffer from type 2 diabetes. From the statistics, overweight individuals who are age 40 or older are in the highest risk percentile. How does this information important for women? In the United States, diabetes is ranked as the number 6 most common cause of death for females between 45 to 54 years old and the number 4 common cause of death for females who are between 55 to 64 years old. It seems that as women grow older and reach their menopause stage, they become much more susceptible to develop diabetes. The question is whether menopause can drastically increase the risk of developing diabetes? This article will answer this question along with covering various topics that concerns menopause and its effect on diabetes: Can Menopause Can Trigger Diabetes? We would like to give you a straightforward answer for this question. However, sadly, health research scientists are still struggling to find the answer because it is difficult to separate the correlation and effects of menopause from the correlation and effects of age and weight. In 2011, a scientific correlation study suggests that after taking the age factor out from the correlation study, there is “no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk” (Kim, 2011). Yet there have been studies suggesting that progesterone is correlated with the development diabetes. Although we cannot give you a straight yes or Continue reading >>

Does Menopause Change Insulin Sensitivity, And What About Hormone Replacement Therapy After Menopause?

Does Menopause Change Insulin Sensitivity, And What About Hormone Replacement Therapy After Menopause?

Yahoo!-ABC News Network | 2018 ABC News Internet Ventures. All rights reserved. Does Menopause Change Insulin Sensitivity, And What About Hormone Replacement Therapy After Menopause? UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO DENVER SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Question:Does menopause change insulin sensitivity, and what about hormone replacement therapy after menopause? Answer:You know menopause occurs in all women, we hope, if they live long enough, and it's ultimately going to modify insulin sensitivity very little. The change in insulin sensitivity that does occur probably doesn't relate as much to the female hormones that are now lower, but probably relates to some extent to the body fat redistribution; in other words, women tend to put more fat on after the menopause, and they tend to put it more centrally around the abdomen. And if insulin resistance does occur within menopause, that's probably a better explanation than not having estrogens and progestin on a cyclic basis. Now the issue of hormone replacements is a little more complicated, because for a long time it was fairly automatic to put a woman on female hormones after the menopause even if symptoms were not present. But today, the more recent evidence would suggest that women probably shouldn't take female hormones after the menopause unless her symptoms are severe; and those symptoms could be hot flashes, or pain with intercourse, or perhaps women that have a low bone mass, it might be giving an indication for female hormones to prevent osteoporosis. However, I think what we're seeing now with even more recent data, is that women who start female hormones closer to the menopause may not incur the same risk for heart attack and stroke or other clotting disorders, as women who start the female hormones say a decade or longer after the Continue reading >>

How To Avoid Insulin Resistance

How To Avoid Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a syndrome at the center of many chronic and serious health problems, including diabetes, obesity, heart disease and polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS. Insulin is one of the “major” hormones and it has a cascading effect on the rest of your hormones, including the “minor” hormones estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Insulin resistance occurs because, for many of us, most of our calories come in the form of simple carbohydrates — sugars that quickly enter the bloodstream as glucose. The body has to release high levels of insulin to keep all that glucose in the bloodstream from spiraling out of control. Over time, the cells simply can’t keep up. They stop responding to the insulin signal and the body becomes “insulin resistant.” Now, the body is forced to release even more insulin because it cannot let blood sugar get too high. Having excess insulin in the bloodstream, or hyperinsulinemia, is a serious problem because the body can’t endure prolonged high levels of insulin. Too much insulin disrupts cellular metabolism and spreads inflammation. When your body is unable to keep blood glucose under control, it leads to diabetes, though that is only the most obvious disease caused by insulin resistance. Along the way, there are many other serious negative health effects that can happen before full-blown diabetes takes hold. Diabetes can then spiral into other health problems. You can stop this chain of events by making diet and lifestyle changes. You can start by understanding how insulin can get out of balance in the first place. How imbalanced insulin contributes to other hormonal imbalances Since insulin is considered a “major” hormone, it can affect many other hormone systems, including your “sex” hormones. A woman’s Continue reading >>

Hot Flashes Linked To Insulin Resistance

Hot Flashes Linked To Insulin Resistance

October 11, 2012 (Orlando, Florida) Hot flashes and night sweats appear to be linked to higher serum glucose levels and indicators of insulin resistance, according to data presented here at the North American Menopause Society 23rd Annual Meeting. Emerging research signals a link between menopausal hot flashes and cardiovascular risk, Rebecca Thurston, PhD, from the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, told Medscape Medical News. This latest finding, from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a large, longitudinal cohort study that follows women as they transition into menopause, adds insulin resistance to the other cardiovascular risk factors that have been linked to bothersome vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women. "The SWAN findings show that vasomotor symptoms, particularly more frequent and severe vasomotor symptoms, may be a marker of underlying cardiovascular change for women," Dr. Thurston explained. "We previously found increased atherosclerosis, elevated lipids, and elevated blood pressure in women with vasomotor symptoms; now we are showing elevated insulin resistance. These are all cardiovascular risk factors that fit together in the same puzzle," she said. Dr. Thurston emphasized that it is premature to claim that there is a causal link between vasomotor symptoms and cardiovascular risk. However, the message for clinicians is that if a woman in their practice is having frequent vasomotor symptoms, particularly if the symptoms occur later, rather than earlier, after menopause, this might be a clue to do a more intense cardiovascular work-up. "This is a reminder that as women are transitioning through menopause, their cardiovascular health is oftentimes changing, and usually not for the better," Dr. Thurston added. The 3075 participants Continue reading >>

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