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List Of Antidiabetic Plants

Promising Antidiabetic Drugs, Medicinal Plants And Herbs: An Update

Promising Antidiabetic Drugs, Medicinal Plants And Herbs: An Update

Promising Antidiabetic Drugs, Medicinal Plants and Herbs: An Update Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disease with global prevalence and rising incidence. Diabetes represents a major health issue in all age groups in the present times owing to its multisystem involvement and serious complications. Despite drug development and therapeutic interventions, successful treatment of diabetes still remains a challenge and worldwide research is focused on these aspects. Conventional antidiabetic medicines include injectable insulins, sulfonylureas, biguanides, glucosidase inhibitors and glinides. New class include inhalable insulins, incretin mimetics, amylin analogues, gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues, peroxisome proliferator activated receptors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. From effectiveness of synthetic drugs, chemicals or hormones to issues of cost, availability and side effects, novelty in preparations to methods of administration, all fields are explored for better management of the disease. Medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential have been recent areas of research. Asteraceae, Araliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminoseae, Liliaceae, Moraceae and Rosaceae are the major antidiabetic plant families. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. Their phytoconstituents have shown promising results in diabetes management; but need to be properly evaluated at molecular, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological levels for various prophylactic and therapeutic attributes, mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety before application in diabetes. The common phytoconstituents include polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, s Continue reading >>

Anti Diabetic Medicinal Plants

Anti Diabetic Medicinal Plants

Diabetes is a world leading disease, 7th leading cause of death, percentage of people suffering from diabetes throughout the world was 9.3% which may increase by the end of 2020. Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[ 1 - 4 ] Genetic makeup, Family history, Ethnicity, Health, Life style and Environmental factors, during pregnancy Diabetic dermadromes, Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Fatigue, causing problems in the Eyes, Kidneys, Feet and Nerves , Macrovascular and Microvascular complications Type 1 Diabetes- Insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes- Non insulin-dependent diabetes Gestational Diabetes - Affects females during pregnancy Life style modification: Diet, Exercise, Stress management, Increased social support Synthetic Drugs: By using Synthetic Drugs people will suffer from serious side effects Few examples of Synthetic Drugs: Sulfonylureas , Biguanides/Metformin, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, Thiazolidinediones , Meglitinides Homeopathy: Homeopathy have a long history of chronic ailments, and hence the treatment takes time. homeopathy is slow acting Herbal medicines: The natural medications with antidiabetic activity are widely formulated because they are better compatibility with human body, easily available and less side effects when compared with the synthetic antidiabetic medications. Antidiabetic herbal formulations are considered to be more effective for treatment of diabetes. More number of plant and plant products have been scientifically tested and reported to posses anti diabetic activity [ 26 - 35 ] Exam Continue reading >>

Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used By The Basotho Tribe Of Eastern Free State: A Review

Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used By The Basotho Tribe Of Eastern Free State: A Review

Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Basotho Tribe of Eastern Free State: A Review Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X 13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa Received 31 January 2016; Revised 9 March 2016; Accepted 31 March 2016 Copyright 2016 Fatai Oladunni Balogun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated t Continue reading >>

18 Medicinal Plants For Treating Diabetes

18 Medicinal Plants For Treating Diabetes

Among the challenging health conditions that are increasingly affecting human beings is diabetes. This is a disease condition caused by a metabolic disorder of the body systems as a result of chronic high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia). This sort of health challenge is often associated with disturbances in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrate and protein thereby causing defects in insulin activities and secretion due to the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. This can also be as a result of the failure of the body cells to respond to already-produced insulin. This health condition has led to several mortalities and morbidities with highest cases recorded in Asia and Africa. According to World Health Organisation, several actions can be put in place to lower the impact of diabetes on human health. These actions can be through adopting healthy lifestyles such as eating healthy balanced diets, engaging in physical exercises and activities, reducing the marketing of unhealthy food products and putting in place health systems that provide standard care and services for the affected individuals. As diabetes continues to rise, the need to create awareness and adopt plans on how to reduce someone’s risk of being affected, recognise the onset of the disease and determine the best mode of treatment are becoming highly important. There are several means of managing and treating diabetes, however, researchers reveal that natural remedies are more viable unlike the synthetic drugs and oral medications that may pose undesirable side effects to the body. Thank goodness for nature because several medicinal plants have been identified and proven very effective for treating diabetes mellitus. Even though herbal medicines produced from plants can be used as an anti-diabeti Continue reading >>

Antidiabetic Potentials Of Various Ethno-medicinal Plants

Antidiabetic Potentials Of Various Ethno-medicinal Plants

Diabetes Mellitus is a syndrome of disordered metabolism, due to a combination of hereditary and environmental causes, resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia), caused by defects in either insulin secretion or insulin action in the body. Diabetes epidemic is underway. Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics and insulin have a lot potentials to cure diabetes. Now-a-days natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper is an attempt to list of the plants and their preparations used for cure of diabetes with Ethnomedicinal backgrounds with the list of plants experimental or clinically listed from Rajasthan (arid zone) with antidiabetic potentials. The review also include the various preparations which can safely used to cure diabetes in the form of daily diet as plant potentials for future generations. The studies are a move towards awareness towards changing our diet system with potential input of Ethnomedicinal knowledge to cure the incidence of diabetes. Keywords: Ethnomedicinal Treasure, Diabetes, Rajasthan, Indian Medicinal Plants. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the commonest endocrine disorder that affects more than 100 million people worldwide (6% of the population)(WHO/Acadia, 1992). It is caused by the deficiency or ineffective production of insulin by pancreas which results in increase or decrease in concentrations of glucose in the blood. It is found to damage many of the body systems, particularly the blood vessels and nerves (Nagappa et al., 2003). For its therapy along with the synthetic drugs, many agents of the plant origin are also in use particularly for the treatment of non insulin dep Continue reading >>

Socio-cultural-contribution-to-medicinal-plants-assessment-and-sustainable-development-case-of-antidiabetic-and-antihypertensive-plants-in-cameroon

Socio-cultural-contribution-to-medicinal-plants-assessment-and-sustainable-development-case-of-antidiabetic-and-antihypertensive-plants-in-cameroon

Socio-cultural-contribution-to-medicinal-plants-assessment-and-sustainable-development-case-of-antidiabetic-and-antihypertensive-plants-in-Cameroon Center for Research on Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies. Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation, Cameroon Higher Institute of Medical Technoloy, Nkolonodom, Yaounde, Cameroon Cellomics and Toxicogenomics Research Laboratory, NIH-RCMI Center for Environmental Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, USA Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Mississippi, USA Diabetes and hypertension rank among human diseases that are very difficult to control. The medicinal material of Cameroon can provide much information on ethnic folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products. Cameroon has a very rich cultural diversity with different traditional systems of medicine that need more evidence-based studies on both crude extracts and purified phytomolecules. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on 58 socio-cultural population groups living in different phytogeographic units of Cameroon in order to collect various medicinal plants or recipes. A two by two comparison of social-cultural groups of the same phytogeographic unit indicated a significant difference in 86.97% of medicinal plants or recipes comparisons cases. A total of two hundred and eight recipes were identified, among which 75 were used for diabetes and hypertension treatment, 74 for hypertension alone, and 59 for diabetes alone. Also, two hundred and three plants were identified among which 33 were cultivated and marketed by 25 farming f Continue reading >>

Hypoglycaemic Activities Of Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used As Antidiabetic Drugs

Hypoglycaemic Activities Of Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used As Antidiabetic Drugs

HYPOGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITIES OF SOME INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS TRADITIONALLY USED AS ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS Pages with reference to book, From 271 To 277 Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar ( Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. ) In the modern therapy of diabetes mellitus, insulin and the sulfonylureas provide excellent relief from the acute symptoms of the disease. However, these agents are neither curative nor efficacious to reduce or prevent chronic complications of the disease1. Therefore, research on antidiabetic medicaments of any other source including the plants must be continued2. The plants have been used since ancient times in the traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases of man and animals. It is not surprising, therefore, that many of them have also been employed in this part of the world to cure diabetes mellitus3-5. The present paper reviews several studies made on some indigenous medicinal plants and herbs which have been pharmacologically evaluated for hypoglycaemic activity in the normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits during the last ten years in the department. Hypoglycaemic/antidiabetic activities of a total of 22 indigenous medicinal plants/herbs and a compound herbal preparation containing equal parts of 4 plants have been described in the review. These plants have been claimed inAyurvedic, Unani and Eastern medicines to possess antidiabetic properties. These indigenous plant drugs included fresh and green over-the-ground (aerial) parts of achyranthes aspera, fin (puthkanda) and gymnema sylvestre, R. Br. (gurmar booti), eupborbia prostrata, Lit. (dhodi-khurd), fumaria parvlflora, lin (kulfa) fruits of cassla fistula, lin (amaltas), ficus glomerata, in (gular), momordica charantla, lin (karela), green barks Continue reading >>

Anti Diabetic | Medicinal | Properties | Plant List | Herbs | Curative | Mtspace

Anti Diabetic | Medicinal | Properties | Plant List | Herbs | Curative | Mtspace

Partial list of medicinal plants with antidiabetic properties (in progress) Below is a list of the most commonly known herbs with anti diabetic properties. There are over 400 herbs known to have anti diabetic properties, but most are poorly understood and studied. Using herbs to treat diabetes is not as easy as taking pills or using insulin, but the results can be long lasting and healing. To get results you must understand how herbs work. Their use require time, patience and knowledge about the disease you are attempting to cure. Herbs have different potency and purity, and that is not always easy to determine. They have different effects for different people. Experimentation is key to obtain results. Most importantly is not to give up on them because results are not seen immediately. Herbs and plant preparations have served man for thousands of years before modern medicine. In the quest for food, mankind has learned about their healing powers. Some nourished, some killed, and some others healed diseases and ailments. Even today is estimated that about 80% of African and Asian populations rely on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare ( WHO, 2008 ) Most compounds we find in modern medicine still come from plants. As an example, biguanide and metformin are considered one of the first-line agents used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their use is traced back to traditional use ofGalega officinalisto treat diabetes. The modern medication are a byproduct in the search to identify active compounds with reduced toxicity ( Cusi and Defronzo 1998 ). Yet we mostly rely on modern medications to solve our problems. Herb compounds have some advantages, as they are less prone to undesirable side effects. Herbs are also cheaper, and in many cases free as they can gr Continue reading >>

Plants Explored With Anti-diabetic Properties: A Review

Plants Explored With Anti-diabetic Properties: A Review

Plants Explored with Anti-diabetic Properties: A Review Om Prakash, Rajesh Kumar, Ritika Srivastava, Pragya Tripathi, Shradha Mishra, Ajeet Om Prakash 1 , Rajesh Kumar 1 , Ritika Srivastava 1 , Pragya Tripathi 1 , Shradha Mishra 2 , Ajeet 3 , 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Kamla Nehru Institute of Management & Technology, Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Sagar Institute of Technology & Management, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh 3S. D. College of Pharmacy and Vocational Studies, Muzafffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India Diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogeneous disorder; affecting the -cells of endocrinal pancreatic gland, globally the numbers of cases of diabetes is increasing gradually. There are several medicines available in the market to treat diabetes mellitus but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe. However plants and plant-derived products have proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of various types of diabetes mellitus. In Indian system of medicine, several medicinal plants have found potential use as blood sugar lowering agents. Many of them have been scientifically explored for their usefulness in managing diabetes, the reports of which have been acknowledged and published in a number of scientific journals. At present most research work on diabetic drugs is targeted on plants and plants-derived products. Many natural products and their analogues have been identified as potent anti-diabetic agents. Here, an attempt is being made through this article to provide an in-depth and comprehensive review on various plant species that have been explored as anti-diabetic agents. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, insulin, natural products, glucose Copyright 2015 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorde Continue reading >>

Top 10 List Of Medicinal Plants For Diabetes Treatment

Top 10 List Of Medicinal Plants For Diabetes Treatment

Top 10 List of Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment Home Herbal Herbal Plant Top 10 List of Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment Top 10 List of Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment Most people thought that the root problem of diabetes is sugar. Well, that is just the after effect because the main problem of diabetes is wrong eating, unhealthy habit, obesity and physical inactivity. Thats why the number of diabetes patients are increasing day by day because the number of people who work behind the desk with almost zero physical activities and due to no time they prefer to depend on junk food instead of homemade healthy but bothersome foods to be consumed in daily basis. According to WHO the diabetes is becoming one of the conditions that cause death and the number is projected to raise about 50% in the next 10 years. In general, diabetes is a condition when the level of sugar in blood stream is higher than normal. Insulin has important role in this matter because it assists in the process of turning glucose into energy and without which the level of sugar will keep increasing in the blood. Type 1 diabetes occurs when insulin is not enough to process the glucose and type 2 diabetes occurs when insulin could not work properly mostly caused by overweight or obesity. Once a person is diagnosed with diabetes, there is no such cure but some treatments followed by healthy eating and healthy habit are highly recommended in order to control the current level of blood sugar to avoid the worst effects. The list of medicinal plants for diabetes below is working the same as most of diabetic treatment; whereas they are not providing you the final solution but they are certainly helping you in making sure your blood sugar level is under control. As one of the important spice Continue reading >>

Antioxidant And Antidiabetic Activities Of 11 Herbal Plants From Hyrcania Region, Iran - Sciencedirect

Antioxidant And Antidiabetic Activities Of 11 Herbal Plants From Hyrcania Region, Iran - Sciencedirect

Volume 24, Issue 1 , January 2016, Pages 179-188 Author links open overlay panel HosseinDehghana YaghoubSarrafia PeymanSalehib Open Access funded by Taiwan Food and Drug Administration In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, -amylase and -glucosidase inhibition activities, and total phenolic contents of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of various parts of Allium paradoxum, Buxus hyrcana, Convolvulus persicus, Eryngium caucasicum, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella affinis, Parrotia persica, Primula heterochroma, Pyrus boissieriana, Ruscus hyrcanus, and Smilax excelsa were investigated. These plants, which mostly serve as food flavoring, were collected from Hyrcania region, Sari, Iran. Some extracts of H. persicum, S. excels, P. boissieriana, P. persica, and P. heterochroma exhibited significant antidiabetic activities in -amylase and -glucosidase assays, more effective than acarbose (concentrations that cause 50% inhibition=75.7g/mL and 6.1g/mL against -amylase and -glucosidase, respectively). Also, C. persicus, P. boissieriana, and P. heterochroma showed strong antioxidant activities, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (concentration that causes 50% inhibition=16.7g/mL). In conclusion, this study can recommend these plants as good candidates for further investigations to find potent antidiabetic natural products or probable lead compounds. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and total phenolic contents (r=0.711, p<0.001). Continue reading >>

Sade Pblica - Use Of Medicinal Plants For Diabetes In Trinidad And Tobago Use Of Medicinal Plants For Diabetes In Trinidad And Tobago

Sade Pblica - Use Of Medicinal Plants For Diabetes In Trinidad And Tobago Use Of Medicinal Plants For Diabetes In Trinidad And Tobago

Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines) was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81%) reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41%) took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines. Herbal remedies from medicinal plants (known in the Caribbean as bush medicines) have been used traditionally in regions where access to formal he Continue reading >>

Indian Medicinal Plants For Diabetes: Text Data Mining The Literature Of Different Electronic Databases For Future Therapeutics

Indian Medicinal Plants For Diabetes: Text Data Mining The Literature Of Different Electronic Databases For Future Therapeutics

Indian, Medicinal plants, Diabetes, Text data mining, Database, Biomedical, Literature. Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a progressive metabolic disorder, which is characterized by elevated levels of glucose or sugar in the blood. The disease is caused by inadequate secretion of insulin, bodys poor response to insulin, or both, which severely damage the bodys systems, including the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Type 2 diabetes is the most common in adults that occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or does not secrete adequate insulin while Type 1 diabetes is a juvenile or insulindependent that occurs when the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itself. Diabetes is rapidly growing worldwide, and affected 422 million people in 2014 and resulted in over 3 million deaths [ 1 ]. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that diabetes would be the seventh leading cause of death by the year of 2030, and suggested that healthy lifestyle and right medication and regular screening can prevent and avoid the consequence of diabetes, respectively [ 1 ]. For many decades, medicinal plants have been beneficial resources for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes [ 2 - 5 ]. Some well-known drugs in current-use for diabetes have been developed from plants such as metformin drug derived from the Galega officinalis [ 6 ]. Many studies have also indicated the advantages of medicinal plants in the therapeutic development, for example availability and acceptable risk-benefit ratio. Though the ethnobotanical community has reported a list of anti-diabetic medicinal plants [ 7 ], in the search for new treatments and cures, yet more medicinal plants are being explored for their therapeutic development. At this juncture, effort Continue reading >>

A Review Of Recent Investigations On Medicinal Herbs Possessing Anti-diabetic Properties

A Review Of Recent Investigations On Medicinal Herbs Possessing Anti-diabetic Properties

E-mail: [emailprotected] , [emailprotected] Received date August 27, 2011; Accepted date October 24, 2011; Published date October 26, 2011 Citation: Aggarwal N, Shishu (2011) A Review of Recent Investigations on Medicinal Herbs Possessing Anti-Diabetic Properties. J Nutr Disorders Ther 1:102. doi:10.4172/2161-0509.1000102 Copyright: 2011 Aggarwal N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Globally, the pervasiveness of chronic, non-communicable disease diabetes mellitus is growing by leaps and bounds. It is one of the major causes of premature morbidity and mortality worldwide. Almost 3.2 million people die of diabetes across the world every year. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes is 6.4% (corresponding to 285 million people); this varies from 10.2% in the Western Pacific to 3.8% in the African region and expected to grow up to 7.4% (439 million) of the adult population by 2030. In the last 20 years there has been a threefold increase in the prevalence of diabetes. It is estimated that there are 30 to 33 million diabetics in India now, and every fourth diabetic in the world today is an Indian. Indians are genetically more susceptible to diabetes and the WHO predicts the number of diabetics in India would go up to 80 million by 2030. WHO has also issued a warning that India is going to be the diabetes capital of the world with Chennai emerging as the diabetic capital of India. Many plants possessing hypoglycemic principles/ properties are known to exist in nature. Also a large number of polyherbal formulations (PHFs) derived from these plants are presently being presc Continue reading >>

Medicinal Plants With Potential Antidiabetic Activity And Their Assessment

Medicinal Plants With Potential Antidiabetic Activity And Their Assessment

Medicinal plants ; Antidiabetic agents; Herbs; Diabetes;Oral hypoglycemics ALT: Alanine Transaminase; APDS: Allyl PropylDisulfide; AST: Aspartate Transaminase; DM: Diabetes Mellitus;FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose; FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose; FVO:Fructosyl Valine Oxidase Enzyme; GD: Gestational Diabetes; GHb:Glycated Hemoglobin; GIT: Gastro-Intestinal Tract; GLUT4: GlucoseTransporter Type 4; HDL: High Density Lipoprotein; IDDM: InsulinDependent Diabetes Mellitus; LD50: Lethal Dose 50; LDL: Low DensityLipoprotein; NIDDM: Non- Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus;POD: Horse Radish Peroxidase; PPAR: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- Alpha; PPAR: Peroxisome Proliferator-ActivatedReceptor- Delta; PPAR: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma; RIA: Radioimmunoassay; STZ: Streptozotocin; THb:Total Hemoglobin; 3T3-L1: Cell Line Derived From Mouse; TZDs:Thiazolidinediones; UCP-1: Uncoupling Protein-1 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by adeficiency in insulin production and its action or both. That leads toprolonged hyperglycemia with disturbances in most metabolic processesinside the human body [ 1 ]. Untreated cases show severe tissue andvascular damage leading to serious complications such as retinopathy[ 2 ], neuropathy [ 3 ], nephropathy [ 4 ], cardiovascular complications [ 5 ]and ulceration [ 6 ]. Moreover, diabetes has an indirect relation with amany other diseases being the most common endocrine disorder. It wasestimated that about 200 million people worldwide suffered from DMin 2010, and it is expected to reach 300 million by 2025 [ 7 ]. Both insulin and glucagon, pancreatic endocrine hormones, areresponsible for controlling blood-glucose level within the body in anadequate level based on the body needs. Normally, insulin is secre Continue reading >>

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