Miscarriage: Facts About Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments
A miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy from conception to 20 weeks' gestation. The term stillbirth refers to the death of a fetus after 20 weeks' gestation. Miscarriage is sometimes referred to as spontaneous abortion, because the medical term abortion means the ending of a pregnancy, whether intentional or unintentional. Most miscarriages occur in the first trimester of pregnancy, from seven to twelve weeks after conception. Miscarriage is very common. As many or even most miscarriages occur so early in pregnancy that a woman does not even realize that she is pregnant , it is difficult to estimate how frequently miscarriages occur. Some experts believe that about half of all fertilized eggs die before implantation or are miscarried. Of known pregnancies (in which a woman misses a period or has a positive pregnancy test ), about 10% to 20% end in miscarriage. The majority of miscarriages are believed to be caused by genetic problems within the embryo that would prevent a baby from developing normally and surviving after birth. These fatal genetic errors are not usually related to genetic problems in the mother. In other cases, certain illnesses or medical conditions can cause miscarriage or may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mothers who have diabetes or thyroid disease are at increased risk of miscarriage. Infections that spread to the placenta, including some viral infections, can also increase the risk of miscarriage. In general, risk factors for miscarriage include the following: Maternal weight extremes ( BMI either below 18.5 or above 25 kg/m2) Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ) around the time of conception may increase the risk of miscarriage Women who had one miscarriage have an incidence of miscarriage of about 20%, whereas Continue reading >>
Miscarriage: Signs, Symptoms & Causes
By Cari Nierenberg, Live Science Contributor | About 10 to 25 percent of clinically recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage. A miscarriage is the loss of an embryo or fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. The medical term for miscarriage is spontaneous abortion. According to the March of Dimes, most miscarriages happen during the first trimester, which is the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. It's rarer for a miscarriage to occur in the second trimester, during the 13th to 19th week. Most people think miscarriages are very rare, but actually they are remarkably common, said Dr. Zev Williams, director of the program for early and recurrent pregnancy loss at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City, and a miscarriage researcher. "That's one of the big misconceptions about pregnancy loss," he said. In a study that Williams conducted of more than 1,000 American men and women, over half of the people surveyed thought that a miscarriage was a rare event occurring in fewer than 5 percent of pregnancies. The truth is that 20 to 30 percent of all pregnancies end in miscarriage, Williams told Live Science. That's roughly 1 in every 5 pregnancies, or about 1 million per year in the United States. The frequency of miscarriages may be even higher than the number reported, because many occur in the very early weeks of pregnancy, before a woman even realizes that she has conceived. Because miscarriage has traditionally been a taboo subject, women who have experienced one often don't talk about it, and they may end up feeling guilty, ashamed and alone as a result, Williams said. He said that almost every woman he's treated for a miscarriage blames herself for the pregnancy loss and feels like she did something wrong to cause it. But it's rarely a woman's fault: The majorit Continue reading >>
Hypoglycemia [low Blood Sugar]: Causes & Cures
Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar]: Causes & Cures Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar]: Causes & Cures While I have never been officially diagnosed with hypoglycemia, I think that I have it. I have just never been to the doctor for it. I struggle with kieeping my blood sugar level up. I can't go too long without eating, especially in the morning. Frequently, I have to leave church to get a snack, and always carry something with me. If my blood sugar lets too low, I get very shacky, can barely move my limbs, get nausous and lightheaded. I know that at that point I really need to eat something, but by then, I don't care or even want to. Re: Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar]: Causes & Cures Reply #1 on: July 20, 2006, 03:20:41 AM Oh yeah, that's hypoglycemia all right. I have it too. Not as bad, but at times it gets like that. Make sure that you eat plenty of protein. And I mean real meat protein. It will help regulate blood sugar. Hypoglycemia is either hereditary or because of a poor diet. Herbs for blood sugar and insulin levels are: gentian root, bilberry, and wild yam. Increase more fiber into your diet and stay away from really sweet fruits and un-natural sugars. Hypoglycemia is known to be an effect of suffering from long term allergies to certain foods, especially milk; which I just so happen to be allergic to. Caffeine also contributes to swings in blood sugar levels. Re: Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar]: Causes & Cures Reply #2 on: July 20, 2006, 03:39:29 AM Yep, Yep! I have never been "offidially" diagnosed with it either, but my mother had my brother tested and they were positive and she knew all the signs. It is hereditary in my family! Diet helps a lot! Whenever I would get emotional, my mother would tell me to go drink a glass of milk! Re: Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar]: Continue reading >>
Trying To Conceive Forum View Topic - Recurrent Miscarriage And Reactive Hypoglycaemia?
Recurrent Miscarriage And Reactive Hypoglycaemia? Support for anyone experiencing a miscarriage or looking for support from others who have been there. Recurrent Miscarriage And Reactive Hypoglycaemia? Just looking for answers/ thoughts/ experiences/ info, please. We have suffered 3 early miscarriages: two natural, one IVF. Every test has come back negative and because of my age - 40, 41 & 42, when the miscarriages happened, they have been put down to that. We have just started the meds for a DE IVF cycle and right now I am beside myself that we will a) not get pregnant at all and b) get pregnant, for fear of having yet another miscarriage. One thing that every doctor has glossed over is the fact that I have reactive hypoglycaemia and maybe that's because it makes absolutely no difference. However, I keep reading that blood sugar levels can play a role in miscarriage and wondered if anyone can shine a light, however small, on this whilst we have time to address the issue ahead of the ET in mid-December. Re: Recurrent Miscarriage And Reactive Hypoglycaemia? I would be curious to hear any perspectives on this as well. I have reactive hypoglycemia myself and just miscarried my first ever pregnancy at just under 5 weeks. I have to work pretty hard to keep my blood sugar stable! Re: Recurrent Miscarriage And Reactive Hypoglycaemia? I contacted the IVF clinic that we are working with and they said to me that unless I have been diagnosed with diabetes they do not consider that I have a problem. Maybe neither of us do and it is just one of those things. Anybody? Re: Recurrent Miscarriage And Reactive Hypoglycaemia? For what it's worth, I have hypoglycaemia as well and as you can see from my signature, I've had a million miscarriages. The docs have never said there is a link th Continue reading >>
Pregnancy If You Have Diabetes
If you have diabetes and plan to have a baby, you should try to get your blood glucose levels close to your target range before you get pregnant. Staying in your target range during pregnancy, which may be different than when you aren’t pregnant, is also important. High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can harm your baby during the first weeks of pregnancy, even before you know you are pregnant. If you have diabetes and are already pregnant, see your doctor as soon as possible to make a plan to manage your diabetes. Working with your health care team and following your diabetes management plan can help you have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. If you develop diabetes for the first time while you are pregnant, you have gestational diabetes. How can diabetes affect my baby? A baby’s organs, such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs, start forming during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. High blood glucose levels can be harmful during this early stage and can increase the chance that your baby will have birth defects, such as heart defects or defects of the brain or spine. High blood glucose levels during pregnancy can also increase the chance that your baby will be born too early, weigh too much, or have breathing problems or low blood glucose right after birth. High blood glucose also can increase the chance that you will have a miscarriage or a stillborn baby.1 Stillborn means the baby dies in the womb during the second half of pregnancy. How can my diabetes affect me during pregnancy? Hormonal and other changes in your body during pregnancy affect your blood glucose levels, so you might need to change how you manage your diabetes. Even if you’ve had diabetes for years, you may need to change your meal plan, physical activity routine, and medicines. Continue reading >>
Hypoglycaemia And Pregnancy
A hypoglycaemic event (also known as a 'hypo') is when your blood glucose levels drop too low. This is more likely to happen if you treat your diabetes with insulin rather than diet or metformin. In pregnancy there are likely to be some fluctuations in your blood sugar levels despite your best efforts, so it’s important to be realistic, while doing your best to stay healthy and in control. If you’re having trouble, tell your healthcare team as they may be able to recommend some slight changes to your treatment regime that could help. You should share this page with those who are around you on a daily basis (family, friends, work colleagues) so they can support you if necessary during a hypoglycaemic episode. Hypoglycaemic episodes are more likely to happen if you: take too much insulin delay or miss a meal/snack do not eat enough carbohydrate for the insulin injected take part in an unplanned or strenuous exercise drink too much alcohol or drink alcohol without food Sometimes though, there is no obvious cause for a hypo. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia These are some of the most common symptoms of hypoglycaemia: feeling hungry trembling or shaking sweating feeling anxious or irritable turning pale. If you do not take immediate action when you have warning signs, you may develop more serious symptoms. They include: slurred speech seeming confused, disorderly or irrational fits, convulsions or seizures unconsciousness. If you develop these symptoms, you will need help from someone else. Your diabetes team may give you a glucose gel that can be rubbed into the inside of your cheeks only if you are alert. (If you don’t have any, you can also use jam, treacle or honey.) Tell your family and friends that they shouldn’t give you anything by mouth if you’re unconscious from Continue reading >>
Insulin Resistance And Miscarriage
39% of women with repeat miscarriage fail OGTT; Metformin lowers miscarriage rate Twenty-nine (39.15%) of the patients in the group with recurrent miscarriage were found to have an abnormal glucose tolerance test result compared with just four (5.4%) patients in the normal pregnancy group. The miscarriage rate was significantly reduced after metformin therapy in patients without PCOS in comparison to the placebo group (15% vs. 55%). CONCLUSION(S): This study indicates an important link between an abnormal glucose tolerance test and a history of recurrent miscarriage. It was also found that metformin therapy improves the chances of a successful pregnancy in patients with an abnormal glucose tolerance test. 27% of women with repeat miscarriage have high fasting insulin, despite normal glucose levels Among the women with recurrent miscarriage, 27% demonstrated insulin resistance, whereas only 9.5% of the matched controls were insulin resistant (odds ratio 3.55). The recurrent miscarriage and control groups were similar with respect to age, ethnicity, and BMI. The recurrent miscarriage and control groups had similar fasting glucose levels and glucose-to-insulin ratios. However, fasting insulin levels > or =20 microU/mL were statistically different between the two groups (odds ratio 3.92). High HbA1c associated with miscarriage Pregnant women with poor glycemic control had higher incidence of miscarriage. CONCLUSIONS: We could not support the hypothesis of reduced antioxidant protection (low selenium and glutathione-peroxidase levels) as a causative factor in the pathogenesis of miscarriage in diabetic patients. Our study results showed that poor metabolic control of diabetes (high Hb A1-c) in the first trimester of pregnancy had a primary role in the occurrence of early mis
Things We May Not Know
Successful egg yolk story after 6 miscarriages. The rule of thumb for a normal pregnancy is everything in moderation so that the baby is happily oxygenated through the placenta. The babys heart beats twice as fast as an adults so exercising to extremes, becoming overheated and hot and sweaty (especially in spas or saunas) causes their heartbeat to increase also (tachycardia). While the adult is able to cool down quickly, especially if outside, it doesnt happen the same way with the baby. The passive blood flow that should go to the baby is diverted to feed and energise the adults muscles, so the baby is at risk of being under-oxygenated. If the babys heart beat remains high, further investigations are required. A midwife should be able to explain the range of fetal heart rate. You will not miscarry if you reach your arms high over your head, ride a bicycle or drive over a bumpy road. The same as for Car Accidents. The moment that anything untoward happens such as a bad fall or being a victim of violence, speak to a medical professional and request a scan to confirm that baby is still alive and growing. Humans are all very different and deal with grief in various ways, men tending to grieve differently to women as well. Miscarriage can ultimately be a shocking experience. Awoman remembers thefeelings associated with being pregnant yetknowsher baby has died.Finding out from a scan seems to be especially distressing. For others, it could take several weeks before a reaction sets in and may not seem so devastating.With the unexpected ending of a pregnancy at any stage, some level of grief is normally experienced. Miscarriage grief is often minimised and invalidated but grief cannot be measured, so whatever your feelings, accept them as appropriate for you. Grief needs to b Continue reading >>
Can Low Blood Sugar Cause Miscarriage?
So, on Saturdays I have a very awkward work shift that stretches over lunch time. I usually don't get to eat until sometime after 2:00. Today, I had a very substantial breakfast around 9:00-9:45. While I was at work, I had a small cup of coffee and as time went on a couple of Jolly Ranchers just to keep me going. However, because of some other stuff, I didn't get to really eat (beyond a piece of bread, a couple more pieces of candy, and a few spoonfuls of peanut butter) until about 4:00. That's six hours of no meals. By the time I ate, my blood sugar felt quite low and I inhaled a personal pizza, a glass of milk, and two pieces of toast with peanut butter. I was about to have an orange too but now I'm worried that the blood sugar spike will be too much for the baby. ANYWAY. I'm 9 weeks 3 days. Ultrasound was good three days ago. I'm not diabetic, though I still haven't heard back from my doctor about gestational diabetes (I don't have any of the risk factors for it). Maybe it's ridiculous, but you just get so much conflicting info while you're pregnant. Someone told me that low blood sugar can cause miscarriage. Anyone know anything about that? Most likely you were just hungry BC your metabolism increases during first trimester. I remember this happening in all my pregnancies, it doesn't indicate GD, that usually doesn't appear until further along in the pregnancy. Def do as another poster said, try to get some portable fast snacks besides candy to keep you going through the day. Drinks, shakes, smoothies - they even have frozen smoothies now you just add water or milk I think and shake it up and good to go. Ensure drinks, v-8, something with some substance should help. Granola bars, applesauce squeezes (not just for kids anymore!) I totally get no breaks - I was a nur Continue reading >>
Miscarriage Due To High Blood Sugar? Anyone Had This Happen?
I've had 4 previous miscarriages with the latest being last weekend at 7 weeks. The Dr at the hospital told me my blood sugar is way too high and it is probably the cause of my miscarriages. I've never heard of this before and was wondering if anyone had? I have insulin resistance and PCOS and was finally put on metformin about a year ago after having pancreatitis and my gallbladder removed. I gained a lot of weight and a blood test showed insulin resistance but I don't have diabetes. Whilst taking it I felt better and my weight gain stopped but prior to TTC my GP keeps telling me to stop taking the metformin as it can be harmful in pregnancy. I stop talking the pills and I miscarry Hi OP....I would seek a second opinion, maybe from an OB/GYN...? I was diagnosed with PCOS and insulin resistance after having trouble conceiving. I was told to lose weight (followed a low carb diet) and was put on metformin ( one a day, slow release diabex)... I conceived and my OB told me to stay on the metformin as i would be at risk of miscarrying if I stopped ( due to high blood sugars). I stayed on it for the entire pregnancy, even upped the dose to three a day fromaround 34 weeks as I had slipped over to GD. My baby boy was born perfect, had one low blood sugar reading ( due to my GD) but otherwise no issues at all. Good luck. I have PCOS and am insulin resistant. I am currently on 2000mg on Metformin per day. I am also 35 weeks pregnant. When I fell pregnant I did a lot of research online with regards to continuing Metformin whilst pregnant and found a lot of research that continuing with metformin until at least 12 weeks actually helps prevent miscarriage. My OB agreed and in consultation with an obstetric physician told me to continue with the metformin. I have continued with metf Continue reading >>
Top 7 Causes Of Miscarriage
The first question that many women and couples want to have answered after experiencing a miscarriage is simple. Why? A miscarriage can be an incredibly devastating event, with long-lasting emotional repercussions, including depression, anger, fear, and guilt, but one of the most difficult aspects of a pregnancy loss is simply the complete lack of knowledge surrounding the event. Doctors shrug their shoulders and friends murmur sympathetic "These things happen," but nothing can ease the pain of parents who simply want to know why their miscarriage occurred in the first place. "When you think about a pregnancy and you think about the beginnings of a human being forming and all the things that have to go perfectly, it really and truly is a miracle when it happens," says Dr. Elizabeth Nowacki, an OB/GYN at St. Vincent Fishers Hospital in Indiana. "You have two sets of genetic material coming together that have to divide, and sometimes things go wrong. The simplest way to think about it is that [miscarriage] is sort of nature's way of making sure that a human being is compatible with life." According to Dr. Nowacki, these are the seven most common reasons for a woman to experience a miscarriage: 1.Chromosomal abnormality. Hands down, the single most common reason that a miscarriage occurs is some a problem with either the egg or sperm's chromosomes during embryo formation. While some chromosomal abnormalities are compatible with life, such as trisomy 21, the most common type of Down syndrome, other chromosomal disorders are simply incompatible with life. "Genetically, [development] just stops," explains Dr. Nowacki. 2.Thyroid disorders. Whether it be hypo (too low) or hyper (too high) thyroidism, thyroid disorders can lead to problems with infertility or cause recurrent mis Continue reading >>
What Is Diabetes In Pregnancy?
Having diabetes means that there is too much sugar (glucose) in your blood. Some women have diabetes before they get pregnant. Others start having it during pregnancy. Diabetes that starts during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. If you had diabetes before you became pregnant, it may get harder for you to control your sugar levels during pregnancy. Pregnancy can make both high and low blood sugar levels happen more often. It can make diabetic eye, kidney, heart, blood vessel, and nerve problems worse. You may need to change your insulin dosage. If you were not using insulin before the pregnancy, you may need to use it while you are pregnant. If you develop diabetes during pregnancy, you may need to start a special diet. You may need to have insulin shots or take a pill to help control your blood sugar. If diabetes is not treated well before and during pregnancy, and your sugars are poorly controlled, these problems might occur: The high sugar levels in your blood might cause the baby to get too big before birth. Very large babies tend to have more problems. Babies who are very large or have other problems may need to be delivered by C section. If delivered vaginally, a big baby is slightly more likely to have an injury at the time of delivery. The baby might have birth defects, such as problems with the heart, kidney, spine, or brain. Some of these problems may be life threatening. You might have high blood pressure during the pregnancy, which can cause problems for both you and the baby. You may develop ketones in your blood and urine when you have very high blood sugar. This can cause a very serious, life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. You might go into labor early. The baby might need to be delivered early. After delivery the baby’s blo Continue reading >>
Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes And Pregnancy
Problems of Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well controlled in a pregnant woman with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes could lead to problems for the woman and the baby: Birth Defects The organs of the baby form during the first two months of pregnancy, often before a woman knows that she is pregnant. Blood sugar that is not in control can affect those organs while they are being formed and cause serious birth defects in the developing baby, such as those of the brain, spine, and heart. Download Chart[PDF – 167KB] An Extra Large Baby Diabetes that is not well controlled causes the baby’s blood sugar to be high. The baby is “overfed” and grows extra large. Besides causing discomfort to the woman during the last few months of pregnancy, an extra large baby can lead to problems during delivery for both the mother and the baby. The mother might need a C-Section to deliver the baby. The baby can be born with nerve damage due to pressure on the shoulder during delivery. C- Section (Cesarean Section) A C-section is a surgery to deliver the baby through the mother’s belly. A woman who has diabetes that is not well controlled has a higher chance of needing a C-section to deliver the baby. When the baby is delivered by a C-section, it takes longer for the woman to recover from childbirth. High Blood Pressure (Preeclampsia) When a pregnant woman has high blood pressure, protein in her urine, and often swelling in fingers and toes that doesn’t go away, she might have preeclampsia. It is a serious problem that needs to be watched closely and managed by her doctor. High blood pressure can cause harm to both the woman and her unborn baby. It might lead to the baby being born early and also could cause seizures or a stroke (a blood clot or a bleed in the brain that ca Continue reading >>
The Role Of Diabetes In Miscarriage And Stillbirth
When humans eat, foods are broken down in the digestive tract into the simplest elements, including glucose (a type of sugar). Glucose is a needed fuel for almost every process in the human body, including brain function. For the body to use glucose as energy, it requires a hormone known as insulin, which is produced by an organ called the pancreas. In diabetes, a persons insulin supply is not sufficient, making it impossible for the body to get and use the energy it needs from glucose. Type 1 Type 1 diabetes (sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or IDDM) is a chronic, often life-long condition, in which the pancreas does not produce insulin. The exact causes of the disease are unknown, but it is clear that the immune system is somehow triggered to begin attacking the pancreas. It is usually diagnosed in childhood. The common symptoms are fatigue, extreme thirst and hunger, excessive urination, and weight loss. This type of diabetes requires a person to receive insulin, either through multiple injections each day, or a continuous pump. There is no cure for type 1 Diabetes. Type 2 In type 2 diabetes the cells of the body develop a resistance to insulin, even when the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes (also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, or NIDDM) is most common in adults, but it can develop in children. It is usually triggered by obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, age, and genetic predisposition. here is an increased risk of type 2 diabetes for people with a family history of the disease, people of African-American, Native American, Asian-American, Latino, and Pacific Islander heritage, and women who have had gestational diabetes. The symptoms are similar to type 1 diabetes. Treatment can vary from nutritional cha Continue reading >>
Hypoglycemic When Pregnant
Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar during pregnancy is a common problem in women with diabetes. This blood sugar complication can occur in pregnant women who have preexisting type 1 or type 2 diabetes or in women who have gestational diabetes -- which is usually diagnosed during the second trimester of pregnancy. Linked to the use of insulin or certain diabetes pills, hypoglycemia can cause symptoms such as shakiness, confusion and dizziness. Hypoglycemia rarely occurs in pregnant women without diabetes. Prevention and treatment are important as low blood sugar levels can have negative consequences for both the mom and baby. Video of the Day Hypoglycemia is traditionally defined as having a blood sugar below 70 mg/dl. However, because blood sugar levels run lower during pregnancy, the consensus of a work group of the American Diabetes Association and the Endocrine Society, in a report published in the May 2013 issue of "Diabetes Care," is that hypoglycemia in pregnancy can be defined as a level below 60 mg/dl. Low blood sugars have a sudden onset and can vary in intensity. Symptoms of mild hypoglycemia can resemble early pregnancy symptoms, including hunger, nausea, sleepiness, headache, weakness and dizziness. Other symptoms a woman may experience include shakiness, nervousness, sweating, chills, nightmares, fast heartbeat, blurry vision and numbness around the mouth. When blood sugars drop so low the woman is unable to treat it without assistance, this is termed severe hypoglycemia with symptoms of confusion, lack of coordination, seizures, loss of consciousness and even death. Some women with long-standing diabetes may no longer feel the early symptoms of low blood sugar levels and, as a result, are at greater risk of suffering these more serious side effects. Pregnant Continue reading >>